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THE 


USEFUL  PLANTS  OF  INDIA; 


WITH  NOTICES   OF 


THEIR    CHIEF    VALUE    IN    COMMERCE, 
MEDICINE,  AND  THE  ARTS. 


BY 
COLONEL  HEBER  DRURY, 

AUTHOB  OF  THE  'HANDBOOK  OF  THB  INDIAN  FLOBA.' 


"  Simul  etjueunda  ei  Idonea  dicere  vitce." 

—Hob. 


SECOND   EDITION. 

WITH  ADDITIONS  AND  CORBBOTIONS. 


LONDON: 
WILLIAM    a    ALLEN   &    CO. 

13  WATERLOO  PLACE,  S.W. 
1873. 


CONTENTS. 


PREFACE  TO  FIRST  EDITION,  . 

..  SECOND  EDITION, 

LIST  OF  ABBREVIATIONS, 
PLANTS  DESCRIBED, 


APPENDIX, 


TABLE  OP  EXPORTS  AND  THEIR  VALUE, 
INDEX  OF  HINDOSTANEE  AND  BENGALEE 


It 


ti 


»i 


TAMIL  SYNONYMS, . 
TELOOGOO  SYNONYMS, 
MALAYALAH  SYNONYMS, 


GENERAL  INDEX,   . 


PAOB 

» 

Tl 

X 
XIU 


460 


481 


SYNONYMS,       482 

492 
496 
499 
503 


PEEFACE  TO  THE  FIEST  EDITION. 


An  increasing  demand  for  everything  relating  to  the  vegetable 
productions  of  India  has  of  late  years  been  the  means  of 
eliciting  from  various  quarters  much  useful  information,  tend- 
ing to  a  more  extensive  acquaintance  with,  ad  well  as  improve- 
meht  of,  the  natural  resources  of  the  country.  The  idea  that 
a  collection  of  ascertained  facts  regarding  the  uses  of  Indian 
plants  is  still  a  desideratum,  led  to  the  compilation  of  the 
following  pages.  A  vast  quantity  of  miscellaneous  matter  is 
scattered  throughout  the  pages  of  Eheede,  Ainslie,  Roxburgh, 
Wallich,  Wight,  Eoyle,  and  others  who  have  written  on  the 
subject  of  Indian  botany;  and  it  frequently  occurred  to  me, 
that  were  an  attempt  made  to  collect  in  a  single  volume  the 
various  notices  on  the  chief  uses  of  plants  as  recorded  in  their 
works,  it  would  form  a  somewhat  useful  and  desirable  hand- 
book to  a  knowledge  of  our  botanical  resources.  Undoubtedly, 
many  of  the  so-called  uses  of  Indian  plants  are  now  either 
entirely  obsolete,  or,  owing  to  the  advancement  of  science  and 
more  extended  investigations  in  the  departments  of  medical 
and  economical  botany,  have  been  tested  and  corrected  by 
recent  observers;  while  numerous  doubts  and  errors  have  been 
either  cleared  up  or  exploded. 

The  reports  of  the  juries  on  the  timber,  vegetable  oils,  drugs, 
&c.,  submitted  to  the  Madras  Exhibition  in  1855,  are  so  many 
evidences  of  the  richness  and  variety  in  these  important  sec- 
tions of  the  natural  products  of  the  Indian  Peninsula;  and 


PREFACE  TO  THE  FIRST  EDITION,  Vll 

fuiiher  show  how  well  that  exhibition  was  calculated  for  the 
attaininent  of  the  best  results,  the  development  to  a  great 
degree  of  resources  hitherto  so  little  known. 

With  a  view  to  render  more  familiar  the  knowledge  of 
subjects  so  replete  with  interest  and  utility,  I  undertook  the 
present  compilation.  I  have  not  aimed  at  the  production  of  a 
scientific  work,  for  which  I  do  not- consider  myself  qualified ; 
but  have  merely  endeavoured  to  offer  a  guide  to  the  amateur, 
especially  to  those  sojourners  and  residents  in  India  whose 
leisure  hours  may  induce  them  to  foUow  a  pursuit  than  which 
few  are  more  attractive  or  delightful 

The  short  descriptions,  which  it  is  hoped  are  sufficient 
to  identify  the  plants  enumerated,  are  taken  from  the  best 
authorities;  and  in  this,  as  in  every  other  instance,  I  have 
acknowledged  the  sources  from  whence  I  have  drawn  my 
varied  information.  At  the  same  time,  it  will  be  found  that 
some  new  faets  have  been  adduced,  drawn  from  personal 
observation  or  inquiry,  especially  regarding  plants  growing 
in  Travancore.  Furthermore,  whenever  practicable,  I  have 
been  particular  in  making  references  to  the  works  of  Indian 
botanists ;  and  in  regard  to  the  plants  of  this  Presidency,  no 
one  could  desire  more  sure  or  safe  companions  than  Drs 
Boxburgh  and  Wight. 

It  required  both  patience  and  consideration  to  arrange  much 
contradictory  and  useless  matter,  without  hastily  rejecting  any- 
thing that  might  be  of  importance ;  while  I  laboured  under 
great  disadvantage,  from  the  want  of  access  to  any  public 
library  or  collection  of  botanical  works  and  treatises  —  for 
numerous  isolated  notices  on  botanical  subjects  are  scattered 
in  various  periodicals,  which  would  not  only  have  assisted  me 
with  increased  information,  but  have  enabled  me  to  remedy 
the  many  omissions  and  defects  which,  I  fear,  will  be  detected 
in  these  pages.  When  I  first  commenced  the  undertaking,  I 
was  little  aware  of  the  obstacles  I  had  to  encounter,  and  soon 
had  reason  to  see  how  extremely  difficult  it  was  to  render  a 
book  of  the  kind  so  complete  as  the  title  would  lead  one 
to  expect.     Feeling  the  impossibility  of  gathering  the  facts 


Viii  PREFACE  TO  THE  FIRST   EDITION. 

■ 

requisite  for  the  purpose,  I  had  the  alternative  of  relinquish- 
ing my  labours  at  the  commencement,  or  of  collecting  such 
information  as  I  was  able  from  the  scanty  materials  at  my 
disposal. 

To  determine  those  limits  which  should  constitute  the  7i« 
pltis  ultra  of  Indian  plants  was  not  the  least  difficult  portion 
of  my  labours.  I  could  not  in  a  small  volume  embrace  the 
varied  flora  of  the  Himalaya;  yet  there  are  some  plants  grow- 
ing in  those  regions,  the  uses  of  which  are  so  important  in  a 
commercial  point  of  view  in  this  country,  that  I  could  hardly 
omit  them, — ^viz.,  the  Aconites,  the  Berberries,  and  others.  I 
resolved,  therefore,  to  make  my  plan  so  far  arbitrary  as  to  in- 
clude those  plants  of  the  Himalaya,  Silhet,  Assam,  and  other 
countries  bordering  on  India,  which  have  special  and  acknow- 
ledged uses,  and  whose  importance  and  commercial  value  are 
recognised  in  Hindostan  and  the  Lower  Provinces.  Again, 
with  respect  to  naturalised  plants,  if  I  determined  to  mention 
only  those  which  were  in  point  of  fact  indigenous  to  India,  I 
must  have  omitted  many  which  have  in  course  of  time  become 
naturalised,  and  cannot  with  propriety  be  separated  from  the 
Indian  flora.  Of  these  I  may  mention  Linum  usitcUissimum, 
Coesalpinia  coriaria,  Panicum,  Itcdicum,  IpomoRa  batatas,  and 
otliers  which  have  been  introduced,  though  perhaps  from 
remote  times,  but,  independently  of  position,  soil,  and  culture, 
have  so  adapted  themselves  to  the  climate  as  to  have  become 
as  it  were  Indian  plants.  Not  so  TJieohroma  cacao,  Caryo^ 
phyllus  aromaiicus,  and  others,  which  only  thrive  under  certain 
conditions  of  soil  and  climate,  and  therefore  <»nnot  strictly 
be  included  in  a  work  professing  to  deal  almost  exclusively 
with  the  flora  of  India. 

Those  who  have  never  considered  the  subject  are  little  aware 
how  much  the  appearance  and  habit  of  a  plant  become  altered 
by  the  influence  of  its  position.  It  requires  much  observation 
to  speak  authoritatively  on  the  distinction  in  point  of  stature 
between  many  trees  and  shrubs.  Shrubs  in  the  low  country, 
small  and  stunted  in  growth,  become  handsome  and  goodly 
trees  on  higher  lands,  and  to  an  inexperienced  eye  they  appear 


PREFACE  TO  THE  FIRST  EDITION.  IX 

to  be  different  plants.  The  Jairopha  curcas  grows  to  a  tree 
some  15  or  20  feet  on  the  Neilgherries,  while  the  Datura  alba 
is  three  or  four  times  the  size  x>n  the  hills  that  it  is  on  the 
plains.  It  is  therefore  with  much  diffidence  that  I  have 
occasionally  presumed  to  insert  the  height  of  a  tree  or  shrub. 
The  same  remark  may  be  applied  to  flowers  and  the  flowering 
seasons^  especially  the  latter.  I  have  seen  the  Lagerstrosmia 
JSegiruB,  whose  proper  time  of  flowering  is  March  and  April, 
previous  to  the  commencement  of  the  rains,  in  blossom  more 
or  less  all  the  year  in  gardens  in  Travancore.  I  have  endea- 
voured to  give  the  real  or  natural  flowering  seasons,  in  con- 
tradistinction to  the  chance  ones,  but,  I  am  afraid,  with  little 
success ;  and  it  should  be  recollected  that  to  aim  at  precision 
in  such  a  part  of  the  description  of  plants  is  almost  hopeless, 
without  that  prolonged  study  of  their  local  habits  for  which  a 
lifetime  would  scarcely  suffice. 

I  gladly  take  this  opportunity  of  recording  my  grateful  sense 
of  the  assistance  I  received  from  Gleneral  CuUen,  British  Besi- 

■ 

dent  in  Travancore  and  Cochin,  who,  with  his  usual  liberality, 
permitted  me  free  access  to  the  valuable  botanical  works  in 
his  library,— an  advantage,  the  importance  of  which  was  in- 
valuable, and  which  I  might  in  vain  have  sought  elsewhere  in 
any  private  collection  in  this  country.  My  best  acknowledg- 
ments are  due  to  the  Honourable  Walter  Elliot  and  Dr  Hugh 
Cleghorn,  who  kindly  undertook  the  labour  of  revising  the  work 
during  its  progress  through  the  press,  my  distance  from  the 
Presidency  not  admitting  of  personal  superintendence.  I  am 
also  indebted  to  Surgeon  Edward  Balfour,  of  the  Madras  Army, 
who  kindly  placed  at  my  disposal  a  list  drawn  up  by  him  of 
the  commercial  products  of  the  Presidency,  with  reference  to 
their  exports  and  imports,  to  which  I  have  made  firequent 
reference  in  the  following  pages. 

H.D. 

Treyakdrttm,  Sqfiember  1858. 


PREFACE  TO  THE  SECOND  EDITION. 


Twelve  years  have  elapsed  since  this  work  was  first  published, 
and  during  that  time  many  important  advances  have  been 
made  in  the  knowledge  of  the  vegetable  treasures  of  our  Indian 
possessions.  Among  the  principal  causes  which  have  tended 
to  develop  an  inquiry  in  the  resources  of  the  Forests  of  India 
have  been  the  several  local  Exhibitions,  which  have  probably 
done  more  than  anything  eLse  to  foster  and  maintain  an  interest 
in  the  acquisition  of  all  information  bearing  on  the  uses  of 
plants  available  for  domestic  or  commercial  purposes.  At  the 
satne  time,  the  attention  of  the  local  governments  was  called  to 
the  neglected  state  of  the  forests,  and  under  the  able  superin- 
tendence of  Dr  Hugh  Cleghorn  of  the  Madras  Medical  Depflirt- 
ment,  the  Forest  Depeirtment  sprang  into  existence,  and  rapidly 
became  one  of  the  most  usefully  organised  institutions  of  the 
State.  The  preservation  of  the  valuable  timber-trees,  hitherto 
so  recklessly  neglected  and  destroyed,  became  at  once  an 
object  of  paramount  importance,  and  especially  since  the 
adoption  of  the  railway  system  into  the  country,  which  neces- 
sitated the  constant  and  unvarying  supply  of  timber.  Side  by 
side  with  this  determination  to  preserve  our  valuable  resources 
of  timber  and  fuel,  Government  resolved  to  stimulate  and  en- 
courage the  introduction  of  such  products  of  foreign  growth  as 
appeared  most  capable  of  being  turned  to  good  account  in  a 
social  and  economic  point  of  view.  Chief  among  these  was 
the  Cinchona  experiment,  which  has  been  so  successfully 


PBEFAGE  TO  THE  SECOND   EDITION.  XI 

carried  out  under  the  original  designs  and  guidance  of  Mr 
Clements  Markham^  and  which  now  promises  the  happiest 
results  in  producing  and  manufacturings  in  a  country  where  it 
is  so  much  needed,  an  abundant  supply  of  excellent  quinine  at 
a  very  reasonable  cost. 

To  the  above  important  measures — Forest  Conservancy  and 
the  introduction  of  the  Cinchona  plant — ^may  be  added  the 
encouragement  given  by  Government  to  the  extension  and 
opening  of  new  tea-plantations,  especially  in  the  North- Western 
I^ovinces  and  the  Assam  territories.  European  capital  is  now 
being  largely  ^employed  in  reclaiming  vast  tracts  of  waste 
forest-land,  and,  at  the  present  rate  of  progress,  it  would  be 
difficult  to  estimate  the  conmiercial  advantages  which  must 
accrue  some  years  hence  from  the  continued  application  of 
labour,  energy,  and  wealth  by  the  British  capitalist  to  these 
plantations. 

The  Author  trusts  that  this  volume  may  show  to  some 
extent  what  are  the  chief  resources  of  India  in  the  above 
respect,  and  how  they  may  be  made  available  with  the  best 
effect;  and,  furthermore,  what  advantage  has  hitherto  been 
taken  of  them.  A  work  like  the  present,  to  be  of  any  value, 
must  keep  pace  with  the  discoveries  of  the  day ;  and  however 
imperfect  and  meagre  in  detail  some  of  the  articles  unavoid- 
ably are,  yet  the  Author  has  spared  no  pains  to  render  the  in- 
formation on  each  subject  as  full  and  complete  as  the  materials 
at  his  disposal  admitted  of. 

In  the  present  edition  a  wider  range  has  been  given  to 
plants  of  foreign  origin  introduced  and  nqw  largely  cultivated 
in  the  country,  the  omission  of  which,  inasmuch  as  they  yearly 
become  of  more  commercial  importance,  would  have  been  in- 
excusable. Among  these  may  be  mentioned  Cinchona,  Tea, 
Cacao,  Tobacco,  the  Australian  Eucalyptus,  and  others  which 
may  reasonably  be  admitted,  as  they  are  now  so  extensively 
cultivated  in  the  country. 

It  would  have  given  the  Author  more  satisfaction  if  he  could 
have  given  a  more  uniform  nomenclature  of  the  native  names 
of  the  plants  described,  but  the  subject  is  one  of  difficulty;  and 


Xll  PREFACE  TO  THE  SECOND  EDITION. 

as  complete  unifonnity  is  not — at  present^  at  least — attainable, 
it  has  been  considered  best  to  defer  so  desirable  an  end  until 
some  future  time,  when  perhaps  a  better  result  may  be 
secured. 

It  only  remains  for  the  Author  to  record  his  thanks  to  those 
who  have  assisted  him  in  the  collection  of  materials  made  use 
of.  Among  those  he  would  particularly  mention  Dr  Hugh 
Cleghom,  so  happily  designated  the  'Father  of  Forest  Con- 
servancy in  India/  and  Dr  E.  J.  Waring,  the  able  editor  of 
the  'Pharmacopoeia  of  India^^  a  work  replete  with  valuable 
information,  which  has  frequently  been  laid,  under  contribution 
in  these  pages. 

Monmouth,  October  iS72. 


PRINGIPAL    ABBREVIATIONS 

EMPLOYED  IN  THIS  VOLUME. 


Aind. Ainslie's  Materia  Indica.    2  vols. 

Ait.  Alton's  HortoB  Kewensis. 

And.  Bot.  jS<^. ...Andrew's  Botanical  Repositorj. 

AvhL Anblet,  a  French  traveller  and  botanist 

Beauv.   Beanyoir,  Essai  d'nne  nouvelle  Agrostographie. 

Beddomej  Flora  Sylvatica. 

Beng.  Disp Bengal  Dispensatory,  by  Dr  W.  O'Shanghnessy. 

Benth.    Bentham,  Labiatanun  genera  et  species — Schrophula- 

rineso  IndicsB. 

BL Blume  (C.  L.),  Flora  JavanensiB. 

Bot  Mag. Curtis's  Botanical  Magazine. 

BoL  Misc. Hooker's  Botanical  Miscellany. 

Buck, Dr   Francis    Hamilton,   formerly   Buchanan,   whose 

'Journey/  MSS.,  and  Herbarium  are  well  known 

among  botanists. 

Burm.  Ind.  Burmanni  Flora  Indica. 

Burnt.  Zeyl. Burmanni  Thesaurus  Zeylanicus. 

Cav.  le. Cavamlles  (A.  J.),  Icones  et  descriptiones  plantarum, 

qu88  aut  sponte  in  Hispanift  crescunt  aut  in  hortis 
hospitantur.    6  vols.  foL  1791— -1800. 

Cav.  Dita. CayaniLles's  MonadelphisB  classis  dissertationes  decern. 

Choisyf  A  Swiss  botanist  who  elaborated  seyeral  of  the  Natural 

Orders  for  De  Candolle's  Prodromus. 

Cleghornj  Forests  and  Qardens  of  S.  India. 

Comnu  Prod.   ...Commercial  Products  of  the  Madras  Fresidency^as  shown 

by  its  Exports  and  Imports. 

Corr. Oorrea  (F.)  de  Serra.    A  botanical  writer. 

Dtc   De  Candolle  (A«  P.),  Prodromus  Systematia  Natnralis 

Regni  V  egetabilis. 
Deless.  Icon. Delessert,  Icones  selectn  plantarum,  quas  in  systemate 

naturali  descripsit  De  Candolle. 


XIV  LIST  OP   ABBREVIATIONS. 

Demntss, Desrouflseaiix.     An  eminent  botanical  writer  in 

Lamarck's  Encjclop^e. 
Desv.  Desvaux  (N.  A.)    A  French  botanist,  editor  of 

the  Journal  Botanique. 

Don  (Z>.) Prodromus  florse  Nepalensis. 

Drury,    Handbook  of  the  Indian  Flora.    3  vols. 

Bndl,  Endlicher,  Qenera  plantarum. 

For$k.  ...■ Forskal  (Peter).    A  famous  Swedish  naturalist ; 

author  of  Flora  iElgyptiaco- Arabica,  and  other 
works. 

Gixrtn. Qoertner  (J.),  Defructibus  et  seminibus  planta- 
rum.   2  vols.  4to,  1788. 
Grah.  Cat Qraham's  (J.)  Catalogue  of  Bombay  Plants. 

ffam Dr   Francis   Hamilton   (formerly   Buchanan). 

Author  of  a  Journey  to  Mysore,  and  several 
papers  in  the  transactions  of  the  Tiinniiwn 
Society. 

Herb.  Mad,    Herbarium    Maderaspatense   formed   by   Drs 

Klein,  Heyne,  and  Bottler. 

H.  B.  Kth Humboldt,  Bonpland,  and  Eunth  ;  authors  of 

Nova  genera,  et  species  plantarum  ssquinoc- 
tialium  orbis  novL 

Hook.  Bot,  Misc  Hooker's  Botanical  Miscellany.  Also  his  Jour- 
nal of  Botany. 

Jacq Jacquini  icones  plantarum  rariorum.     3  yoIa. 

1781. 
Jv/ry,  Rep,  Mad.  £xh..„J\uj  Reports  of  the  Madras  Exhibition,  1855. 

Juss,    Jussieu  (Bernard  de),  Genera  plantarum. 

Jtm,    Jussieu  (Adrien  de).    A  celebrated  botanist 

Kth, Eunth.    An  eminent  Prussian  botanist 

Koeru  Eoenig,  a  Dfmish  botanist     Physician  to  the 

Tranquebar  Mission  in  1768. 

Lam Lamarck  (J.  B.)  Editor  to  the  botanical  por- 
tion of  the  Encyclop^e  M^thodique  {Enc 
Meth.)    Paris,  1783. 

Lesch, Leschenault  de  la  Tour.     A  French  botanist 

who  travelled  in  the  Moluccas,  Java,  and 
Sumatra.  He  was  director  of  the  Botanical 
Gardens  at  Pondicherry. 


LIST  OF   ABBREVIATIONS.  XV 

LHerit. L'Heritier  (C.  L.)     A  French  botanist,  author  of  a 

work  entitled  Stirpes  novae  aut  minus  cognitss. 

Lindl. .., Lindley  (Dr  J.)    A  celebrated  English  botanist,  author 

of  the  Vegetable  Kingdom,  Flora  Medica  {Flor, 
Med.)j  and  other  works. 

Linn Linnseus.     The  founder   of  botanical  science.     His 

principal  works  are  Species  plantarum  {Linn.  Sp.), 
Mantissa  plantarum  {Idnn,  Mont.),  Flora  Zeylanica 
(Fl,  ZeyL)  His  son  published  a  Supplementum 
plantarum. 

Lour,  Loureiro,  Flora  Cochinchinensis.    1  vol.  1790. 

Pers,    Persoon  (C.  H.),  Synopsis  plantarum. 

Pers,  Obs.  Personal  Observation  and  Inquiry. 

PAorm.  q^/nc^... Pharmacopoeia  of  India.    Edited  by  E.  J.  Waring, 

M.D. 
Pluk.  Plukenet  (L.),  an  eminent  botanical  writer.    His  works 

are  published  in  4  vols.  4to,  Lond.  1696-1705. 
Pair,  Poiret  (J.  L.  M.)    A  writer  in  Lamarck's  Encyclo- 

pMie. 
Powell,   Baden-Powell's  Punjaub  Products.    2  vols. 

JR.  Br. Robert  Brown.    The  most  famous  of  living  English 

botanists. 

Betz,   Observationes  botanic®,  1774. 

Mkeede,  Author  of  the  Hortus  Malabaricus,  1 2  vols.  foL,  1686- 

1703. 

Bich,  Richard  (L.  C),  and  his  son,  AchiUe  Richard,  two 

eminent  French  botanists. 

Boem.  et  SchttU...^oemeT  (J.  J.)  and  Schultes  (J.  A.),  authors  of  Linnssi 

systema  veeetabilium. 

Bothy  (A.  W.)    Author  of  Nov89  plantarum  species  prsBser- 

tim  Indin  orientalis. 

BotU. Rottler  (Dr).    An  Indian  botanist,  for  a  long  time  re- 
siding at  Tranquebar. 

Bo:^ Roxburgh  (Dr  W.)    One  of  the  most  indefatigable  of 

Indian  botanists.  His  principal  works  are  Flora 
Indica  {Fl.  Ind.),  3  vols.  An  edition  was  published 
by  Carey  and  N.  Wallich  at  Serampore  {Fd.  Car.) 
Plants  of  the  Coromandel  Coast  {Cor.)  Hortus 
Benghalensis.  He  left  behind  him  also  drawings  of 
plants  in  the  East  India  Company's  Miiseum  {F.  I, 
C.  Mus.) 

Boyle  Fib.  Plants,.Boyle  on  the  Fibrous  Plants  of  India.    He  also  wrote 

on  the  cultivation  of  Cotton  in  India. 

Bumph. Rumphii  Herbarium  Amboinense. 


XVI  LIST  OF  ABBREVIATIONS. 

RuizePav Ruiz  (H.)  and  PaTon  (J.)    Authors  of  Flora  Pero- 

viana  et  CMLensis. 

Simmonds,  Commercial  Products  of  the  Vegetable  Kingdom. 

Sim*$  Bot,  Mag.  ...Sim's  Botanical  Magazine. 

Stewartj   ... .« Plants  of  the  Punjaub. 

Swz.  Swartz,  Flora  IndisD  occidentalis.    3  vols.,  1797. 

Thurib Thunbeig  (C.  P.),  Flora  Japonica. 

Tovm Toumefort,  Institutiones  rei  herbariee. 

Vahl  iSymb Yahl  (M.),  Symbolsa  botanica.    Enumeratio  planta- 

rum. 

Veg.  SvhsL  Vegetable  Substances.    3  vols.  12mo. 

Vent Ventenat  (S.  P.)    A  fjEonous  French  botanist 

WalL   Wallich  (N.),  Planted  Ajsiaticss  rariores.    Tentamen 

Floree  Nepalensis. 
W.  <k  A Wight  &  Amott's  Prodromus  Florso  PeninsulaB  India 

orientalifl. 
Wight* 8  CorUrQ),  ..Wight's  Contributions  to  Indian  Botany. 

Wights  III. Wight's  Illustrations  of  Indian  Botany. 

WigMs  Icon.  Wight's  Icones  plantarum  India  orientalis. 

WUld, Willdenow  (C.  L.),  Linnssi  species  plantarum. 


THE 


USEFUL   PLANTS   OF   INDIA. 


A  l^oun^     iuLnriX^L 


(1)  AbelmoBchns  escnlen^iM  (TT.  &  il.)    K  0.  Malvace^. 

Esculent  Okro,  Eno.    Bhindi,  Ramturi.  Hind.    Bhondi,  DuK.    Venday,  Tam. 
Benda,  Tkl.    Vendali,  Mal.    Dhenrooa,  Beno. 

Description. — Biennial;  stem  herbaceous,  hairy,  without 
prickles;  leaves  on  longish  petioles,  cordate,  with  3-5  obtuse 
lobes,  strongly  toothed,  scabrous  on  both  sides,  with  short, 
appressed  rigid  hairs ;  pedicels  very  short ;  involucel-leaves 
10,  deciduous ;  capsule  pyramidal,  furrowed,  elongated,  acu- 
minated ;  petals  pale  yellow,  dark  crimson  at  the  base.  FL 
All  the  year. — TT.  &  A.  Prod.  L  53. — Hibiscus  esculentus, 

Linn. — H.  longifolius,  Roxb.  Fl.  Ind,  iii.  210. Cultivated 

in  gardens. 

Medical  Uses. — ^Yaluable  as  an  emollient  and  demulcent,  also 
diuretic.  Used  in  catarrh,  dysuria,  and  other  cases  requiring  demul- 
cent remedies.  A  decoction  of  the  fresh  immature  capsules  is  in- 
haled with  good  effect  in  hoarseness  and  other  affections  of  the 
throat  The  dried  capsule  may  be  used  when  the  fresh  ones  are  not 
procurable.  The  fresh  capsules  bruised,  as  well  as  the  leaves,  form 
good  emollient  poultices. — Phami.  of  India,     Dr  Gibson, 

EoONOMic  Uses. — Though  indigenous  to  the  West  Indies,  this 
plant  has  long  been  naturalised  in  India.  The  capsule  known 
fjEuniliarly  as  the  Bendi-Kai  is  an  excellent  vegetable,  and  much 
esteemed  for  imparting  a  mucilaginous  thickening  to  soups.  The 
young  pods  are  often  gathered  green,  and  pickled  like  capers.  The 
stem  yields  a  strong,  silky,  pliant  fibre,  well  suited  for  the  manu- 
facture of  ropes,  string,  gunny- bags,  and  paper.  They  are  exported 
to  a  slight  extent  as  hemp,  to  which  they  bear  considerable  resem- 
blance. A  bundle  of  them  tested  by  Dr  Eoxburgh  bore  a  weight  of 
79  lb.  when  dry,  and  95  lb.  when  wet.  —  Roxb,  Royle,  Jury 
Rep,  Mad,  Exhib, 

1 


ABELMOSCHUS — ABROMA. 


(2)  AbelmoBchuB  moscliatas  (MoeneJi).    Do. 

Husk-mallow,  Enq.  Mashk-bhendi,  DuK.  Kiisturi-Venday,  KAthe-Easturi, 
Tam.     Kasturi-bendA^  Tel.    Katta-Kasturi,  Mal.     Mushak-dana,  BsNO. 

Description.  —  Stem  herbaceous,  hispid  with  spreading 
hairs,  not  prickly ;  leaves,  and  long  petioles,  hispid  with  rigid 
hairs,  but  otherwise  glabrous,  unequally  and  coarsely  toothed, 
deeply  5-7  lobed ;  lobes  all  spreading,  oblong  or  lanceolate ; 
pedicels  harshly  pubescent,  axillary,  about  as  long  as  the 
petioles ;  involucel-leaves  6-10,  linear,  hairy ;  capsule  oblong, 
acuminated,  hairy ;  petals  sulphur-coloured,  dark  crimson  at 
the  base.  FL  July — September. — W.  <fc  A.  Prod,  i  63. — 
Hibiscus  abelmoschus,  Linn. — H.  longifolius,  WiUd, — Bheede 
Mal.  ii.  t.  38. —  Wight  Icon.  t.  399. Bengal.     Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — The  highly-scented  seeds  are  cordial  and 
stomachic.  When  bruised,  they  have  been  given  for  the  purpose 
of  counteracting  the  effects  of  the  bites  of  venomous  reptiles,  being 
applied  both  externally  and  internally.  In  the  West  Indies  they 
are  first  reduced  to  powder,  and  then  steeped  in  rum,  and  in  this 
state  are  administered  in  snake-bites. 

Economic  Uses. — The  plant  abounds  in  mucilage,  and  is  used  in 
Upper  India  to  clarify  sugar.  The  seeds  are  used  in  Arabia  for 
giving  a  perfume  to  coffee,  and  are  also  used  in  Europe  as  a  substi- 
tute for  animal  musk  in  scenting  powders  and  pomatums.  The 
stem  yields  a  strong  fibre.  Dr  Eoxburgh  cut  the  stems  while  in 
flower,  and  immediately  steeped  them  in  water ;  these  broke  at  an 
average  weight  of  107  lb.,  both  when  dry  and  wet.  Among  other 
fibre-yielding  plants  of  this  family  may  be  mentioned  the  A.  ficul- 
neiis  (W.  &  A.),  the  bark  of  which  contains  a  large  proportion  of 
very  strong  white  fibre. — Royle.     Jury  Rep.  Mad.  Exhih. 

(3)  Abroma  augustnm  (Linn.)    N.  O.  BYTTNERiACEiE. 

Oolut-kmnbul,  Beno. 

Debcription.  —  Small  tree,  10-12  feet;  branches  soft, 
velvety;  adult  leaves  ovate  -  oblong,  semilate,  under  side 
tomentose,  or  scabrous  with  stellate  pubescence ;  lower  leaves 
roundish-cordate,  3-5  angled ;  calyx  5-partite ;  petals  five, 
with  dilated  claws ;  flowers  darkish  purple,  drooping ;  wings 
of  the  fruit  truncated  at  the  apex,  with  the  exterior  angle 
acute ;  peduncles  terminal,  leaf-opposed.  FL  Aug. — W.  &  A. 
Prod,  i.  65. — Roocb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  156. Interior  of  the  Pen- 
insula. 


ABRUS.  3 

Economic  Uses. — This  plant,  known  familiarly  as  the  "  Devil's 
Cotton,"  is  a  doubtful  native  of  India,  though  the  above  locality  is 
given  on  the  authority  of  Roxburgh.  The  bark  yields  a  tough 
iibrous  tissue,  firom  which  cordage  is  manufactured,  and  is  considered 
a  good  substitute  for  hemp.  The  tree  succeeds  well  in  most  parts 
of  the  country,  and  grows  quickly,  yielding  three  or  four  crops 
annually  fit  for  peeling.  Dr  Hoxburgh  called  special  attention  to 
the  plants  inasmuch  as  it  was  more  easy  of  cultivation  than  Sunn 
{OrotcUaria  ju7ieea),  and  the  average  produce  almost  three  times 
greater.  To  prepare  the  fibres,  the  bark  is  steeped  in  water  for 
about  a  week,  beyond  which  they  require  no  further  cleaning  ;  and 
in  this  state,  without  any  subsequent  preparation,  they  are  one-tenth 
stronger  than  Sunn,  and  not  liable  to  become  weaJi^ened  through 
exposure  to  wet.  A  cord  made  from  these  fibres  bore  a  weight  of 
74  lb.,  that  of  Sunn  only  68  \h,—Roxh.     Royle's  Fib,  Plants, 

(4)  Abnu  iHrecatorins  (lAnn,)    N.  0.  Leouminosje. 

wad  or  country  Uqnorice,  Enq.  Ghungchi,  Ounj,  Hind.  Gumchi,  DuK. 
Gunda-mani,  KuDri-mani,  Tah.  Gnri-ginja,  Guru-venda,  Tel.  Kunni-kuru,  Mal. 
Knnch,  Gunj,  Bbng. 

Description.  —  Twining ;  young  shoots  with  a  few  ad- 
pressed  hairs  at  the  apex;  leaves  alternate,  abruptly  pin- 
nated; leaflets  8-20  pair,  linear-oval>  obtuse  at  both  ends, 
glabrous  or  slightly  hairy;  calyx  campanulate,  obsoletely 
4-lobed,  upper  lobe  broadest;  racemes  axillaiy,  peduncled, 
many-flowered ;  flowers  pale  purple  or  rose-coloured ;  legumes 
oblong,  compressed,  4-6  seeded;  seeds  roundish,  distinct. 
Fl.  April— October.— TT.  <fc  A,  Prod,  L  236.— Boa*.  Flor.  Irul, 
iii.  258. — Glycine  abrus,  Linn.  —  Rheede  Mal,  viii.  t.  39. 
Southern  Peninsula.     Mysore.     Hindostan.     Assam. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  yields  an  extract  similar  in  medicinal 
properties  to  Liquorice,  though  somewhat  bitterish.  The  leaves 
yield  even,  more  than  the  root.  The  latter,  mixed  up  with  honey, 
are  applied  externally  to  swellings;  and,  pulverised  and  chewcti 
with  sugar,  are  given  to  mitigate  coughs.  Liinan  states  that  in 
Jamaica  they  are  used  instead  of  tea  In  Java  the  roots  are  con- 
sidered demulcent,  and  the  mucilage  is  there  combined  with  some 
bitter.  The  seeds  are  occasionally  employed  externally  in  ophthalmia. 
The  white  seeds  are  considered  to  act  as  a  poison,  producing  vomit- 
ing and  convulsions,  but  not  unusually  fatal  to  man.  The  smallest 
fatal  dose  is  one  tolah.  The  expressed  juice  of  the  leaves  is  said  to 
be  useful  in  aphthae. — Ainslic,     PowelVa  Punj,  Prod, 

Economic  Uses. — There  are  five  varieties  of  this  creeper,  with 
scarlet,  black,  white,  yellow,  and  blue  seeds.  The  scarlet  are  mosrt 
common.     These,  which  have  a  jet-black  spot  at  the  top,  are  n8(?d 


4  ABUTILON — ^ACACIA. 

^y  jewellers  and  druggists  as  weights,  each  weighing  almost  uni- 
formly one  grain.  The  goldsmiths  reduce  them  to  a  fine  powder, 
and  in  this  state  use  them  to  increase  adhesion  in  the  more  delicate 
parts  of  manufactured  ornaments.  They  are  also  used  for  beads  and 
rosaries,  whence  the  specific  name.  The  Hindoos  prize  them  for 
necklaces  and  other  ornaments.  In  Hindoostan  they  are  known  as 
the  Hetti  weights. — Lindley.    Ainslie. 

(5)  Abatilon  Indicum  {O.  Don).    N.  0.  Malvacks. 


Coantry  mallow,  Eno.    Eaoghi,  Hind.    Kangoi,  Dijk.    Tutti,  Penm-tutti,  1 
Tuttura-benda,  Kugu-benda,  Tuttiri-chettu,  Tbl,     Pettaka-putti,  Tutta,  Ui 


Tam. 

-    „  ,  ,  .       .  .    ^ram. 

Mal. 


Description. — Shrub,  2-3  feet;  leaves  cordate,  somewhat 
lobed,  soft,  shortly  tomentose,  iinequally  toothed ;  calyx  5-cleft, 
without  an  involucel ;  pedicels  erect,  axillary,  longer  than  the 
petioles,  jointed  near  the  flowers  ;  corolla  spreading ;  capsules 
truncated ;  carpels  11-20,  acute,  not  awned,  hairy ;  flowers 
longish,  orange-coloured.  FL  July. — TT.  &  A,  Prod.  L56. — 
Sida  Indica,  lAnn, — S.  populifolia,  Lam, — Wight  Icon,  t  12. 

Bengal    Southern  Provinces.     Common  in  most  parts  of 

the  country. 

Medical  Use& — The  leaves  contain  a  great  deal  of  mucUage,  and 
are  used  in  the  same  manner  as  the  marsh-mallows  in  Europe.  A 
decoction  of  them  is  used  both  by  European  and  native  practitioners 
as  an  emollient  fomentation ;  and  an  infusion  of  the  roots  is  given 
as  a  cooling  drink  in  fevers. — Ainslie. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  stem  yields  a  strongish  fibre,  fit  for  the 
manufacture  of  ropes.  Wight  remarks  that  there  is  no  character  of 
any  importance  to  separate  this  species  from  A,  Asiaticum,  Another 
species,  the  A,  polyandrum  (W.  &  A.),  found  on  the  Neilgherries 
and  about  Nundidroog,  yields  a  long  silky  fibre  resembling  hemp, 
also  fit  for  making  ropes ;  and  samples  of  it  were  submitted  to  the 
Madras  Exhibition. — JRoxb.     Jury  Rep.  Mad,  Exhih, 

(6)  Acacift  Arabica  {Willd,)    N.  O.  Leouminosa. 

Babool,  Eikar,  Hind.  EAli-kikar,  Dns.  Kura-veylam,  Karu-yel,  Tam.  Nalla- 
tumma,  Barburamu,  Tummachettu,  Tel.    Kani-velakam,  Mal.    Bab^l,  Bxng. 

Description. — ^Tree,  30-40  feet,  armed  with  stipulary  thorns; 
leaves  bipinnated;  pinnae  about  five  pair ;  leaflets  15-20  pair, 
glabrous ;  peduncles  aggregated,  axillary  or  forming  a  raceme 
by  the  abortion  of  the  leaves ;  heads  of  flowers  globose  ;  sta- 
mens distinct ;  legumes  stalked,  thickish,  contracted  on  both 
sutures  between  the   seeds;    flowers  small,   bright  yellow. 


ACACIA.  5 

fragrant.  FL  May — Oct. — W.  A  A,  Prod,  i  277. — Mimosa 
Arabica^  Lam,  Roxb,  Fl.  Ind.  iL  557.  Cor.  ii  t  149. 
Bengal.    Coromandel,    Deccan. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^This  tree,  like  oiheis  of  the  same  genus,  yields 
a  transparent  gum,  which  is  used  as  a  substitute  for  real  gum-Arabic, 
which  is  the  produce  of  A,  vera.  The  gum  is  procured  by  making 
incisions  in  the  bark,  and  the  sap  running  out  hardens  in  lumps  of 
yarious  sizes  and  figures.  It  exudes  principally  in  March  and  April 
The  red  kind  is  the  most  efficacious.  It  is  used  in  coughs,  rheuma- 
tism, and  mucous  discharges,  and  is  also  a  useful  food  in  diabetes. 
The  bark  is  used  as  a  tonic  in  infusion,  and  a  strong  decoction  of  it 
is  employed  as  a  wash  for  ulcers ;  and  finely  powdered  and  mixed 
with  Gingely  oil,  is  recommended  as  an  external  application  to 
cancerous  affections.  It  may  be  used  as  a  substitute  for  oak-bark, 
and  especially  as  a  local  astringent  in  special  diseases.  Poultices  made 
of  the  bruised  tender  leaves  are  an  excellent  astringent  and  stimu- 
lant application  to  ulcers  attended  with  sauious  discharge.  The 
leaves  are  also  used  in  mucous  discharges.  The  pods  are  used  in 
coughs. — Ainslie.     Pharm.  of  India.     PoiodVs  Punj.  Prod. 

EooNOMio  UsEa — Mixed  with  the  seeds  of  Sesamum,  the  gum  is 
an  article  of  food  with  the  natives.  The  seeds  and  pods  are  of  great 
value  to  the  shepherd  in  the  hot  season,  as  food  for  his  flocks  when 
grass  is  scarce.  A  decoction  of  the  bark  makes  a  good  substitute 
for  soap,  and  is  used  to  a  great  extent  for  tanning  leather  and  dyeing 
various  shades  of  brown ;  and,  moreover,  is  employed  in  Mysore  in 
the  process  of  distilling  arrack.  The  timber  is  useful  for  various 
purposes,  such  as  wheels  and  tent-pegs,  and  in  some  districts  is 
made  into  charcoal  for  gunpowder.  The  tree  grows  rapidly,  and 
requires  no  water.  There  is  a  variety  or  distinct  species  in  Candeish 
called  Ram-kantay  and  another  in  the  Buglana  districts  which 
abounds  more  in  gum  than  the  common  Babool,  and  differs  from 
it  in  the  form  and  colour  of  its  legumes.  Dr  Balfour  mentions  in  his 
'  Gydopsedia '  the  A.  cineraria^  the  rind  of  whose  fruit,  known  as 
Babbak  or  Keb-neb,  is  used  as  a  substitute  for  the  more  expensive 
dye-stuffs,  and  for  communicating  shades  of  drab  to  cotton.  It  is  a 
native  of  Senegal  and  the  East  Indies. — Roxb,  Gibson.  Ainslie. 
Balfour's  Cyd. 

In  Sind,  the  Babool  is  the  chief  yielder  of  lac.  The  ^'  Coccus 
Indica''  attaches  itself  to  the  smaller  and  half- dried  branches 
of  the  trees.  The  branches,  when  thoroughly  punctured  by 
the  insect,  lose  all  vitality,  and  are  then  cut  off  from  the 
parent  tree,  and  the  lac  gathered.  Other  trees,  when  suffering 
from  drought,  may  yield  it;  but  in  Sind,  as  a  rule,  it  is 
only  gathered  from  the  Babool.  The  product  in  its  raw  state 
realises  about  10  to  12  rupees  a  maund.  Fine  Babool  timber  is 
annually  sent  from  Sind  to  Bombay  for  the  use  of  the  gun-carriage 
manu&ctory. — {Fermefi's  Report  to  Bomb.  Govt.,  1862.)    The  Babool 


6  ACACIA. 

has  frequently  been  recommended  as  a  good  roadside  tree.  It  is  of 
quick  growth,  and  would  speedily  form  a  shelter  for  travellers.  The 
young  trees  would  require  but  little  care  at  first,  and  after  a  few 
years  of  pruning  would  often  more  than  cover  the  cost  of  looking 
after  them.  After  the  cuttings  begin  to  throw  out  young  shoots, 
tliey  should  be  carefully  pruned,  two  or  three  of  the  strongest  near 
the  top  being  selected  as  leading  shoots  to  form  the  future  tree. 
They  require  water  regularly  in  the  hot  and  dry  weather.  To  raise 
the  trees  from  seed  is  a  slower  process,  but  is  the  best  and  most 
natural  method.  The  trees  are  more  regular  in  their  growth,  and 
last  thrice  as  long  as  the  cuttings.  The  Babool  is  a  very  hard  wood. 
It  is  used  extensively  all  over  India,  but  more  particularly  in  Ben- 
gal. The  timber  is  only  large  enough  for  small  purposes.  In  Sind 
it  is  found  to  be  well  fitted  for  railway-sleepers. — (CleghorrCs  Forests 
of  India,)  It  has  been  recommended  to  Government  that  more 
attention  should  be  paid  to  the  despised  BabooL  K  suitable  locali- 
ties be  enclosed,  the  growth  of  this  tree  is  almost  8ix)ntaneous, 
and  most  rapid  ;  its  timber  is  very  useful  for  all  ordinary  purposes, 
and  it  makes  excellent  firewood. — {B&if,  Comnf.  Report  to  Bomb, 
Govt,,  Feb,  1868.)  With  respect  to  firewood,  several  Australian 
Acacias  have  been  thickly  sown  and  planted  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Ootacamund,  where  fresh  supplies  of  fuel  have  become  so  great  a 
desideratum.  Among  these  are  the  A,  stricta  and  A,  moUiasima, 
It  is  a  curious  iajci  that  hares  rarely  touch  the  latter,  whereas  they 
destroy  the  A.  stricta  by  hundreds.  The  reason  is  supposed  to  be 
that  the  one  is  more  bitter  than  the  other,  the  roots  of  the  A. 
vwllissima  emitting  a  powerfully  unpleasant  odour.  The  bark  of 
this  latter  is  useful  for  tanning,  and  a  tar  has  been  obtained  from  the 
wood. — Major  Morgan! s  Report  to  Madras  Govt,  1861. 

(7)  Acacia  Oatechn  (Willd.)     Do. 

Khair-babiil,    Khair,   K&th-kliair,   Hind.       Katth^-ki-Kikar,    DuK.      Vodalai, 
Vodalam,  Tah.    Podali-manu,  Khadirama,  Tel.    Kadaram,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree,  30-40  feet ;  branches  armed  with  stipu- 
lary  thorns,  occasionally  unarmed ;  leaves  bipinnated ;  pinnae 
10-30  pair ;  leaflets  numerous ;  young  shoots,  petioles,  and 
peduncles  more  or  less  pubescent ;  petioles  sometimes  armed 
below  with  a  row  of  prickles ;  spikes  axillary,  1-4  together, 
shorter  than  the  leaves;  corolla  5-cleft ;  petals  united;  stamens 
distinct;  legumes  thin,  flat,  glabrous,  4-8  seeded;  flowers  small, 
white,  or  pale  yellow.  Fl.  June — Oct. — W.  &  A,  Prod,  i 
272. — -A.  Wallichiana,  Dec. — Mimosa   catechu,  Linn,  Suppl. 

Roxb,  FL  Ind.  iL  562.     Cor.  t   175. Malabar.     Various 

parts  of  the  Peninsula.    Bengal.    Delhi 


ACACIA.  7 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  substance  formerly  knov^n  as  Terra  Ja- 
ponica  is  yielded  by  this  tree.  It  is  now  better  understood  as  one 
of  the  kinds  of  Catechu  prepared  in  India — the  word  being  derived 
from  eate,  a  tree,  and  chu,  juice.  It  is  extracted  from  the  unripe  pods 
and  old  hjgh-coloured  wood,  and  the  mode  of  preparation  in  some 
of  the  northern  parts  of  India  is  minutely  described  by  Dr  Royle. 
The  chips  of  the  inner  wood  are  put  into  an  earthen  pot  over  the 
fire;  they  are  then  boiled,  and  the  clean  liquor  is  strained  off; 
when  of  suj^cient  consistence  it  is  poured  into  clay  moulds.  This 
is  usually  of  a  pale-red  colour,  and  in  quadrangular  pieces.  'Catechu 
has  been  successfully  used  in  cases  of  intermittent  fever  in  conjunc- 
tion with  infusion  of  Chiretta,  in  doses  from,  ten  to  twelve  grains. 
Dr  A.  Eoss  found  it  very  useful  in  scurvy,  both  locally  applied  to 
the  gums,  as  well  as  on  the  constitution.  Finely-powdered  Catechu 
has  also  been  successfully  used  in  ointments,  mixed  with  other 
ingredients,  in  the  treatment  of  obstinate  ulcers  and  leprous  affec- 
tions.— Ainslie,     Pharm,  of  India, 

Economic  Uses. — Catechu  is  used  in  Berar  in  the  process  of  dye- 
ing chintz  and  other  cloths.  It  is  occasionally  mixed  with  plaster 
to  increase  its  adhesion,  and  is  also,  in  conjunction  with  certain 
oils,  applied  to  beams,  to  preserve  them  against  the  white  ants.  The 
most  cdebrated  Catechu  is  that  obtained  from  Pegu,  and  this  brings 
^4  or  £5  ar-ton  more  than  other  astringent  extracts.  Catechu  con- 
tains a  greater  proportion  of  tannin  than  other  astringent  substances, 
and  it  has  been  found  that  1  lb.  of  this  is  equal  to  7  or  8  lb.  of  oak- 
bark  for  tanning  purposea  The  manufactured  article  is  brought 
down  in  considerable  quantities  from  Berar  and  Kepaul,  and  thence 
to  Calcutta,  from  whence  it  is  exported  to  Europe.  Other  kinds  of 
Catechu  are  prepared  in  India,  the  commonest  of  which  is  that  from 
the  nut  of  the  Areca  palm  (F.  Areca  Catechu),  As  a  timber,  the 
wood  of  the  tree  is  less  hard  and  durable  than  that  of  other  species 
of  Acacia.  It  is  of  a  red  colour,  heavy,  close-grained,  and  brittle. 
It  polishes  well,  and  resists  the  attacks  of  white  ants.  It  is  used  for 
agricultural  purposes,  sugar-mills,  and  pestles.  —  Roxh,  PowdVa 
Punj,  Prod, 

(8)  Acacia  concinna  (Dec)    Do. 

Siki,  DuK.    Shika^  Tam.    Sliikaya,  T£L.    Chinik,  Mal.    Kochai,  BsNO. 

Description. — Climbing;  branches  irregularly  angled,  to- 
mentose,  armed  with  numerous  recurved  prickles ;  leaves  bipin- 
nated ;  piimse  6-8  pair ;  leaflets  numerous,  linear,  somewhat 
semi-hastate,  mucronate;  petioles  with  hooked  prickles  below ; 
panicles  terminal  and  axillary,  with  globular  heads  of  flowers 
3-5  together  in  the  axils  of  a  small  bract  or  leaf,  peduncled  ; 
stamens  distinct ;  legumes  large,  succulent,  contracted  between 


8  ACACIA. 

the  seeds ;  valves  wrinkled  on  the  surface  when  dry ;  flowers 
small,  white.  Fl  July — October. — W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  277. — 
Mimosa  concinna,  Willd, Bengal.    Assam.    Mysore. 

Economic  Uses. — ^A  considerable  trade  is  carried  on  ia  some  parts 
of  the  country  in  the  pods  of  this  shrub,  which  resemble  the  soap- 
nut,  and  are  used,  like  it,  for  washing  the  head.  The  Hindoos  also 
use  them  for  marking  the  forehead.  The  leaves  are  acid,  and  are 
used  in  cookery  as  a  substitute  for  tamarinds. — Roxb.     Ninvmo, 

(9)  Acacia  Famesiaiia  {Willd,)  Do. 

Guh-babool,  HiKD.  and  Beno.    Gii-kikar,  DuK.    Piy-vOam,  Tam.    Piyi-tomma, 
Kampu-tumma,  Naga-tumma,  TsL.    Pivelam,  Mal. 

Description. — Shrub  or  small  tree,  armed  with  stipulary 
thorns;  calyx  5-toothed;  corolla  tubular;  stamens  distinct; 
leaves  bipinnated ;  pinnsB  4-8  pair ;  leaflets  linear,  10-20  pair, 
nearly  glabrous ;  petioles  and  peduncles  more  or  less  pubes- 
cent ;  legumes  cylindrical,  fitted  with  pulp  and  two  rows  of 
seeds;  flowers  globular,  2-3  together,  each  on  an  axillary 
peduncle,  small,  yellow,  fragrant.  FL  Dec. — Jan. — TT.  <fe  A. 
Prod.  i.  272  (under  Vachellia), — Mimosa  Famesiana,  Linn. — 
Roxb,  Fl.  Ind.  ii  557. Bengal    Assam.    Peninsula. 

Economic  Uses. — This  small  tree  exudes  a  considerable  quantity 
of  useful  gum.  The  wood  is  very  hard  and  tough,  and  is  much 
used  for  ship-knees,  tent-pegs,  and  similar  purposes.  The  flowers 
distilled  yield  a  delicious  perfume. — W.  4"  A.     Eoxb. 

(10)  Acacia  fermginea  (Z)ec.)    Do. 

Sbimai-yelyel,  Tail    Vunf,  Anasandn,  TsL. 

Description. — ^Tree,  20-25  feet,  armed  with  conical  stipu- 
lary thorns,  occasionally  unarmed;  leaves  bipinnated,  glab- 
rous; pinnae  3-6  p«dr;  leaflets  10-20  pair,  oblong-linear; 
spikes  of  flowers  axillary,  usually  in  pairs,  many-flowered ; 
corolla  5-cleft ;  stamens  slightly  united  at  the  base ;  legumes 
flat,  lanceolate,  rusty-coloured,  2-6  seeded ;  flowers  small,  pale 
yellow. — Fl.  April — May. — W.  &  A.  Prod.  L  273. — ^Mimosa 

ferruginea,  Roxb,  Fl,   Ind.  iL   561. Coromandel    Coast 

Courtallum.    N.  Circars. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  bark  steeped  in  jaggery  water  is  distilled 
as  an  iiitoxicating  liquor.     It  is  very  astringent.     A  decoction  of 


ACACIA.  9 

the  same,  in  conjunction  with  ginger  and  other  ingredients,  is  fre- 
quently employed  as  an  astringent  wash  for  the  teet^  The  wood  is 
Yery  hard  and  useful — Airnlie,     lAndL 

(11)  Acacia  lencophtoa  {WUld,)    Do. 

Panided  Acacia.  Eno.    Bufed-kikar,  Hnn>.    Ujlee-kikar.  Duk.    Vel-yel,  Vel- 
veylam.  Tax.    Tella-tamma,  Tel.    Vel-yeylam,  Mal.    Bapnaid-b4bal,  Bxno. 

Desckiption. — Tree,  armed  with  stipulary  thorns;  leaves 
bipinnated;  pinnaB  7-12  pair;  leaflets  numerous,  oblong-linear, 
slightly  pubescent ;  panicles  terminal  or  from  the  upper  axils ; 
branches  and  peduncles  shortly  tomentose;  corolla  5-cleft; 
stamens  distinct ;  legumes  narrow,  long,  curved,  shortly  tomen- 
tose when  young ;  heads  of  flowers  globose ;  flowers  small, 
pale  yellow.  Fl,  June — Sept. — W.  &  A.  Prod,  i  227. — Mimosa 
leucophlsea,  Roxb.  Cor,  ii  15.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  68. — A.  alba, 
WUld. Sholapore.    Woods  and  hills  on  Coromandel  coast. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — The  natives  distil  a  kind  of  ardent  spirit  &om 
the  bark,  mixed  with  palm-wine  and  sugar.  A  fibre  is  also  pre- 
pared from  the  bark  by  maceration  after  four  or  five  days'  beating. 
It  is  used  for  large  fishing-nets  and  coarse  kinds  of  cordage,  being 
tough  and  strong.  The  timber  of  the  tree  is  hard  and  dark-coloured. 
— LincU.    Rep.  Mad.  Exhih. 

(12)  Acacia  snndra  (J96c.)    Do. 

Karangall,  Tail    Sandra,  Tel. 

Description. — Tree,  20-30  feet;  branches  armed  with  re- 
curved stipulary  prickles,  sometimes  unarmed ;  leaves  bipin- 
nated; pinnsB  15-20  pair;  leaflets  numerous,  small,  linear; 
spikes  1-3  together,  axillary,  peduncled,  shorter  than  the 
leaves,  many-flowered ;  corolla  5-cleft ;  stamens  distinct ; 
flowers  small,  yellow;  legumes  thin,  flat,  lanceolate;  seeds 
few.  Fl.  July — ^Aug. — W.  <b  A.  Prod.  i.  273. — Mimosa  sundra, 

JBoa*.     Cor.  iii  t.  225.— Bedd.  Flor.  Sylv.  t.  50. Travan- 

core.    N.  Circars.    Bombay  Presidency.    Mysore. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^A  resin  similar  to  that  yielded  by  A.  Catechu 
is  procured  from  this  tree.  In  fact,  the  two  species  are  much  alike. 
This  one  principally  diifers  in  being  perfectly  glabrous.  The  timber 
is  close-grained,  very  hard  and  durable,  very  heavy,  and  of  a  dark- 
red  colour.  It  is  excellent  for  piles  and  sleepers ;  and  the  natives 
prefer  it  for  posts  in  house-building,  though,  owing  to  the  unyielding 


10  ACALYPHA. 

nature  of  the  wood,  it  is  apt  to  split  when  nails  are  driven  into  it. 
The  tree  is  abundant,  and  grows  to  a  fair  size. — Wight  Bedd.  Flor, 
8ylv,     Rep,  Mad,  Exldh, 

(13)  Acalyplia  finticosa  (Forsk,)    N.  0.  Euphorbiace^ 

Birch-leaved  Acalypha,  Eng.    Sinnie,  Tam.    Chizmie,  DuK.    Tsiimie,  Tkl. 

Description. — Shrub,  pubescent,  with  sessile,  waxy,  golden- 
yellowish  glands;  leaves  rhomb-ovate,  acute  at  both  ends, 
serrated,  beneath  covered  and  shining  with  golden  glands; 
spikes  unisexual,  very  shortly  peduncled,  or  androgynous  and 
males ;  males  commonly  shorter  than  the  leaves,  erect,  hoary ; 
androgynous  ones  increased  at  the  base  by  1-4  female  bracts ; 
female  spikes  lax-flowered,  5-8  bracteate;  female  bracts 
1-flowered,  exceeding  the  capsule;  male  calyx  externally 
pubeiscent ;  ovary  densely  hairy ;  capsules  hoary  tomentose ; 
seeds  smooth;  flowers  greenish. — Forsk.  Descr.  161. — Dec. 
Prod,  XV.  5.  2,  p.  822. — A.  betulina,  Retz. — ^A.  amentacea,  Boadb, 
Fl,  ItiA.  iii.  676. Peninsula.    Mysore. 

Medical  Uses. — The  leaves  are  prescribed  by  the  native  doctors 
as  a  stomachic  in  dyspeptic  a£fections  and  cholera.  They  are  also 
reckoned  attenuant  and  alterative.  The  dose  of  the  infusion  is 
half  a  teacupful  twice  daily. — AiiisUe, 

(14)  Acalyplia  Indica  (Ldnn,)   Do. 

Indian  Acalyplia,  Eko.    Eoopa-mani,  Mal.      Cupamani,  Tam.    Eoopl,  DuK. 
Mukto-juri,  Benq. 

Description. — ^Annual,  1  -2  feet ;  leaves  ovate-cordate,  ser- 
rated, on  long  petioles ;  spikes  axillary,  as  long  as  the  leaves, 
male  flowers  uppermost,  enclosed  in  a  cup-shaped  involucre 
opening  on  the  inner  side,  striated,  serrated;  stamens  8-16; 
styles  3 ;  capsules  tricoccous,  3-celled,  1 -seeded ;  flowers  small, 
greenish.  Fl,  April — June. — Eoxb,  Fl.  Ind,  iii.  675. —  Wight 
Icon,  t,  S77,^Iiheede,  x.  t  81-83. Bengal    Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root,  bruised  and  steeped  in  hot  water,  is 
used  as  a  cathartic,  and  the  leaves  as  a  laxative,  in  decoction. 
Mixed  with  common  salt,  the  latter  are  applied  externally  in  scabies. 
A  decoction  of  the  whole  plant  mixed  with  oil  is  antarthritic ;  and 
mixed  with  chunam,  forms  a  good  external  application  in  cutaneous 
diseases.  A  simple  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  given  in  ear-ache. — 
{Boxb,    Ainslie,)    The  expressed  juice  of  the  leaves  is  a  safe  and 


ACHYRANTHES — ACONITUM.  11 

certain  emetic  for  children.  It  has  also  been  usefully  administered 
as  an  expectorant,  and  in  bronchitis  in  children.  A  cataplasm  of 
the  leaves  is  applied  as  a  local  application  to  syphilitic  ulcers,  and  as 
a  means  of  reHeving  the  pain  attendant  on  the  bites  of  venomous 
insects.— PAarm.  of  India, 

(15)  Acliyrantlies  aspera  (Linn,)    N.  O.  AMARANXAOEiE. 

(Jhirchirii,  Chikrti,  Hnm.    Ag&^,  Duk.    Na-.yiirioi,  Tam.     Utta-i*ni,  Antisha, 
Apa-margamu,  Fiatyak-pushpi,  Tel.    EataUti,  Mal.    Opang,  Bjssq, 

Description. — Shrub  about  6  feet;  branches  somewhat 
4-sided;  stem  erect,  pubescent;  leaves  on  short  petioles, 
obovate-rotund,  abruptly  attenuated  at  the  base,  pubescent; 
spikes  virgate,  acute,  at  first  horizontal,  afterwards  reflexcd ; 
flowers  purplish-green;  bracts  at  first  soft,  soon  becoming 
rigid  and  prickle-like  ;  capsules  5-seeded,  reddish.  FL  nearly 
all  the  yeax.—RoxK  FL  Ind,  i.  672.— Wight  Icon,  t  1777.— 
Rheede,  x.  t  78. — ^A.  obtusifolia,  Lam. Bengal    Peninsula. 

Medical  UsEa — ^The  seeds  are  given  in  hydrophobia,  and  in 
cases  of  snake-bites,  as  well  as  in  ophthalmia  and  cutaneous  diseases. 
The  flowering-spikes  rubbed  with  a  little  sugar  are  made  into  pills, 
and  given  internally  to  people  bitten  by  mad  dogs.  The  leaves 
taken  &esh  and  rubbed  to  a  pulp  are  considered  a  good  remedy 
applied  externally  to  the  bites  of  scorpions.  The  ashes  of  the  burnt 
plant  mixed  with  conjee  is  a  native  remedy  in  dropsical  cases. 
Astringent  and  diuretic  properties  are  assigned  to  this  plant,  and 
Dr  Cornish  states  having  employed  it  largely  in  dropsy  with  favour- 
able results.  The  whole  plant,  when  incinerated,  yields  a  consider^ 
able  quantity  of  potash.  These  ashes,  in  conjunction  with  infusion 
of  ginger,  are  likewise  esteemed  in  dropsical  affections.  The  flower- 
ing-spike has  the  repute  in  Oude  and  other  parts  of  India  of  being 
a  safeguard  against  scorpions,  which  it  is  believed  to  paralyse.  It 
has  also  been  used  successfully  as  a  local  application  in  scorpion- 
stings  and  in  snake-bites. — Pharm,  of  India,  Long  in  Joum,  of 
Agri.  Hort.  Soe,  of  India,  1858,  x.  31.  Madras  Quart,  Joum,  of 
Med.  Sc.,  1862,  iv.  10. — Wight.    Ainslie,     Hamilton. 

(16)  Aeonitnm  feroz  {Wall)  K.  O.  Eanungulace^. 

Bustnab-bish,  Bish,  Beno.     Mahoor,  Hind.    Bacbnag,  Duk.    Vasha-navi,  Tam. 
Vafu-nabhi,  Valsa-nabhi,  TSL. 

Description. — Stem  erect,  2-3  feet,  slightly  downy  above ; 
tubers  2-3,  blackish,  white  inside;  branches  villous;  leaves 
roundish-cordate,  deeply  5-parted;  lobes  pinnatifid,  cuneate 
at  the  base,  hairy  on  the  brim  beneath;   racemes  terminal. 


12  ACONITUM. 

downy;  flowers  large,  deep  blue,  hoary;  helmet  gibbous, 
semi-circular,  slightly  acuminated  in  front;  cucullate  petals 
slightly  incurved. — Dec.  Prod.  i.  64. — Lindl.  Flor.  Med.  12. 
Himalaya.    Kumaon. 

Medical  TJsbs. — ^This  plant  is  found  at  high  elevations  in  the 
Himalaya  and  Kepaul,  sometimes  at  10,000  f^t  above  the  sea. 
I)r  Wight  asserts  that  wherever  within  the  tropics  we  meet  her- 
baceous forms  of  BanuncuLace89,  we  may  feel  assured  of  having 
attained  an  elevation  sufficient  to  place  us  beyond  the  influence  of 
jungle  fever.  The  root  of  this  species  of  Aconite  is  highly  poisonous, 
equally  fatal  whether  taken  internally  or  applied  to  wounds.  By 
Indian  practitioners  it  is  used  in  cases  of  chronic  rheumatism.  Dr 
Pereira  found  that  a  drop  of  the  spirituous  infusion  applied  to  the 
tongue  produced  numbness,  which  lasted  eighteen  hours.  Its  action 
appears  to  be  similar  to  that  of  A.  napelltia,  which  is  found  in  moun- 
tainous parts  of  Europe. 

"  Although,"  says  Dr  Royle,  "  the  acrid  principle  existing  in  most 
of  the  plants  of  the  Eanunculaceous  order  is  very  volatile,  yet  the 
effects  attendant  on  the  roots  of  the  A.  ferox  after  it  has  been  pre- 
served for  ten  years  was  remarkable,  as  showing  that  it  is  more  per- 
manent than  has  been  supposed."  In  the  Taleef-shireef  it  is  directed 
never  to  be  given  alone ;  but  mixed  with  several  other  drugs,  it  is 
recommended  in  a  variety  of  diseases,  as  cholera,  intermittent  fevers, 
toothache,  snake-bites,  and  especially  in  rheumatism  externally 
applied.  The  root  is  imported  in  considerable  quantities  into  the 
plains,  and  sold  at  the  rate  of  one  rupee  the  seer. — Wallich.  Boyle, 
Hamilton's  Nepaul. 

Dr  Fleming's  experiments  prove  that  the  roots  are  more  active 
immediately  sdter  the  period  of  flovrering  than  at  any  other  time, 
and  that  the  leaves  lose  their  power  when  the  seeds  begin  to  form. 
The  seeds  themselves  are  comparatively  weak  {Lindl.  E.  B.)  The 
terms  Bish,  Bikh,  or  Vish,  merely  mean  poison.  In  Dr  Playfair's 
translation  of  the  Taleef-shireef  tiie  names  Sindia  and  Bechnak  are 
applied  to  poisonous  medicines,  undoubtedly  the  Aconite. 

In  Dr  Pereira's  experiments  the  effects  were  tried  by  introducing 
the  extract  into  the  jugular  vein,  by  placing  it  in  the  cavity  of  the 
peritoneum,  by  applying  it  to  the  cellular  tissue  of  the  back,  and  by 
introducing  it  into  the  stomach.  In  all  these  cases,  except  the  last, 
the  effects  were  very  similar — viz.,  difficulty  of  breathing,  weakness 
and  subsequent  paralysis,  which  generally  commenced  in  the  pos- 
terior extremities,  vertigo,  convulsions,  dilatation  of  the  pupils,  and 
death  apparently  from  asphyxia, — Wallich,  PI.  As.  Bar.,  i  36. 

(17)  Aconitnm  heterophyllnm  {Wall.)    Do. 

'      Atls,  HiKD.    AtYika,  Yajjd-tiirki,  Duk.    AtivadAyam,  Tam.    Ativasa,  Tel. 

Description.  —  Shrub ;    stem  obscurely   angled,   smooth 


ACORUS.  13 

below,  pubescent  above ;  tubers  oblong-oval ;  fibres  numerous, 
spreading;  lower  leaves  long-petioled,  round  or  sagittate- 
cordate,  acuminated,  5  -  ribbed  or  more ;  helmet  arched, 
slightly  acuminate  ;  wings  equal  to  the  helmet  in  size, 
obliquely  triangular ;  lower  sepals  lanceolate,  smooth ;  flowers 
blue. — Royle  111.  t  13. Himalaya. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  of  this  species  of  Aconite,  known  by 
the  name  of  Atees,  has  long  been  celebrated  as  a  tonic  and  valuable 
febrifuge.  It  is  generally  sold  in  the  bazaars  as  a  fine  white  powder, 
but  is  somewhat  expensive.  There  is  a  spurious  substance  called  by 
the  same  name,  which  is  only  the  root  of  the  Asparagus  sarmentosus. 
The  true  Atees  is  intensely  bitter  and  slightly  astringent,  with 
abundant  fjEoina,  which  is  free  horn  any  noxious  qualities.  It  is 
probably  not  so  injurious  a  poison  as  the  Bish,  as  it  is  attacked  by 
insects,  while  the  other  is  not.  There  are  two  kinds,  one  black  and 
one  white,  both  bitter  and  astringent,  pungent  and  heating,  aiding 
digestion,  useful  as  tonic  medicines  and  aphrodisiac.  The  present 
species  is  found  also  on  the  Himalaya  at  elevations  from  9000  to 
10,000  feet. — Royle,     Annals  of  Med,  Science^  1866. 

The  roots  are  about  an  inch  long,  of  an  oblong-oval  pointed  form, 
light  grey  externally,  white  inside,  and  of  a  pure  bitter  taste. 

Modem  experience  confirms  the  value  of  Atees  as  an  antiperiodic. 
Dr  BaKoor  was  eminently  successful  in  many  cases  of  fever  which 
came  under  his  treatment  with  its  employment.  He,  however,  stated 
in  his  reports  the  necessity  of  selecting  the  best  specimens,  as  much 
of  inferior  quality  is  sold  in  the  bazaars.  He  advises  that  every  root 
should  be  broken  across,  and  all  which  are  not  pure  white  be  dis- 
carded. The  other  species  of  Aconite  found  on  the  Himalaya,  and 
yielding  similar  properties,  are.  A,  palmatum  (Don)  and  A.  luridum 
(H.  &  T.) — Pharm,  of  India.  Indian  Annals  of  Med.  Science, 
V.  648. 

(18)  AcoruB  calamus  (Linn,)    N.  0.  ORONTiAcsiE. 

Sweet-flagy  Eng.    Bach,  Hnn>.    Vach,  Duic    Vaahambu,  Tam.    Vaas,  Vadaja,    X 
TcL.    Vashampo,  Mal.    Bach,  Saphed-bach,  Beng.  ^ 

Dksceiption.  —  Perennial,  semi-aquatic ;  rhizome  thick, 
with  long  roots ;  leaves  erect,  2-3  feet,  sword-shaped ;  stalk 
leaf-like,  but  thicker  below  the  spadix ;  spadix  a  foot  above 
the  root,  spreading,  2-3  inches  long,  covered  with  a  mass  of 
numerous  thick-set  pale-green  flowers,  fragrant  when  bruised  ; 
petals  six ;    capsules  3-ceUed.     FL  May— June. — Boxb.  Flor. 

Ind.  iL  169. — ^A.  odoratus.  Lam. — Rheede,  xi.  t.  60. Damp 

marshy  placea    Malabar. 


14  ACROCARPUS ADANSONIA. 

Medical  Uses.  —  An  aromatic  bitter  principle  exists  in  the 
rhizomes,  for  which  reason  they  are  regarded  as  usefol  additions  to 
tonic  and  purgative  medicines,  being  much  given  to  children  in  cases 
of  dyspepsia,  especially  when  attended  with  looseness  of  bowels. 
Bendicially  employed  also  in  chronic  catarrh  and  asthmatic  com- 
plaints. Dr  Pereira  has  remarked  that  the  rhizomes  might  be 
substituted  for  more  expensive  spices  or  aromatics.  The  flavour  is 
greatly  improved  by  drying.  In  Constantinople  they  are  made  into 
a  confection,  which  is  considelred  a  good  stomachic,  and  is  eaten 
freely  during  the  prevalence  of  epidemic  disease.  They  are  supposed, 
moreover,  to  be  an^tidote  for  several  poisons.— (Pere/ra.  Thomson. 
Ainslie,)  In  low  fevers  they  are  considered  an  excellent  stimulant 
diaphoretic,  and  also  very  serviceable  in  atonic  and  choleraic  diarrhoea, 
and  as  a  useful  external  application  in  chronic  rheumatism,  the 
powdered  rhizome  being  rubbed  up  with  Cashew  spirit  Dr  A.  T. 
Thomson  notices  the  root-stock  favourably  as  an  antiperiodic,  and 
Dr  Royle  employed  it  successfully  in  intermittent  fevers.  It  is  also 
highly  useful  for  destroying  and  keeping  away  insects. — Pharm.  of 
India. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — The  leaves  contain  an  essential  oil,  to  which 
they  owe  their  fragrance,  and  which  in  England  is  used  by  the 
perfumers,  mixed  with  the  farina  of  the  rhizomes,  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  hair-powders.  They  are  also  used  for  tanning  leather  and 
perfuming  various  substances. — Ainslie. 

(19)  AcrocarpuB  frazinifolinB  (Wight).     K  0.  Leouminos^. 

Shingle-tree,  Pink  or  Red  Cedar,  Eno.    Mallay-Kone,  Tam. 

Description.  —  Large  tree,  deciduous,  often  having  large 
buttresses,  bark  light  grey,  young  parts  golden  pubescent ; 
leaves  glabrous,  bipinnate ;  pinnae  3  pairs  with  a  terminal  one ; 
leaflets  equally  pinnate,  4-6,  opposite  pair  ovate,  acuminate ; 
racemes  many-flowered ;  flowers  dull  greenish-red ;  calyx  and 
corolla  minutely  golden-pubescent  outside. —  Wight  Icon,  t 

254 — Bedd.  Flor.  Syl.  t.  44. Travancore  Mountains   and 

Western  Ghauts.     South  Canara. 

Economic  Uses. — A  tree  of  rapid  growth  and  worthy  of  cidtiva- 
tion.  The  timber  is  flesh-coloured  and  light.  It  is  much  used  by 
the  planters  at  Conoor  and  Wynaad  for  building  purposes  and  fur- 
niture, and  in  Coorg  is  largely  used  for  shingles.  It  is  known  by 
the  Burghers  on  the  I^eilgherries  as  the  Kilingi. — Bedd. 

(20)  Adansonia  digitata  {Linn.)    K  O.  Bombacrb. 

Baobab  or  monkey  bread-tree,  Eno.    Gorak  Amll,  Hind.    Hathl-Khatiyan,  Bara- 
Khat-yan,  Duk.    Anai-puliyamarara,  Papparap-puli,  Purl-maram,  Tam. 

Description. — Tree  of  moderate  height ;  trunk  enonnous, 


ADANSONIA.  15 

30-40  feet  in  circumference ;  leaves  digitate,  quinate,  glabrous,  (! 

petioled ;  leaflets  elliptical,  slightly  acuminated ;  petioles  and  1 

peduncles  pubescent ;  calyx  5-partite,  pubescent,  silky  inside ;  •  | 

petals  5,  spreading,  at  length  deflexed;  flowers  axillary,  soli-  / 

tary  on  long  pedicels ;  stamen  tube  adhering  to  the  base  of  the  I 

petals ;  fruit  a  large  oblong  downy  pericarp  8-10  celled,  cells 
filled  with  farinaceous  pulp  ;  flowers  large,  white,  with  purplish 

anthers.    FL  July — W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  60. Naturalised  in 

India.    Negapatam.     Madras.     ^r^riAi    i  0 ;^ iC «^ 

Medical  Uses. — The  fruit  is  somewhat  acid,  but  makes  a  cool- 
ing and  refreshing  drink  in  fevers.  The  acid  farinaceous  pulp 
suiTOunding  the  seeds  is  used  in  dysentery  and  diarrhoea ;  failing 
this,  the  rind  of  the  fruit  beaten  into  a  paste  and  mixed  with 
water  may  be  substituted.  Adanson  found  the  fruit  a  great  preserva- 
tive against  the  epidemic  fevers  of  the  western  coast  of  Africa,  and 
especially  beneficial  in  promoting  perspiration,  and  attempering  the 
heat  of  the  blood.  In  Guadaloupe  the  planters  use  the  bark  and  leaves 
as  a  febrifuga  Among  other  uses  in  Africa,  the  leaves  are  made 
into  fomentations  and  poultices  for  rheumatic  eiffections  of  the  limbs 
and  irritable  inflammatory  ulcers.  Dr  Hutchinson  considers  that  the 
action  of  the  pulp  is  not  due  to  any  astringent  properties,  but  to  its 
virtues  as  a  refrigerant  and  diuretic.  Duchassaing  {Pharm,  Joum,, 
1845,  p.  89)  proposes  the  bark  as  a  substitute  for  quinine  in  low 
intermittent  fevers.  He  prescribed  it  in  decoction,  and  found  it 
effectual  in  cases  where  quinine  had  failed. — Pharm,  of  India, 
Graham^  Bomb.  Flora.     Adanson. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — This  tree  is  a  native  of  the  western  coast  of 
-Africa^  about  Senegal  and  Sierra  Leone.  It  has,  however,  long  been 
naturalised  in  India,  and  from  its  many  uses  is  deserving  of  a  place 
among  the  more  useful  plants  of  this  country.  The  large  fruit  re- 
sembles a  gourd,  and  contains  many  black  seeds.  In  Senegal  the 
negroes  use  the  bark  and  leaves  powdered  as  we  do  pepper  and  salt. 
The  fruit  supplies  the  natives  of  Africa  with  an  excellent  soap  by 
boiling  the  ashes  with  rancid  palm-oil.  It  is  in  the  hollowed  trunks 
of  these  trees  that  the  negroes  bury  their  dead ;  and  it  is  a  remark- 
able fact,  that  shut  up  in  these,  the  bodies  become  perfectly  dry, 
without  the  necessity  of  the  process  of  embalmment.  Humboldt,  in 
his  '  Aspects  of  l^ature,'  remarks  that  the  Baobab  or  monkey  bread- 
tree  is  the  oldest  organic  monument  of  our  planet.  The  earliest 
description  of  these  trees  is  that  of  Aloysius  Cadamosto,  a  Venetian, 
in  1454,  who  found  one  growing  at  the  mouth  of  the  Senegal  river, 
whose  trunk  in  circumference  was  112  feet.  Adanson  himself  saw 
them  at  29  feet  in  diameter  and  70  feet  in  height,  and  remarks  that 
other  travellers  had  found  trunks  of  32  feet  diameter.  As  a  timber- 
tree  it  is  quite  useless,  the  wood  being  soft  and  spongy.    Dr  Hooker 


16  ADENANTHERA — ADHATODA. 

says,  'Hhe  tree  is  emollient  and  mucilaginous  in  all  its  parts/'  Along 
the  sea-coast  of  Guzerat  the  fisherman  use  the  large  fruit  as  a  float 
for  their  nets.  The  leaves  are  eaten  with  their  food,  and  are  con- 
sidered cooling,  and  useful  in  restraining  excessive  perspiratioiL  M. 
Mollien,  in  his  Travels  in  Africa,  states  that  to  the  negroes  the  Baobab 
is  perhaps  the  most  valuable  of  vegetables.  Its  leaves  are  used  for 
leaven,  its  bark  furnishes  indestructible  cordage,  and  a  coarse  thread 
used  for  doth  and  ropes.  Eopes  made  from  the  bark  are  said  to  be 
very  strong,  and  there  is  in  Bei^  a  saying,  "As  secure  as  an  elephant 
bound  witii  a  Baobab  rope." — Hooker,     Humboldt    Lindley, 

(21)  Adenanthera  pavonina  (Linn,)    N.  0.  LEGUMmosjE. 

Anai-kundamnnie,  Tak.    Bandi  gooroovinza,  Tbl.    Bukta-chunduiy  TtAngnna^ 
Beno.    Mu^jatie,  Mal.    Eifchun-doona,  Hind. 

Dbscription. — Large  tree,  unarmed;  leaves  bipinnated; 
pinnae  4-6  pair ;  leaflets  oval,  obtuse,  glabrous,  10-12  pair,  on 
short  petioles ;  calyx  5-toothed ;  petals  5  ;  racemes  terminal  or 
from  the  upper  axils,  spike-like;  legumes  somewhat  falcate, 
twisted,  10-12  seeded;  flowers  numerous,  small,  yellow  and 
white  mixed,  fragrant.    FL  June — ^Aug. — Boodb.  FL  Irtd.  ii 

370.— F.  A  A  Prod.  L  211.-— Rheede,  vL  t  14. Peninsula. 

Northern  Circars.    Travancore.    Bengal. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^Although  this  tree  is  called  Eukta-ehundun, 
which  means  Bed  Sandal,  yet  the  real  red  sandal- wood  is  the  pro- 
duce of  the  Pteivcarpus  Santalinua.  It  is  to  be  met  with  in  most 
forests  in  India.  The  timber  is  valued  for  its  solidity.  The  inner 
wood  of  the  larger  specimens  is  of  a  deep-red  colour,  very  hard  and 
durable.  It  yields  a  dye  which  the  Brahmins  use  after  bathing  for 
marking  their  foreheads.  They  procure  it  by  merely  rubbing  the 
wood  on  a  wet  stone.  The  seeds,  which  are  of  a  shining  scarlet 
colour  with  a  circular  streak  in  their  centre,  are  used  as  weights  by 
the  jewellers,  each  of  them  weighing  four  graina  The  natives  in 
Travancore  assert  that  they  are  poisonous  if  taken  internally,  espe- 
cially when  in  a  powdered  state.  A  cement  is  made  by  beating  them 
up  with  borax  and  water. — Eoxb.     Aimlie, 

(22)  Adhatoda  TrananebarienBifl  {Nees),    N.  0.  Aoanthacejc. 

Tavashd-moorangie,  Poonakoo-poondoo,  Tam.    Pindi-konda,  Tel. 

Description. — Fruticulose,  hoary-pubescent ;  leaves  small, 
roundish;  bracts  orbiculate,  retuse,  bracteoles  equalling  the 
calyx,  linear ;  flowers  axillary,  solitary,  ascending  on  a  terminal 
spike,  yellowish,  purple-dotted.  FL  Feb. — March. — Dec  Prod, 
XL  399. — Gendarussa  Tranquebariensis,  Nees  ap.  Wall.  PL  As. 


ADHATODA — ^GLE.  17 

Ear.  iii.  105. — Justicia  Tranquebariensis,  Linn, — J.  parvifolia, 
Lam. — Wight  Icon.  t.  462. Eastern  coastg  of  Peninsula. 

Medical  Usbs. — ^The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  reckoned  cooling  and 
aperient,  and  is  given  to  children  in  small-pox.  The  bruised  leaves 
are  applied  to  blows  and  other  external  injuries. — Aiiialie. 

(23)  Adhatoda  Vasica  {Neea).    Do. 

Malabar  nut,  Eno.    Adalsa,  Anisa,  Adarsa,  Hind,  and  DuK.    Adatodai,  Tah. 
Adasaram,  Tel.    Atalotakam,  Mal.    Arosa,  Bbnq. 

Description. — Shrub,  8-10  feet;  leaves  opposite,  lanceolate ; 
corolla monopetalous,irregular;  stem  much  branched;  flowers  on 
short  spikes,  terminal;  flower  whitish,  spotted,  sulphur-coloured 
at  the  throat,  and  at  the  limb  with  dark  purple  lines.  Fl.  Feb. 
— April — Justicia  Adhatoda,  Linn. — Roxb.  FL  Ind.  i.  126. 
Peninsula    Bengal    Nepaul. 

Medical  Uses. — The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  given  in  a  dose  of  two 
drams  with  one  dram  of  the  juice  of  &esh  ginger  as  an  expectorant 
in  coughs,  asthma,  and  ague.  They  are  bitterish  and  subaromatic, 
and  are  administered  in  illusion  and  electuary. — (Joum.  Agri.  Hart. 
Soc.  of  India,  x.  28.'  Ainalie).  The  leaves,  flowers,  and  root,  especially 
the  flowers,  are  considered  antispasmodic,  and  are  given  in  cases  of 
asthma  and  intermittent  fever.  They  have  also  been  successfully 
employed  in  chronic  bronchitis,  and  other  pulmonary  and  catarrhal 
aflections  when  not  attended  with  fever. — (Pharm.  of  India.  Ind. 
Annals  of  Med.  Science,  x.  156.)  The  leaves  are  given  to  cattle 
as  medicine,  and  to  man  for  rheumatism.  The  fresh  flowers  are 
bound  over  the  eyes  in  cases  of  ophthalmia — (Stewarfs  Punj.  Plants.) 
The  leaves  are  given  in  conjunction  with  other  remedies  by  the 
native  doctors  internally  in  decoction,  as  anthelmintic. — Ainslie. 
Roxh. 

(24)  iBgle  marmelos  {Corr.)    N.  0.  AuRANxiACEiE. 

Bad  or  Bel  tree,  Eno.    Bel,  Siri-phul,  Hind.    Vilva,  Tam.    Maredoo,  Bllva- 
pandu,  Tel.    Knvalam,  Mal.    Bel,  Shri-phul,  Beno. 

Description. — Tree,  middling  size,  armed  with  sharp  spines; 
leaves  pinnate ;  leaflets  oblong  or  broad-lanceolate,  crenulated, 
unequal,  middle  one  petiolate,  lateral  ones  almost  sessile; 
petals  4-5,  spreading;  stamens  distinct;  style  short,  thick; 
flowers  in  panicles,  axillary,  on  long  pedicels,  large,  greenish 
white,  fragrant ;  berry  with  a  hard  rind,  smooth,  many-celled, 
many-seeded;  seeds  covered  with  a  transparent  glutinous 
matter.    Fl.  May.— TT.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  9&.—Roxh.  Fl.  Ind.  ii. 

2 


18  iESCHYNOMENE. 

579.     Cor,  ii.  143. — Cratoeva  marmelos,  Linn.-^Wiglvt  Icon, 
t  16. — Eheede,  iiL  t.  37. Peninsula.    Bengal 

Medioal  Ubbs. — ^The  fruit  of  this  tree  is  somewhat  like  an  oiange. 
The  cells  contain,  besides  the  seeds,  a  large  quantity  of  tenacious 
transparent  gluten,  which  becomes  hard  on  drying,  but  continues 
transparent.  The  firuit  is  nutritious,  and  occasionally  employed  as 
an  alterative.  It  is  very  palatable;  and  its  aperient  qualities  in 
the  removal  of  habitual  costiveness  have  been  well  ascertained.  The 
root,  bark,  and  leaves  are  reckoned  refrigerant  in  Malabar.  The  bark 
of  the  root  especially  is  given  in  compound  decoctions  in  intermittent 
fevers,  and  the  leaves  made  into  poultices  in  ophthalmia.  When 
dried  before  it  is  ripe  the  fruit  is  used  in  decoction  in  diarrhoea  and 
dysentery ;  and  when  ripe  and  mixed  with  juice  of  tamarinds,  forms 
an  agreeable  drink.  A  water  distilled  £rom  the  flowers  is  reputed 
to  be  alezipharmic  A  decoction  of  the  bark  of  the  tree  is  given  in 
palpitation  of  the  heart,  and  of  the  leaves  in  asthma. — (Roxb.  Aintiie, 
Rheede.)  According  to  Br  Green,  a  sherbet  of  the  ripe  fruit  taken 
every  morning  proves  serviceable  in  moderate  cases  of  dyspepsia. 
He  further  adds  that  the  unripe  fruit  baked  for  six  hours  is  a 
powerful  astringent — (Jnd,  Ann,  Med,  Se.,  ii.  224.)  The  fullest 
accounts  of  the  properties  and  uses  of  the  Bael  are  given  in  the  papers 
by  Grant  and  Cleghom  in  '  Indian  Annals  of  Med.  Science,'  ii.  222- 
234. 

EcoNOHio  Uses. — The  mucus  of  the  seeds  is  used  as  an  excellent 
addition  to  mortar,  especially  in  the  construction  of  wells.  A 
yellow  dye  is  procured  from  the  astringent  rind  of  the  fruit — Boxb, 

(25)  JEschynomene  aspera  (Linn,)    N.  0.  Lbouminosa. 

Sbola,  Tola,  Hind.    Phool-solay  Benq.    Attekudass,  Mal.    Attoonette,  Tam. 

Description. — ^Perennial, floating, erect,  sometimes  branched; 
leaves  unequally  pinnated ;  leaflets  numerous,  linear,  obtuse ; 
racemes  axillary,  few-flowered;  calyx  5-cleft,  2-lipped,  bibrac- 
teolate ;  peduncles  and  pedicels  rough  with  hairs ;  legumes 
4-7  jointed,  on  long  stalks,  with  prickly  tubercles  on  the  middle 
of  each  joint,  margins  striated,  crenulated ;  flowers  brownish 
orange.  Fl,  June — ^Aug. — W.  Jk  A,  Prod,  i.  219. — Wight  Icon, 

t,  299. — Hedysarum  lagenarium,  Eoxb,  Fl.  Ind.  iiL  365. 

Peninsula.    Bengal     In  tanks  and  lakes. 

Economic  Uses.  — ^The  pith  is  much  used  for  the  manufacture  of 
hats,  bottle-cases,  and  similar  articles,  it  being  a  bad  conductor  of 
heat.  It  is  cut  from  the  thick  stems  and  made  up  into  artificial 
flowers,  models  of  temples,  and  fishing  -  floats.  The  plants  are 
gathered  for  this  purpose  in  April  and  May,  being  abundant  in  the 


AGATHOTES.  10 

marsbes  in  Bengal,  and  the  borders  of  jbeels  and  lakes  between  Cal- 
cutta and  Hurdwar. — Eoxb. 

(26)  Agathotes  cUrayta  (Don).    K.  0.  Gentianacb^. 

Chirajit  Qentian,  ENa    Sbayraet,  Tam.    Chiraeta,  DuK.  and  Hun).    Sheelas- 
settoo,  Tel.    Eiriyatha,  Mal. 

Description. — ^Annual,  3  feet ;  steins  single,  round,  jointed ; 
branches  decussated,  occasionally  angulai*  at  the  extremities ; 
leaves  opposite,  amplexicaul,  lanceolate,  very  acute,  entire,  3-5 
nerved;  flowers  numerous,  stalked,  the  whole  upper  part  of 
the  plant  forming  an  oblong  decussated  panicle ;  calyx  4-cleft ; 
petals  spreading,  4-parted,  divisions  equal  to  those  of  the 
calyx;  capsules  1-celled,  2-valved,  slightly  opening  at  the 
apex ;  seeds  numerous ;  flowers  yellow. — Soxib.  Fl,  Ind,  ii  71. 
^Nepaul.    KumaoiL    Northern  India. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  is  one  of  the  most  esteemed  of  Indian 
medicinal  plants,  being  especially  valuable  as  a  tonic  and  febrifbge. 
The  whole  plant  is  pulled  up  at  the  time  the  flowers  begin  to  decay, 
and  is  thus  dried  for  use.  Its  febrifugal  properties  are  in  high  esti- 
mation with  European  practitioners  in  India,  who  use  it  instead  of 
Cinchona  when  the  latter  is  not  to  be  procured ;  and  in  most  cases 
wherein  Gentian  is  prescribed,  this  is  recommended  as  a  good  sub- 
stitute. The  root  is  the  bitterest  part  of  the  plant,  and  the  bitter 
principle  is  easily  imparted  to  water  or  alcohol.  According  to 
Battiey's  analysis  of  its  chemical  properties,  ''  it  contains  a  free  acid, 
a  bitter  resinous  extractive  with  much  gum,  and  chlorates,  with  sul- 
phates of  potass  and  lime.  'No  alkaloid  has  been  detected  in  it;, 
what  is  therefore  sold  as  a  sulphate  of  chiraytine  is  well  known  to 
be  only  the  disulphate  of  quinia."  It  is  best  recommended  in  pre- 
paration as  an  infusion  or  watery  extract,  or  a  tincture,  but  not  in 
decoction ;  even  infusion  made  with  warm  water  is  denounced  as 
producing  violent  headache.  To  form  a  cold  infusion,  a  pint  of 
water  should  not  stand  more  than  twenty  minutes  on  half  an  ounce 
of  the  bruised  plant.  Chirayta  possesses  the  general  properties  oi 
bitter  tonics,  but  has  at  the  same  time  some  peculiar  to  itself  which 
fit  it  well  for  certain  forms  and  complications  of  disease.  Unlike 
most  other  tonics,  it  does  not  constipate  the  bowels,  but  teads  to 
produce  a  regular  action  of  the  alimentary  canal,  even  in  those  sub- 
ject to  habitual  constipation.  During  its  use  the  bile  becomes  more 
abundant  and  healthy  in  character.  The  tendency  to  excess  of 
acidity  in  the  stomach,  with  disengagement  of  flatus,  is  much  re- 
strained by  its  use.  These  qualities  fit  it  in  a  most  peculiar  degree 
for  the  kind  of  indigestion  which  occurs  in  gouty  persons.  It  may, 
when  necessary,  be  associated  with  alkaline  preparations  or  with 


20  AGATl. 

acids ;  the  latter  are  generally  preferable.     The  same  remark  applies 
to  its  employment  in  the  treatment  of  scrofula.   As  a  remedy  against 
the  languor  and  debility  which  affect  many  persons  in  summer  and 
autumn,  nothing  is  equial  to  the  cold  infusion  of  this  plant     It  may 
be  taken  twice  or  even  more  frequently  daily  for  a  considerable  time ; 
then  discontinued,  and  afterwards  resumed.     Children  take  it  more 
readily  than  most  other  bitters.     It  is  found  to  be  a  very  efficacious 
remedy  in  India  against  intermittents,  particularly  when  associated 
with  Ouilandina,  Bonduc,  or  Caranga  nuts.     The  debility  which  is 
apt  to  end  in  dropsy  is  often  speedily  removed  by  infusion  of  Chi- 
rayta ;  to  which  is  added  the  tincture  formed  of  it  with  orange-peel 
and  cardamoms.     Its  efficacy  in  worm-cases  has  procured  for  it  the 
name  of  worm-seed  plant.    The  extract  is  given  with  great  benefit 
in  some  forms  of  diarrhosa  and  dysentery,  particularly  if  combined 
with  Ipecacuan,  the  emetic  tendency  of  which  it  very  markedly  con- 
trols.    In  Dr  Fleming's  Kotes  on  'Indian  Medicinal  Plants/  as 
quoted  by  Wallich,  it  is  stated,  '*  The  dried  herb  is  to  be  met  with 
in  every  bazaar  of  Kindoostan,  being  a  medicine  in  the  highest  re- 
pute with  both  the  Hindu  and  European  practitioners.     It  possesses 
aU  the  stomachic,  tonic,  febrifuge,  and  antarthritic  virtues  which  are 
ascribed  to  the  Gentiana  lutea,  and  in  a  greater  degree  than  they 
are  generally  found  in  that  root  in  the  state  in  which  it  comes  to  us 
from  Europe.    It  may  therefore  on  every  occasion  be  advantageously 
substituted  for  it.     The  efficacy  of  the  Chirayta,  when  combined 
with  the  Caranga  nut,  in  curing  intermittents,  has  been  already  men- 
tioned.    For  restoring  the  tone  and  activity  of  the  moving  fibre  in 
general  debility,  and  in  that  kind  of  cachexy  which  is  liable  to  ter- 
minate in  dropsy,  the  Chirayta  will  be  found  one  of  the  most  useful 
and  effectual  remedies  which  we  can  employ.   The  parts  of  the  plant 
that  are  used  in  medicine  are  the  dried  stalks  with  pieces  of  root 
Attached.     A  decoction  of  these,  or,  which  is  better,  an  infusion  of 
them  in  hot  water,  is  the  form  usually  administered." — Don  in  Lm, 
and  Edin.  Phil  Mag.     Wdllich,  PlanUe  As.  Rarim: 

(27)  A|;ati  grandiflora  {Desv.)    N.  0.  Lbguminosii!. 

Agathee,  Tam.    Anisay,  Tel.    Agati.  Mal.    Buko,  Beno. 

Desckiption. — Tree,  30-35  feet ;  leaves  abruptly  pinnated, 
leaflets  numerous ;  calyx  campanulate,  slightly  2-lipped ;  co- 
rolla papilionaceous,  vexillum  oval,  oblong,  keel  large,  falcate, 
with  petals  free  at  the  base  and  apex ;  racemes  axillary,  2-4 
flowered ;  flowers  large,  scarlet  or  white ;  legumes  pendulous, 
very  long,  many-seeded,  contracted  between  the  seeds.  Fl.  March 
— April. — W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  215. — -^chynomene  coccinea, 
Linn.'^JE.  grandiflora,  Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  331.  Rheede,  i.  t  51. 
^Travancore  and  elsewhere  in  the  Peninsula  in  gardens. 


AGAVE.  21 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  bark  is  very  bitter,  and  is  used  as  a  tonic, 
and  an  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  a  useful  cathartic.  The  natives  put 
the  juice  of  the  leaves  in  the  nostrils  in  bad  fevers  on  the  day  of  the 
paroxysm.  The  juice  of  the  flowers  is  squeezed  into  the  eyes  for 
expelling  dimness  of  vision. — Lindley.     Pharm,  of  India, 

(28)  Agave  Americana  (Linn,)   N.  0.  Amabyllidacea. 

Bokas-pattah.  H&M-fienmr,  Bari-kanvar,  Janffli-kanvar^  Hind.  Rakkas-pattah^ 
DuK.  Anaik-katrazhai,  Tait.  Rakashi-mattalu,  Tel.  Panani-katrazha,  Mel. 
Jungli-ananash,  Bilatipat,  Beho. 

Description. — Stem  very  thick,  scaly  at  the  bases  of  the 
leaves,  very  fibrous  ;  scape  erect,  tapering,  thick ;  scales  alter- 
nate, sublanceolate,  half  stem  -  clasping,  lower  ones  longer, 
approximated,  upper  ones  more  remote  ;  radical  leaves  incum- 
bent by  turns,  lanceolate,  channelled,  smooth,  dentately  spin- 
ous at  the  edge,  glaucous,  mucronate,  stiff,  6  feet  and  more, 
juicy,  outer  ones  reflexed,  intermediate  ones  spreading,  inner 
ones  obvolute  into  a  straight  very  acute  cone ;  leaf-spines 
straight,  chestnut,  marginal  ones  incurved  of  the  same  colour ; 
panicles  very  large,  nodding,  composite ;  peduncles  recurved, 
bent  inwards,  decompound,  many-flowered ;  flowers  peduncled, 
greenish-yellow. — Kunth  Enum,  pi.  v.  819. — Linn,  Spec,  461. 

— Andr.  Repos,  t,  438. — Wight  Icon,  t,  2024. Naturalised 

in  India. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  roots  are  diuretic  and  anti-syphilitic,  and 
are  brought  to  Europe  mixed  with  sarsaparilla  (Lindley).  Diuretic 
and  alterative  properties  are  assigned  to  the  roots  by  the  Mexicans. 
A  thin  slice  of  the  large  fleshy  leaves  makes  a  good  poultice. — 
Pharm.  of  India. 

Economic  Uses. — The  common  American  Aloe,  although  not  in- 
digenous, is  now  common  in  every  part  of  India.  It  is  a  native  of 
America  within  the  tropics  from  the  plains  to  elevations  of  10,000 
feet,  and  is  now  naturalised  in  the  South  of  Europe.  It  is  much 
valued  as  a  hedge  plant,  but  its  chief  importance  arises  &om  the  ex- 
cellent fibres  which  it  yields.  Not  only  are  these  procured  from  the 
leaves,  but  a  ligneous  fibre  is  contained  in  the  root,  familiarly  known 
as  the  Pita  thread.  This  is  much  used  in  the  Madras  Presidency. 
It  is  manufactured  at  a  very  sHght  expense,  the  mode  of  preparation 
being  usuedly  to  cut  the  leaves  and  throw  them  into  ponds  for  three 
or  more  days,  when  they  are  taken  out,  macerated  and  scraped  with 
a  bluntish  instrument.  It  has  been  found  that  the  leaf  fibres  are 
liable  to  rot  owing  to  a  milky  viscid  juice  contained  in  them.  This 
defect  has,  however,  been  considerably  obviated  by  very  hard  crush- 
ing, or  pressure  between  heavy  cylinders,  which,  by  getting  rid  of 


22  AGAVE. 

all  the  moisture,  renders  them  more  pliable  for  weaving  and  other 
purposes.  In  Calcutta,  the  fibres  being  submitted  to  experiments, 
were  found  equal  to  the  best  Kussian  hemp.  They  are  much  used 
for  lashing  bales  of  calico.  As  log-lines  for  ships  they  are  found  to 
be  very  durable,  and  far  superior  to  ropes  of  hemp.  In  several  ex- 
periments that  have  been  made,  especially  by  Drs  Eoyle  and  Wight, 
Aloe-fibre  rope  has  been  found  to  be  more  powerful  than  either  coir, 
country  hemp,  or  j ate.  A  bundle  of  the  Agave  fibre  bore  270  lb., 
that  of  Eussian  hemp  only  160  lb.  Dr  Wight  found  some  cord  of 
it  bore  362  lb.  In  Tinnevelly  it  sells  from  20  to  40  rupees  the  candy 
of  500  lb.,  and  at  Madras  for  7  rupees  a  maund.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  these  Aloe  fibres  deserve  more  particular  notice.  They 
are  admirably  suited  for  cordage,  mats,  ropes,  &c.,  and  the  tow 
might  be  advantageously  used  in  the  manufiftcture  of  paper.  In 
Mexico  they  prepare  a  fermented  liquor  from  the  stem  by  incision, 
called  Pulque,  and  from  this  they  distil  an  ardent  spirit  In  that 
country,  too,  the  dried  flowering-stems  are  used  as  impenetrable 
thatch.  An  extract  of  the  leaves  is  used  to  make  a  lather,  like  soap, 
and  the  leaves,  split  longitudinally,  are  employed  to  sharpen  razors  on, 
performing  the  duties  of  a  strop  owing  to  the  particles  of  silica  they 
contain. — {Boyl^e  Fibrous  Plants.  Jury  Rep,  Mad.  Exhih.  Ldndley. ) 
An  important  discovery  has  recently  been  made,  that  plaster  impreg- 
nated with  the  juice  and  pulp  of  the  Aloe  leaves  will  save  walls  from 
being  attacked  by  white  ants.  The  experiment  was  made  in  jails, 
and  other  buildings  where  white  ants  abounded,  and  those  parts 
of  the  buildings  where  the  Aloe  juice  was  mixed  with  the  plaster  were 
free  £rom  the  depredations  of  those  destructive  insects. — Corresp.  in 
Agri.  Hart.  Soc.  Jour.,  Jime  1864. 


(29)  Agave  vlvipara  (Linn.)    Do. 

Bastard  Aloe,  Enq.    Eathalai,  Tam.    Peetha  kalabantha»  Tel. 

DESCRiFnoN. — Stemless ;  leaves  ovate-oblong,  acute,  stiff, 
thick,  recurved,  spreading,  pale  green,  hoary,  prickly  at  the 
edges ;  prickles  collected,  veiy  small,  orange  brown ;  scape 
branched,  bulbiferous. — Linn.  Spec.  461. — Kunth  Enum.  pL 
v.  822.— Ait.  Kew,  i.  471. North-West  Provinces. 

EooNOMio  UsBS. — ^A  good  flbre,  which  is  long  in.  the  staple,  is 
procured  &om  the  leaves.  The  latter  are  allowed  to  rot  in  water  for 
twenty  days,  and  then  beat  on  a  plank,  and  again  thoroughly  washed. 
A  strong  and  useful  cordage  is  made  from  them,  as  well  as  mats  and 
ropes.  In  South  Arcot  these  fibres  sell  at  30  rupees  the  candy. 
Generally  they  And  a  ready  sale  in  this  country,  and  pay  the  expense 
of  manufacture. — Jury  Rep.  M.  E. 


AILANTHUS.  23 

(30)  Ailanthus  ezcelsa  (Boxb.)     K.  O.  Xanthoxtlagejs. 

Peroomamm,  Tam.    PeramAnmiy  Mal.    Peddaxnanoo,  Tel. 

Descbiption. — Large  tree ;  leaves  abruptly  pinnated,  tomen- 
tose  when  young,  afterwards  glabrous;  leaflets  10-14  pair, 
coarsely  toothed  at  the  base ;  petals  5,  almost  glabrous  in  the 
inside ;  filaments  glabrous,  shorter  than  the  anthers ;  calyx  5- 
clefl ;  samarse  linear-oblong,  3-5,  one-seeded  ;  panicles  termi- 
nal ;  flowers  fascicled,  green.    FL  Aug. — W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  150. 

— Roxb.  FL  Ind,  ii.  454,     Cor.  i.  t.  23. Northern  Circars. 

Coimbatora 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  aromatic  bark  is  used  by  the  natives  in  dys- 
pepsia. Dr  Wight  mentions  that  in  the  Gircais  the  bark  is  regarded 
as  a  powerful  febrifuge,  and  as  a  tonic  in  cases  of  debility. — Aindie. 
Wight  111.  I. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^The  wood  is  light  and  not  durable,  but  is  used 
for  catamaians  and  made  into  sword-handles  and  sheaths  for  spears 
in  Western  India. — Roxb. 


(31)  AilanthuB  Malabarica  {Dec.)    Do. 

Peroomamm,  Mal.    Peromanun,  Tel. 

Description. — Tree,  leaves  abruptly  pinnated ;  leaflets  quite 
entire,  ovate^lanceolate,  unequal-sided,  oblique  at  the  base; 
panicles  large,  terminal ;  peduncles  and  calyx  pubescent ; 
petals  glabrous,  obovate,  much  longer  than  the  calyx ;  samara3 
oval,  oblong,  obtuse  at  both  ends. — Wight  Icon.  t.  1604. — W.  & 
A.  Prod,  i  150. — Eheede,  vi.  t.  15. Travancore.    Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  bark  has  a  pleasant  and  slightly  bitter 
taste,  and  is  given  in  cases  of  dyspepsia,  and  moreover  considered  a 
valuable  tonic  and  febrifuge.  It  yields  a  fragrant  resinous  juice 
known  as  MiUte&-palf  which  was  fiist  noticed  by  Buchanan,  who 
found  the  tree  in  the  Annamullay  forests.  The  resin  reduced  to 
powder  mixed  with  milk  and  strained  is  given  in  small  doses  in 
dysentery,  and  also  in  bronchitis,  and  reputed  to  be  an  excellent 
remedy,  owing  chiefly  to  the  balsamic  properties  of  the  resin.  The 
fruit  triturated  with  mango  and  mixed  with  rice  is  reckoned  useftd 
in  cases  of  ophthalmia.  Wight  states  that  the.  bark  is  rough  and 
very  thick,  studded  with  bright  garnet-looking  grains  appaientiy  of  a 
resinous  nature,  which  do  not  dissolve  either  in  spirit  or  water. 
— {Ainalie,  Wight.  Qihaon.)  Mr  Broughton,  Quinologist  to  Gov- 
ernment, reported  upon  the  resin  as  follows :  '^  This  resin,  as  com- 


24  ALANGIUM ALBIZZIA. 

monly  met  with,  is  dark  brown  or  grey  in  colour,  is  plastic,  opaque, 
and  has  an  agreeable  smell.  It  contains  much  impurity.  The  pure 
resin  is  very  soft,  having  the  consistence  of  thick  treacle  ;  and  this 
is  doubtless  the  reason  why  it  is  always  mixed  with  fragments  of 
wood  and  earth,  which  make  it  more  easy  to  handle.  The  sample 
which  I  examined  contained  but  77  per  cent  of  resin,  the  remainder 
being  adulterations.  Alcohol  readily  dissolves  the  resin,  and  on 
evaporation  leaves  it  as  a  very  viscous,  transparent,  light-brown, 
semi-liquid,  which  does  not  solidify  by  many  days'  exposure  to  a 
steam  heat ;  when  burnt  it  gives  out  a  fragrance,  and  hence  it  is 
sometimes  used  for  incense.  Its  perfume  is,  however,  inferior  to 
that  produced  by  many  other  resins  employed  in  the  concoction  of 
the  incense  employed  in  Christian  and  heathen  worship.  The  pecu- 
liar consistency  of  the  resin  would  enable  it  to  substitute  Venice 
turpentine  for  many  purposes,  though  its  price  (6  rupees  for  25  lb. 
in  the  crude  state)  forbids  an  extensive  employment." 


(32)  Alanginm  decapetalnm  (Lam.)    K  0.  Alangiageje. 

Sa^e-leaved  Alangium,  Eng.    Alingie-maruni,  Tail     Angolaxn,  Mal.     Akola^ 
Akarkanta,  Hu(D.    Bagh-ankra,  Binq. 

Description. — Tree,  leaves  alternate,  narrow-oblong ;  petals 
6-10 ;  branches  occasionally  spinescent ;  stamens  twice  the 
number  of  the  petals ;  filaments  hairy  at  the  base ;  flowers 
solitary  or  aggregate  in  the  axils  of  the  leaves,  whitish  yellow, 
fragrant ;  drupe  tomentose,  1-seeded.  Fl,  April  and  May. — 
W,  &  A.  Prod.  i.  Z25,—Eheede,  iv.  t  17,— Wight  Icon,  t  194. 

— ^A.  tomentosum,  Dec. — A.    hexapetalum,   Boxb. ^Eocky 

places  in  Malabar.     Coromandel.    Assam. 

Medical  Uses. — The  juice  of  the  root  is  reckoned  anthelmintic 
and  purgative.  It  is  also  employed  in  dropsical  cases ;  and,  pulver- 
ised, is  a  reputed  antidote  in  snake-bitea — Jtoxb. 

Economic  Uses. — The  timber  is  very  beautiful  and  strong,  accord- 
ing to  Dr  Wight  sustaining  a  weight  of  310  lb.     The  wood  of  the 
A.  hexapetalum  is  also  considered  valuable.      This  latter  is  called    .^^ 
Kara-angolam  in  Malayalum,  and   Wooduga  in  Telugu.      It  is  a 
native  of  Bengal  and  Malabar. — Wight 

(33)  Albizzia  amara  {Willd.)    K  O.  LEGUMiNoSiE. 

Nalla-eenga,  Nalla-eegoo,  Narlinjie,  Tel.    Wooiya,  Tam. 

Description. — Tree, unarmed;  branches  terete;  young  shoots, 
petioles,  and  peduncles,  and  under  side  of  the  leaflets  clothed 
with  yellowish  tomentum ;  leaves  bipinnate ;  pinnae  8-10  pair, 


ALBIZZIA.  25 

with  a  gland  on  the  petiole  and  between  the  last  pair ;  leaflets 
20-30  pair ;  stipules  lanceolate ;  peduncles  solitary  or  aggre- 
gat-ed,  long  and  filiform  in  the  axils  of  the  upper  leaves,  and 
racemose  from  the  abortion  of  the  leaves ;  flowers  small  in 
globular  heads ;  corolla  5-cleft ;  stamens  long,  numerous,  mon- 
adelphous;  legumes  flat,  thin,  broadly  linear,  3-6  seeded. — 
Bedd,  Flor.  Sylv.  t  61. — Acacia  amara,  WUld. — W.  &  A.  Prod. 

i.  274 — ^Mimosa  amara,  Roxh, Mysore.    Bombay.    Madras 

Presidency. 

Economic  Uses. — A  tolerably  large  tree,  with  a  maximmn  height 
of  about  30  feet.  The  wood  is  dark  brown,  mottled,  and  very  hand- 
some, strong,  fibrous,  stiff,  close-grained,  hard,  and  durable,  superior 
to  Sal  and  Teak  in  transverse  strength  and  cohesive  power.  It  is 
much  used  by  the  natives  for  building  purposes,  and  in  the  construc- 
tion of  carts,  ploughs,  and  beams.  It  also  makes  excellent  fuel,  and 
for  this  purpose  is  extensively  used  for  the  railways  in  Southern  In- 
dia.    The  natives  use  the  leaves  for  washing  the  hair. — Beddome, 

(34)  Albizzia  Lebbek  {Benth.)    Do. 

Sirissa  tree,  Enq.     Stris,  Hiio).    Eattavagal,  Tam.    Dirisana,  Tel.    Veln-v&ke, 
Mel.    Siris-gachh,  Beng. 

Description. — Tree,  30-40  feet,  unarmed ;  young  branches 
flexuose ;  leaves  bipinnated ;  pinnse  1-4  pair ;  leaflets  4-9  pair, 
obtuse,  oval,  glabrous,  unequal ;  peduncles  axillary,  each  with 
a  globular  head  of  flowers  on  short  pedicels,  1-4  together; 
calyx  long,  tubular ;  petals  5,  united  to  beyond  the  calyx ; 
stamens  very  long,  monadelphous ;  legumes  flat  and  thin, 
remotely  8-10  seeded ;  flowers  small,  white,  fragrant.  FL 
Aug. — Sept. — ^Acacia  speciosa  WUld, — W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  275. — 
M.  Sirissa,  Boxb,  FL  Ind.  ii.  554. Travancore.    Coromandel. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  seeds  are  used  by  the  natives  in  the  treat- 
ment of  piles,  and  as  an  astringent  in  diarrhoea.  The  flowers  are 
employed  in  the  cure  of  boils,  eruptions,  and  swellings,  and  act  as 
antidotes  to  poisons.  The  leaves  are  useful  in  ophthalmia,  and  the 
powdered  bark  in  ulcers,  and  especially  in  snake-wounds.  The  oil 
extracted  from  the  seeds  is  given  in  cases  of  white  leprosy. — PowdVs 
Punj,  Prod, 

Economic  Uses. — A  considerable  quantity  of  gum  is  yielded  by 
this  tree,  valuable  for  many  ordinary  purposes.  The  timber  is  very 
durable,  hard,  and  close-grained,  and  is  employed  for  furnitine.  It 
is  of  a  light  colour,  and  is  well  adapted  for  picture-frames  and 
similar  work.      In  Northern  India  it  is  considered  unlucky  to 


26  ALBIZZIA. 

employ  the  timber  in  houBe-boilding. — (Roxh.  Rep.  Mad,  Exhih.) 
It  is  a  frequent  tree  by  roadsides,  and  has  a  laige  and  umbrageous 
head.  The  tree  is  pollarded,  and  the  cuttings  used  as  firewood.  It 
is  now  extensively  planted  on  the  Ganges  CanaL  It  is  of  rapid 
growth,  and  flourishes  in  almost  any  soil.  The  leayes  afford  good 
fodder  for  cattle. — Bomb,  Govt  Rep,,  1863. 

(35)  Albiziiaodorati88ima(Prt7^.)    Do. 

Earinthakara,  Mal.    Eurroo-vaga,  Tam.    Shindnga,  Tel. 

Description. — Tree,  80-40  feet,  unarmed ;  leaves  bipinnated; 
piiiii8e3-4pair;  leafletslO-40  pair,narrow,oval,oblique,glabrous, 
pale  on  the  under  side ;  panicles  terminal  and  axillary,  the  ulti- 
mate divisions  cymose,  or  somewhat  umbellate ;  heads  of  flowers 
small,  globose;  stamens  monadelphous ;  legume  flat,  thin,  thick- 
margined,  about  10-seeded ;  flowers  pale  yellow,  very  fragrant. 
FL  May — June. — Acacia  odoratissima,  Willd, —  W.  Jk  A.  Prod. 
i.   275. — ^A.   lomatocarpa,  Dec. — Mimosa  odoratissima,  Roab. 

FL  Ind,  ii.  546.     Cor.  ii.  t  120. — Rheede,  vi  t  5. ^Malabar 

and  CoromandeL     Common  everyiyhere. 

Economic  Uses. — The  timber  of  this  large  and  handsome  tree  is 
particularly  hard  and  strong,  and  is  well  suited  for  naves  and  fellies 
of  wheels.  The  tree  is  very  abundant,  and  grows  in  almost  any 
solL  It  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  jungle  timbers. — (Roxh.  Jury 
Rep,  Mad.  Exhih.)  It  attains  a  large  size  at  Vellore,  Arcot,  and  in 
the  Camatic  generally,  and  in  the  ghauts  running  towards  SaTem. 
The  tree  grows  rapidly,  and  the  wood  is  hard,  heavy,  and  dark- 
coloured.  It  is  excellent  for  all  purposes  requiring  strength  and 
durability,  and  should  be  planted  where  required  to  remain. — Beefs 
Rep.  to  Bomb.  Govt.,  1863. 

(36)  Albizzia  stipolata  {Dec.)    Do. 

Eonda-chiragu,  Tel.    Amiooki,  Beno. 

Description. — ^Tree,  40-50  feet,  unarmed;  leaves  bipinnated ; 
young  shoots  irregularly  angled ;  pinnae  6-20  pair ;  petioles 
tomentose;  leaflets  numerous,  semi-hastate,  sides  very  un- 
equal; peduncles  aggregated;  panicles  terminal  and  in  the 
upper  axils ;  heads  of  flowers  globose ;  corolla  tubular,  5-cleft ; 
stamens  very  long,  monadelphous  at  the  base  ;  legumes  thin, 
flat,  glabrous  ;  seeds  6-12 ;  flowers  white  and  rose-coloured. 
FL  April — June. — Acacia  stipulata,  Dec. — W.  &  A.  Prod.  i. 

274. — M.  stipulacea,  Roxh.  FL  Ind.  ii.  649. Travancore. 

Courtallum.    Bengal. 


ALEURITES — ALOE.  27 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  is  one  of  the  largest  trees  of  the  genus. 
The  timber  is  close-grained  and  strong,  rendering  it  valuable  for 
furniture  and  other  purposes.  It  is  a  native  of  the  mountains  north 
of  Bengal,  but  it  is  to  be  met  with  in  most  parts  of  the  Peninsula. 
— Roacb. 

(37)  Alenrites  triloba  {Ford.)    N.  0.  EuPHORsucEiE. 

Belgaum  walnut,  Eno.    ' Jimgli-akhioty  Duk.    Natta*akrotu,  Tam.    Natn-akrota, 
Tkl.    Bangla-akrot,  Beno. 

Descrifhon. — Large  tree ;  leaves  petioled,  very  large,  cor- 
date, with  entire  or  scalloped  margins,  3-5  lobed;  panicles 
terminal ;  flowers  small,  white ;  fruit  roundish,  somewhat  com- 
pressed,  pointed,  very  hard,   2-celled;    cells  1-seeded.      FL 

May. — J,  Ordh,  Roai>.  FL  Ind.  iii  629. Belgaum.   Travan- 

core.    Mysore.     Northern  Circars.     Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — An  oil  is  extracted  firom  the  kernel  of  the  nut, 
which  is  employed  medicinally  as  a  sure  and  mild  purgative,  ap- 
proximating nearer  in  its  effects  to  castor-oil.  It  has  neither  taste 
nor  smell,  nor  does  it  produce  nausea,  either  administered  pure  or  in 
emulsion.  It  has  been  pronounced  superior  to  linseed-oil,  especially 
for  purposes  connected  with  the  arts.  It  is  easily  extracted,  being 
separated  from  the  kernel  with  less  labour  and  simpler  machinery 
than  the  oil  from  the  Cocoa-nut,  which  requires  great  pressure. — 
Pharm,  of  India,     CfRorke,  Ann,  TJierap.y  117. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  is  a  large  tree,  the  newly-formed  parts  of 
which  are  covered  with  a  farinaceous  substance.  The  natives  are 
fond  of  the  nut,  which  is  palatable,  and  something  like  our  English 
Walnut.  In  the  Sandwich  Islands  they  are  employed  for  candles. 
A  number  of  them  strung  upon  a  stick  will  bum  for  hours,  giving 
a  clear  and  steady  light.  The  tree  grows  most  readily  &om  seed, 
and  might  be  extensively  cultivated.  The  cake  after  expression  of 
the  oil  is  a  good  food  for  cattle,  and  useful  as  manure.  According 
to  Simmonds,  "31^  gallons  of  the  nut  yield  10  gallons  of  oil,  which 
bears  a  good  price  in  the  home  market."  About  10,000  gallons  are 
yearly  produced  in  the  Sandwich  Islands.  In  Ceylon  it  is  manu- 
factured, and  there  known  as  the  "  kekuna  "  oil.  It  is  supposed  to 
be  a  good  substitute  for  rape-oiL — Ldndley,  Simmonds.  Comm. 
Prod.     Jury  Rep.  M.  E. 

(38)  Aloe  vulgaris  {Lam.)    K  O.  Liliacks. 

Barbadoes  Aloe,  Eno.    Eattalaj,  Tam. 

Description. — Stem  short;  leaves  fleshy,  stem-clasping, 
first  spreading,  then  ascending,  lanceolate,  glaucous-green,  flat, 
obovate,  convex  below,  armed  with  distant  reddish  spines 


28  ALOE. 

perpendicular  to  the  margin;  the  parenchyma  slightly  coloured 
brown,  and  very  distinct  from  the  tough  leathery  cuticle; 
spike  cylindrical-ovate ;  flowers  at  first  erect,  then  spreading, 
afterwards  pendulous,  yellow,  with  the  three  inner  segments  at 
the  apex  somewhat  orange,  not  longer  than  the  stamens. — 
Lam,  Enc,  i.  86.  Rheede,  xi.  t  3. — A.  Barbadensis,  Mill 
Common  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — The  above  species  of  Aloe,  which  is  properly  a 
native  of  Greece,  or,  as  some  say,  of  the  Cape  Colony,  has  long  been 
naturalised  in  both  Indies.     It  yields  what  is  known  as  the  Bar- 
badoes  Aloes.      This    substance  is  of  a  dark   or  reddish-brown 
colour,   and    has  a    most  unpleasant    odour.       In    quaHty   it  is 
far  inferior  to   the  real    Socotrine   Aloes   {A,  Socotrina).      As  a 
drug,  Aloes  is  reckoned  extremely  valuable,  and  its  medical  pro- 
perties are  very  numerous.     Although  aperient,  yet,  unlike  other 
cathartics,  the  effect  is  not  increased,  if  given  in  Isige  doses,  beyond 
a  certain  point.      To  persons  predisposed  to  apoplexy  it  is  more 
beneficial  than  most  other  purgatives.     The  compound  decoction  is 
a  valuable  emmenagogue,  particularly  when  combined  with  prepara- 
tions of  iron.     One  of  the  best  modes  of  covering  the  unpleasant 
taste  of  Aloes,  when  given  liquid,  is  in  the  compound  tincture  of 
lavender.      Aloes  are  produced  by  most  of  the  varieties  of  these 
plants,  but  Dr  O'Shaughnessy  remarks  that  the  quaHty  of  the  pro- 
duct is  apparently  more  dependent  on  soil,  climate,  and  preparation, 
than  on  any  specific  difference  in  the  plant  itself     A  great  deal 
depends  on  the  mode  of  preparation.     The  usual  mode  of  extracting 
the  substance  is  by  making  a  transverse  iucision  in  the  leaves,  or 
cutting  them  off  at  the  base,  and  scraping  off  the  jmce  as  it  flows  if 
done  in  the  former  way,  and  allowing  it  to  run  in  a  vessel  placed 
for  the  purpose  if  in  the  latter.     Pressure  is  made  occasionally  to 
assist  the  flow ;  but,  as  Dr  O'Shaughnessy  observes,  "  by  this  means 
large  quantities  of  the  mucilage  are  forced  out  and  mix  with  the 
proper  bitter  juice,  which  is  proportionately  deteriorated;"  for  it  must 
be  recollected  that  the  Aloe  contains  a  great  deal  of  mucilaginous 
matter,  abundant  towards  the  centre  of  the  thick  fleshy  leaves.     The 
Aloes  after  being  received  into  a  vessel  are  exposed  to  the  sun  or 
other  heat,  by  which  means  they  become  inspissated.     The  greater 
portion  of  Aloes  sent  to  England  is  from  the  Cape  Colony.     Of  late 
years  the  importation  of  the  true  Socotrina  Aloes  has  considerably 
decreased.     What  is  now  shipped  to  Europe  is  sent  usually  round 
by  Bombay ;  but  Simmonds  says,  "  Socotrine  Aloes,  although  long 
considered  the  best  kind,  is  now  below  Barbadoes  Aloes  in  commercial 
value."    The  several  kinds  of  Aloes  are  the  East  Indian  or  Hepatic 
Aloes,  so  called  from  its  liver  colour,  and  said  to  be  the  produce  of 
the  A,  Arahica  ;  and  the  Horse- Aloes,  which  is  only  used  in  veteri- 
nary medicine.     This  latter  product  is  said  to  be  obtained  by  boil- 


ALPINIA.  29 

ing  the  leaves  that  have  been  previously  used  for  producing  a  finer 
sampla  The  greater  part  of  Cape- Aloes  is  the  produce  of  A,  S^cata, 
which  is  of  a  yellowish  colour,  and  has  a  heavy  disagreeable  odour. 
— (Ainslie.  lAndl.  Bengal  Disp,  Comm,  Prod,  Mad,)  The  other 
species  yielding  Aloes  are  the  A.  Indica,  Eoyle  {A,  per/oUata,  Boxb.), 
inhabiting  dry  sandy  plains  in  the  North-Western  Provinces,  and 
the  A,  litoralis  (Koenig),  found  on  the  sea-coasts  of  the  Peninsula. 
A  good  kind  of  Aloes  is  procurable  from  the  latter.  The  natives 
attach  much  value  to  the  juice  of  the  leaves,  which  they  apply 
extemaUy  in  cases  of  ophthalmia,  and  especially  in  what  are  com- 
monly termed  country  sore-eyes.  The  mode  of  administering  it  is 
to  wash  the  pulp  of  the  leaves  in  cold  water  and  Tni-g  it  up  with  a 
little  burnt  alum.  In  this  state  it  is  appHed  to  the  eyes,  being 
previously  wrapped  in  a  piece  of  muslin  cloth.  An  ink  is  prepared 
by  the  Mahometans  from  the  juice  of  the  pulp. — (Ainslie,)  It 
appears  certain  that,  with  a  little  care.  Aloes  of  good  quality  might 
be  obtained  from  this  source  in  considerable  quantities,  at  a  cost 
far  less  than  that  of  the  imported  article.  The  £reshly-expressed 
juice  is  in  almost  universal  use  as  an  external  refrigerant  application 
to  all  external  or  local  inflammations. — Pharm,  of  India, 

(39)  Alpinla  galanga  (Swz,)    K  0.  Zingtberagel£. 

Bara-KuliDJan,  Hind,  and  Duk.    Pera-rattai,  Tah.    Pedda-dumpa-rashtrakam, 
Tkl.    Pera-ratt^  Mal. 

Description. — Perennial ;  stem  6-7  feet  when  in  flower, 
with  leafless  sheath  up  to  the  middle ;  leaves  short-stalked, 
lanceolate,  white,  and  somewhat  callous  on  the  margin,  smooth; 
panicles  terminal,  spreading,  dichotomous,  each  division  with 
from  2  to  6  pale -greenish,  fragrant  flowers ;  calyx  smooth, 
white,  1-toothed ;  exterior  limb  of  corolla  of  3  nearly  equal 
recurved  divisions ;  interior  one  unguiculate,  oval,  deeply 
2-lobed,  white  with  reddish  specks  ;  capsule  size  of  a  small 
cherry,  obovate,  smooth,  deep  orange-red,  3-ceIled;  seed  1, 
much  compressed,  deep  chestnut  colour,  a  little  wrinkled, 
arillate,  except  at  the  apex.     FL  April — May. — Boxb.  Fl,  Ind. 

i.  59. — Maranta  galanga,  Linn, South  Concan.    Chittagong. 

Travancore. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  tubers,  which  are  faintly  aromatic,  pungent, 
and  somewhat  bitter,  are  the  larger  galangal  of  the  shops,  and  are 
used  as  a  substitute  for  ginger.  They  are  given  in  infusion  in 
fevers,  rheumatism,  and  catarrhal  affections.  The  galangal  root  is 
much  used  in  China,  and  is  one  of  the  articles  of  commerce,  realising 
in  London  12s.  to  16s.  per  cwt.  It  has  an  aromatic  pungent  taste ; 
the  outside  is  of  a  reddish-brown ;  internally  it  is  reddish- white. 


30  ALSTONIA. 

An  inferior  sort  of  galangal  is  got  fix)m  A.  AUugkas  (Roscoe),  the 
root  of  whicli  is  considerably  aromatic.  Of  this  hitter  species 
Eheede  says,  that  the  juice  of  the  root  is  applied  externally  in  gout, 
and  is  also  used  internally.  The  root  itself  macerated  and  mixed 
with  wine  is  a  good  external  application  for  pains  in  the  limbs ;  and, 
pulyerised,  is  administered  in  colic.  It  is  the  Mala  Insehikua  of 
Eheede. — (Ainalie.  Bimmonds,  BJveede,)  The  A.  Khtdinjariy  a 
variety  of  the  A,  CkinensiSy  is  found  growing  in  several  gardens  at 
Madras ;  and  its  rhizome,  when  dried,  resembles  that  of  the  lesser 
galangaL  It  is  supposed  to  be  a  distinct  species  by  some,  though 
closely  approximating  the  A.  Calcarata.  It  is  stimulant,  carmina- 
tive, stomachic,  and  expectorant.  It  is  useful  in  all  diseases  where 
ginger  is  used,  and  also  in  most  nervous  disorders.  It  has  also  proved 
useful  in  incontinence  of  urine. — Siippl.  to  Pharm.  of  India. 

(40)  Alstonia  scholaris  {E.  Br,)   N.  0.  Apootnaokb. 

Ezhilaip-palai,  Tam.    Edakulapala,  Pala-ganida,  Edakula-ariti,  Edakula-ponna, 
Til.    Pala,  Mukkan-pala,  Mal.    Chhatin,  Bkno. 

Description. — Tree,  50  feet ;  leaves  5-7  in  a  whorl,  obovate- 
oblong,  obtuse,  veins  ribbed,  approximating  the  maigin ;  calyx 
5-parted;  corolla  salver-shaped,  with  roundish  segments; 
cymes  on  short  peduncles;  limb  of  corolla  a  little  bearded; 
flowers  greenish  white,  follicles  very  long,  slender.  Fl.  Nov. — 
Dec. — Bheede,  i.  t.  ^5,—^Wight  Icon,  t  422. — Echites  scholaris, 
Linn. ^Travancore.    CoromandeL    Assam. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  wood  is  bitter  to  the  taste,  and  the  bark  is 
a  powerful  tonic,  much  used  by  the  natives  in  bowel  complaints.  It 
is  astringent,  anthelmintic,  and  anti-periodic.  It  has  proved  a 
valuable  remedy  in  chronic  diarrhoea  and  the  advanced  stages  of 
dysentery,  and  also  effectual  in  restoring  the  tone  of  the  stomach 
after  debilitating  fevers. — Pharm,  of  India.  Gibson  in  Pharm. 
Journal^  xii  422. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — This  tree  has  obtained  the  trivial  name  Scholaris 
from  the  fact  of  its  planks  being  used  as  school-boards,  on  which 
children  trace  their  letters,  as  in  the  Lancastrian  system.  The  chil- 
dren assemble  half-naked  under  the  shade  of  the  Cocoa  palm,  place 
themselves  on  rows  on  the  ground,  and  trace  out  on  the  sand  with 
the  forefinger  of  the  right  hand  the  elements  of  their  alphabet,  and 
then  smooth  it  with  their  left  when  they  wish  to  trace  out  other 
characters.  This  method  of  teaching  writing  was  introduced  into 
India  200  B.O.,  according  to  Megasthenes,  and  still  continues  to  be 
practised.  The  wood  is  white  and  close-grained.  In  Assam  it  is 
much  prized  for  beams  and  light  work,  such  as  boxes,  trunks,  and 
scabbards.   The  whole  tree  aboimds  in  milky  juice. — Nimmo,   RoxIk 


AMARANTUS — AMMANNIA.  31 

(41)  Amarantns  fhimentaceus  (Bitch.)   N.  0.  Ahabantacejb. 

Poong-kirai,  Tah. 

DBSCBiPnoN. — Stem  herbaceous,  erect ;  leaves  long-petioled, 
broad-lanceolate,  acute ;  panicles  terminal,  erect ;  sepals  subu- 
late, acute ;  stamens  five ;  stigmas  three ;  seed  subcompressed, 
smooth;  utricles  wrinkled.     Deo.  Prod.  xiii.  s.  2,  p.   265. — 

Baxh.  Flar.  Ind.  iii  %99.— Wight  Icon.  t.  720. ^Mysore. 

Coimbatore. 

EoONOMio  Uses. — ^This  plant  is  extensively  cultivated  in  the 
Coimbatore  district,  chiefly  for  the  flour  of  its  seeds,  which  is  a  great 
article  of  diet  among  the  natives.  Besides  the  above,  there  are 
several  other  species  of  Amaranths  used  as  vegetables  by  the  natives, 
such  as  the  A,  polygonoides  (Roxb.),  considered  very  wholesome, 
especially  for  convalescents  ;  the  A,  oleracetis  (Linn.),  of  which  the 
several  varieties  are  cultivated  for  diet,  especially  the  Var.  giganteus^ 
which  is  about  4  to  8  feet  high,  and  with  a  thick  succulent  stem, 
which  is  eaten  as  a  substitute  for  asparagus. — Roxb.    Aindie. 

(42)  AmarantuB  spinosus  (Linn.)    Do. 

Kant^mat,  Buk.    MuUnk-kirai,  Tail    Mundla-tota-kura,  NaUa-doggali,  Tel. 
MuUan-chira,  Mal.    Eanta-mari,  BxNO. 

Description. — ^Erect,  1-3  feet,  somewhat  striated,  glabrous, 
reddish;  leaves  long-petioled,  rhomb -ovate,  or  lanceolate- 
oblong,  with  two  spines  in  the  axils;  panicles  sparingly 
branched;  spikes  erect,  cylindric,  acute,  terminal  ones  long, 
stiffish,  lateral  ones  middle-sized;  flowers  dense,  green ;  utricles 
2-3  cleft  at  the  top,  somewhat  wrinkled;  bracts  unequal, 
bearded ;  seed  lenticular,  polished,  black. — Dec.  Prod.  xiii.  s. 
2,  p.  260.— Roxb.  Flor.  Ind.  iii.  &11.— Wight  Icon.  t.  513.— 
Rumph.  Amb.  v.  t.  83,  fig.  1. Peninsula.   Bengal   Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — EmolUent  poultices  are  made  of  the  bruised 
leaves.  In  the  Mauritius  a  decoction  of  the  leaves  and  root  is  ad- 
ministered internally  as  diuretic.^ — (Boufon,  Med.  PI.  of  the  Mauritius. ) 
The  A.  campestris  (Willd.)  is  considered  demulcent,  and  is  given  in 
decoction  in  cases  of  strangury — (Ainslie).  The  A.  polygamns 
(Linn.)  is  used  in  bilious  disorders,  and  as  an  aperient — Long^ 
Indig.  Plants  of  Bengal. 

(43)  ATiifnn.iiTi<a  vesicatorla  (Roxb.)    K.  O.  Ltthaaoes. 

Did-miri,  Hind.     Aein-bAti,  Duk.    Kaflurivi,  Miumel-neruppa,  Tam.    Aqui- 
▼ender-paka,  Tel.    KalLar-vanchi,  Mal. 

Description. — Herbaceous,  erect;  stem  much  branched, 
4-sided ;  leaves  sessile,  opposite,  lanceolate,  attenuated,  smaller 


32  AMOORA — AMORPHOPHALLUS. 

nearer  the  flowers ;  calyx  4-cleft  to  the  middle,  lobes  acute, 
accessory  teeth  very  small ;  flowers  very  minute,  aggregated  in 
the  axils  of  the  leaves,  almost  sessile ;  tube  of  the  calyx  at  first 
narrow  and  tightened  round  the  ovary,  in  fruit  cup-shaped ; 
petals  wanting ;  capsule  longer  than  the  calyx,  1-celled ; 
flowers  red.  Fl.  Oct.—  W.  &  A.  Prod.  L  305.  R<xxb.  Flor.  Ind. 
i,  426. — Dec.  Prod,  iii.  78. Peninsula.    Bengal 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  whole  plant  has  a  strong  muriatic,  not  dis- 
agreeable smell.  Its  leaves,  being  extremely  acrid,  are  used  by  the 
natives  in  raising  blisters  in  rheumatism.  Bruised  and  applied  to 
the  affected  parts,  they  perform  their  office  most  effectually  in  about 
haK  an  hour — (Ainslie).  The  pounded  leaves  are  appUed  to  herpetic 
exupiioBB'^Fleming).  It  is  said,  from  the  great  pain  the  leaves  cause 
as  blisters,  they  cannot  be  recommended. — Pharm.  of  India, 

(44)  Amoora  Bohitoka  (W.  ^  A,)    N.  O.  MsLiACEiE. 

Chemmamm,  Mal.    Hurin-hura,  or  Khana,  Hind.    Tikhta-raj,  Bkkq. 

Description. — Small  tree ;  leaves  unequally  pinnated ;  leaf- 
lets 6  pair,  opposite,  obliquely-oblong,  glabrous ;  young  peti- 
oles slightly  hairy  on  their  lower  part ;  male  flowers  in  panicles 
shorter  than  the  leaves,  subsessile;  calyx  3-leaved;  female 
flowers  numerous,  sessile,  solitary,  erect  on  spikes,  which  are 
rather  more  than  half  the  length  of  the  leaves ;  petals  three ; 
capsule  pale  yellow,  3-celled,  3-valved ;  seeds  solitary,  enclosed 
in  a  fleshy  scarlet  aril ;  flowers  small,  white,  or  cream-coloured. 
Fl,  July — Aug. —  W.  &A,  Prod.  i.  119. — Andersonia  Eohituka, 
Roodb.  Fl,  Ind,  ii.  213. ^Travancore.    Bengal 

Economic  Uses. — From  the  seeds,  where  the  trees  grow  plenti- 
fully, the  natives  extract  an  oil  which  they  use  for  many  economical 
purposes. — Roxh. 

(45)  Amorphophallas  campannlatns  (Blume),    K  0.  Abacejb. 

TeUnga  potato,  Eno.    Karana,  Mal.  and  Tam.    Mnncha  Knnda,  Tel.    01,  Hind. 

Desceiption. — Stemless ;  leaves  decompound ;  flowers  small, 
dark-coloured,  sessile  with  respect  to  the  surface  of  the  ground, 
and  appearing  when  the  plant  is  destitute  of  leaves ;  spathe 
the  length  of  the  spadix,  campanulate,  margins  curled ;  nectary 
none ;  club  broad-ovate,  lobate,  anthers  2-celled.  Fl,  June. — 
Wight  Icon,  t,  782. — Arum  campanulatum,  Roxb, — Wieede, 
Mod,  xi.  t,  18, 19. Bengal.    Peninsula. 


AMPHIDONAX — ANACARDIUM.  33 

MisDiOAL  Uses. — ^The  acrid  roots  are  used  mediciiially  in  boils  and 
ophthalmia.  They  are  very  caustic  and  abound  in  starch,  and  are 
employed  as  external  stimulants,  and  are  also  emmenagogue. — (Lind- 
ley,)  The  &esh  roots  act  as  an  acrid  stimulant  and  expectorant,  and 
are  used  in  acute  rheumatism. — Powell,  Punj.  Prod, 

EcoNOMio  Uses.  — ^The  roots  are  very  nutritious,  on  which  account 
they  are  much  cultivated  for  the  purpose  of  diet  They  are  planted 
in  May,  and  will  yield  from  100  to  250  maunds  per  beegah,  seUing 
at  the  rate  of  a  rupee  a  maund.  The  roots  are  also  used  for  pickling. 
"Wight  says  that  "  when  in  flower  the  fetor  it  exhales  is  most  over- 
powering, and  so  perfectly  resembles  that  of  carrion  as  to  induce  flies 
to  cover  the  club  of  the  spadix  with  their  eggs."  A  very  rich  soil, 
repeatedly  ploughed,  suits  it  best.  The  small  tuberosities  found  in 
the  large  roots  are  employed  for  sets,  and  planted  in  the  manner  of 
potatoes.  In  twelve  months  they  are  reckoned  flt  to  be  taken  up  for 
use ;  the  larger  roots  will  then  weigh  &om  4-8  or  more  pounds,  and 
keep  well  if  preserved  dry.  The  natives  employ  them  for  food  in 
the  manner  of  the  common  yam.  The  plant  is  the  Clumeh  or  MuU 
turn  ckaneh  of  Eheede. — Jury  Rep»  M,  E,    Boxb, 

(46)  Amphidoiiaz  karka  {Land,)    K  0.  Graminage^. 

Naga  Saia,  Maitantos,  Tel.    Nar  Nul,  Benq. 

Description. — Culms  erect,  8-12  feet,  round,  smooth,  covered 
i^ith  the  sheaths  of  the  leaves ;  leaves  approximate,  ensiform, 
smooth ;  mouths  of  the  sheaths  bearded ;  panicles  erect,  oblong, 
composed  of  many  filiform,  sub-verticelled  ramifications,  bow- 
ing to  the  wind ;  rachis  of  the  branches  angular  and  hispid ; 
florets  alternate;  calyx  3-5  flowered;  glumes  unequal     Ft. 

Sept.— Feb.— JBoaA.  Fl,  Ind,  I  347.— A.  Koxbnrghii,  Ktk 

Peninsula.     Bengal. 

Economic  Uses. — The  common  Durma  mats  at  Calcutta  are  made 
of  the  stalks  of  this  reed  split  open.  Pipes  are  made  of  the  culms, 
especially  those  used  by  people  carrying  about  dancing-snakes.  This 
grass  is  more  luxuriant  in  Bengal  than  on  the  coast.  In  Scinde  the 
culms  are  made  into  chairs,  and  the  flower-stalks  are  beaten  to  form 
fibres  which  are  there  called  Moonyah.  These  are  used  for  string 
and  ropes. — Boyle.    Boxb, 

(47)  Anacardinm  occidentale  (Linn,)    N.  0.  TEREBiNXHACEii:. 

Cashew-lint,  Eng.    Eaju,  Hind,  and  DuK.    Mandiri-manun,  Tam.    Jidi-mamidi, 
Munta-mamidi,  Tbl,    Paranki-maya,  Eappa-XDayakiun,  Mal.    Hiijli-badam,  Bbnq. 

Description. — ^Tree;  leaves  oval,  alternate,  with  roundish 
or  emarginate  apex ;  calyx  5-cleft  nearly  to  the  base ;  jpetals 

3 


34  ANAMIRTA. 

5,  linear-lanceolate,  pale  yellow  with  pink  stripes;  stamens 
usually  nine,  with  one  longer  than  the  others ;  style  solitary ; 
panicles  terminal,  with  male  and  hermaphrodite  flowers  mixed 
together;  flowers  greenish  red;  fruit  a  kidney-shaped  ash- 
brown  nut,  sessile  on  the  apex  of  a  yellow  or  crimson-coloured 
torus.    Fl.  Feb.— March.— JT.  <fe  A.  Prod.  L  168.— iZoa*.  FL 

Ind.  ii.  312. — Itheede,  iii.   t  54. Coasts  of  the  Peninsula. 

Chittagong.    Trichinopoly. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  frait  is  sub-acid  and  astringent.  The  peri- 
carp of  the  nut  contains  a  black  acrid  oil,  known  as  Caidole,  which 
is  a  powerfoUy  vesicating  agent  It  requires,  however,  to  be  cautiously 
used.  It  is  applied  to  warts,  corns,  and  ulcers,  but  it  ia  said  that 
the  vapour  of  the  oil  when  roasting  is  apt  to  produce  swelling  and 
inflammation.  Martius  says,  ^'The  sympathetic  effect  of  the  nut  borne 
about  the  person  upon  chronic  inflammation  of  the  eyes,  especially 
when  of  a  scrofulous  nature,  is  remarkable."  The  astringency  of  the 
fruit-juice  has  been  reconnnended  as  a  good  remedy  in  dropsical 
habits.  The  bark  is  given  internally  in  infusion  for  syphilitic  swell- 
ings of  the  joints. — Lindley.     Pereira, 

EooNOMio  Uses. — The  acrid  oil  stated  above  as  Cardole  is  often 
appHed  to  floors  or  wooden  rafters  of  houses  to  prevent  the  attack  of 
white  ants,  and  most  effectually  keeps  them  away.  A  transparent 
gum  is  obtained  from  the  trunk  of  the  tree,  useful  as  a  good  varnish, 
and  making  a  fair  substitute  for  gum- Arabic.  It  should  be  collected 
while  the  sap  is  rising.  It  is  particularly  useful  when  the  depreda- 
tions of  insects  require  to  be  guarded  against.  For  this  purpose  it  is 
used  in  S.  America  by  the  bookbinders,  'who  wash  their  books  with 
a  solution  of  it  in  order  to  keep  away  moths  and  ants.  The  kernels 
are  edible  and  wholesome,  abounding  in  sweet  milky  juice,  and  are 
used  for  imparting  a  flavour  to  Madeira  wine.  Ground  up  and 
mixed  with  cocoa  they  make  a  good  chocolate.  The  juice  of  the 
fruit  expressed  and  fermented  yields  a  pleasant  wine ;  and  distilled, 
a  spirit  is  drawn  from  it  making  good  punch.  A  variety  of  the  tree 
grows  in  Travancore,  and  probably  elsewhere,  the  pericarp  of  whose 
nuts  has  no  oil,  but  may  be  chewed  raw  with  impunity.  The  tree 
flowers  twice  a-year.  The  juice  which  flows  from  an  incision  in  the 
body  of  the  tree  will  stain  linen  so  that  it  cannot  be  washed  out. 
An  edible  oil  equal  to  olive  or  almond  oil  is  procured  from  the  nuts, 
but  it  is  seldom  prepared,  the  kernels  being  used  as  a  table-fruit. 
The  wood  is  of  no  value. — Lindley.     Pereira,     Don, 

(48)  Anamirta  eoccnluB  (PT.  ^  A,)    N.  0.  Menispermaoejb. 

'f  Pen-Kottai,  Kaka-coollie,  Tam.    Kaki-chempoo,  Tel.    Kakmari,  Hind.    PoUa 

or  Kaandaka-Gonuveh,  Mal. 

Description. — Twining ;  bark  deeply  cracked ;  leaves  alter- 


ANANAS.  35 

nate,  slightly  cordate,  roundish,  acute,  whitish  beneath,  with 
5  digitate  ribs;  calyx  6-sepalled;  corolla  none;  racemes  of 
female  flowers,  lateral,  whitish  green;  drupes  2-3;  seeds 
globose. —  W.  &  A.  Prod,  i  446.  —  Menispermum  cocculus, 
Linn, — Cocculus  suberosus,  W,  &A.  Prod,  i.  11. — Rheede,  vii. 
t  1,  and  xi.  t.  62. Malabar.     Circar  moimtains.     Concans. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  berries  of  this  plant,  which  are  very  dis- 
agreeable to  the  taste,  are  known  as  the  Cocculus  Indicus  seeds,  and 
have  been  extensively  used  by  brewers  in  the  adulteration  of  malt 
liquors.  In  overdoses  they  are  highly  poisonous.  An  oil  is  pro- 
duced from  them  used  for  poisoning  fish  and  game.  In  a  powdered 
state  they  are  employed  for  destroying  pediculi  in  the  hair,  and  in 
ointment  are  reckoned  of  value  in  cutaneous  diseases.  The  juice  of 
the  fresh  fruit  is  applied  externally  to  foul  ulcers,  and  is  esteemed  a 
good  remedy  in  scabies.  Ainslie  states  that  '^  the  berry  ia  employed 
by  the  Yytians  as  a  useful  external  application  in  cases  of  inveterate 
itch  and  herpes ;  on  which  occasions  it  is  beat  into  a  fine  powder 
and  mixed  with  a  little  warm  castor-oiL"  Marcet  proved  by  experi- 
ments that  it  is  also  a  poison  for  vegetable  substances,  a  solution  pre- 
pared with  an  extract  made  from  the  seeds  having  killed  a  bean  plant 
in  twenty-four  hours.  The  poisonous  properties  reside  in  the  seeds, 
which  contain  a  large  percentage  of  the  virulent  principle  called  Pic- 
rotoxine.  And  the  pericarp  3rield8  another  dangerous  alkaloid  called 
Menispermine.  Its  chief  influence,  as  a  poison,  is  upon  the  nervous 
system,  and  leaves  scarcely  any  trace  of  its  action  upon  the  coats  of 
the  stomach.  The  ointment  made  from  the  powdered  berries  is  very 
efficacious  in  allaying  inflammation,  but  requires  to  be  cautiously 
used. — Ainslie.     PJiarm.  of  India. 

EooNOMic  Uses. — ^That  the  seeds  are  ill^ally  employed  in  the 
adulteration  of  beer  by  the  lower  class  of  brewers  in  England  is  an 
undoubted  fact,  although  the  penalties  imposed  by  the  Legislature  are 
very  severe.  It  is  said  that  1  lb.  of  these  berries  is  equal  to  a  sack 
of  malt  in  brewing,  and  it  was  even  recommended,  by  a  person  who 
wrote  on  the  *  Art  of  Brewing,'  to  add  3  lb.  of  seed  to  every  ten 
quarters  of  malt.  A  considerable  quantity  of  "  Cocculus  Indicus  " 
is  exported  from  Malabar  and  Travancore,  and  shipped  for  the 
London  market,  where  the  price  varies  from  18  to  24  shillings  per 
cwt. — Ainslie.     Lindley. 

(49)  Ananas  sativns  (Sehult)    K  0.  BROHELiACSiB. 

Pine-apple,  Eno.    Anasa,  Tam.    Pooieethee,  Mal. 

Description. — ^Perennial,  2-3  feet ;  leaves  ciliate  with  spin- 
ous points  ;  calyx  3-parted ;  petals  3  ;  spikes  tufted ;  flowers 
small,  bluish.    Fl.  April— May.— iZoarS.  Fl.  Ind.  u.  116.— 


36  ANDBOMEDA. 

Ananassa  sativa,  LincU, — ^Bromelia  ananas,  Litm. ^Natural- 
ised in  India. 

Economic  Ussa — ^The  Pine-apple  has  long  been  domesticated  in 
the  East  Indies,  and  is  now  found  in  an  almost  wild  state  in  most 
parts  of  the  Peninsula,  Northern  Provinces,  and  Ceylon.  The  Portu- 
guese appear  to  have  first  introduced  the  seeds  &om  the  Moluccas. 
It  is  abundant  in  China  and  the  Philippine  Islands.  The  plant  suc- 
ceeds well  in  the  open  air  as  for  north  as  30°,  while  in  the  southern 
parts  of  the  Peninsula  it  forms  hedges,  and  will  grow  with  little  care 
and  in  almost  any  soiL  The  flavour  of  the  fruit  is  greatly  heightened 
by  cultivation,  being  somewhat  acrid  in  its  wild  state.  The  plants 
are  remarkable  for  their  power  of  existing  in  the  air  without  contact 
with  the  earth ;  and  in  South  America  they  may  be  seen  in  abundance, 
hanging  up  in  the  gardens  and  dwelling-houses,  in  which  situations  they 
will  flower  profusely,  perfuming  the  air  with  their  delicious  fragrance. 
The  most  important  use  of  the  Pine-apple  plant  consists  in  the  fine 
white  fibres  yielded  by  the  leaves.  These  have  been  formed  into 
the  most  delicate  fabrics,  as  weU  as  fishing-lines  and  ropes.  Unlike 
other  fibres,  they  are  not  injured  by  immersion  in  water — a  property 
much  increased  by  tanning,  which  process  is  constantly  used  by  the 
natives.  In  Malstcca  and  Singapore  a  trade  is  carried  on  with  China 
in  these  fibres,  which  are  there  used  in  the  manufacture  of  linen 
stufls.  As  a  substitute  for  flax  they  are  perhaps  the  most  valuable 
of  Indian  fibres.  Dr  Eoyle  states  '^  that  a  patent  was  taken  out  for 
the  manufacture  of  thread  from  the  pine-apple  fibre,  because,  when 
bleached,  it  could  be  manufactured  in  the  same  way  as  flax.  The 
process  of  bleaching  by  destroying  the  adhesion  between  the  bundles 
of  fibres  renders  it  much  finer,  and  hence  enables  it  to  be  extended 
between  the  rolls  in  the  process  of  spinning."  Specimens  of  pine- 
apple fibre  were  sent  to  the  Madras  Exhibition  frx)m  Travancore, 
South  Arcot,  and  other  parts  of  the  country ;  upon  which  the  Juries 
reported, — "  The  above  samples  are  nearly  white,  very  soft,  silky  and 
pliant)  and  the  material  seems  to  be  a  good  substitute  for  flax,  as  it 
is  known  to  be  strong,  durable,  and  susceptible  of  fine  subdivision. 
It  has  also  the  advantage  of  being  as  long  in  the  staple  as  flax,  and 
it  can  be  worked  upon  with  the  same  machinery."  According  to 
experiments  by  Dr  Royle,  pine-apple  fibre  prepared  at  Madras  bore 
260  lb.,  and  some  from  Singapore  350  lb.  A  rope  of  the  same  broke 
at  57  cwt.  In  other  experiments  a  12-thread  rope  of  plaintain  fibre 
broke  at  864  lb.,  and  a  similar  rope  of  pine-apple  fibre  at  924  lbs. 
— Royle,     Ainslie,     Jury  Rep,  Mad,  Exhih, 

(50)  Andromeda  Leschenanltii  {Dec)    K  0.  Ebicacsjb. 

Indian  Wintergreen,  Enq. 

Descbiption. — Shrub,  glabrous,  branches  somewhat  3-cor- 
nered;  leaves  petioled,  ovate  or  obovate,  terminating  in  a 


m^^a^K^KBST' 


ANDROMEDA.  37 

gland,  crenulate,  punctuate  beneath;  i*acemes  axiUary  or 
lateral,  pubescent,  shorter  than  the  leaves,  erect ;  bracts  con- 
cave, acute,  glabrous,  one  under  the  pedicel,  two  near  the 
flower ;  flowers  pure  white ;  berries  blue.  Fl.  All  the  year. 
— Dec.  Prod,  viL  593. — ^A.  Kotagherrensis,  Hook.  Icon,  t  246. 
— Leucothoe  Kotagherrensis,  Dec.  I.  c.  p.  606. — Gaultheria 
Leschenaultii,  Dec.  I.  c.  Drury,  Handb.  Irid.  Flor.  iL  116. 
Wight  Icon.  L  119  5.    Spicil.  ii.  t  130. Neilgherries. 

Medical  Uses. — The  oil  procured  from  this  plant,  which  grows 
abundantly  on  the  iNeilgherries,  is  identical  with  the  Canadian  oil  of 
winteigreen  (Gaultheria  procumhena).  This  latter  oil  is  of  some 
slight  commercial  value,  and  is  used  in  medicine  as  an  antispas- 
modic. Mr  Broughton,  the  Government  Quinologist,  in  a  report  to 
the  Madras  Grovemment  on  the  subject  of  this  oil,  says :  The  oil 
from  this  Indian  source  contains  less  of  the  peculiar  hydrocarbon 
oil  which  forms  a  natural  and  considerable  admixture  with  the 
Canadian  oil,  and  therefore  is  somewhat  superior  in  quality  to  the 
latter.  The  conmieicial  demand  for  the  oil  is  not,  however,  con- 
siderable enough  to  make  its  occurrence  in  India  of  much  direct  im- 
portance. 

It  occurred  to  me  in  1869  that  methyl-salicylic  acid  would,  how- 
ever, under  suitable  treatment,  furnish  carbolic  acid  according  to  a 
decomposition  described  by  Gerhardt.  After  a  few  experiments  I 
was  successful  in  preparing  considerable  quantities  of  pure  carbolic 
acid. 

The  method  of  manufacture  is  as  follows  : — 

The  oil  is  heated  with  a  dilute  solution  of  a  caustic  alkali,  by 
which  means  it  is  saponified  and  dissolved,  methylic  alcohol  of  great 
purity  being  Hberated.  The  solution  of  the  oil  is  then  decomposed 
by  any  mineral  acid,  when  beautiful  crystals  of  salicylic  acid  are 
formed.  These  are  gathered,  squeezed,  and  dried.  They  are  then 
mixed  with  common  quicklime  or  sand,  and  distilled  in  an  iron  re- 
tort ;  carbolic  acid  of  great  purity,  and  crystallising  with  the  greatest 
readiness,  passes  into  the  receiver. 

This  acid  is  equal  to  the  purest  kind  obtained  flrom  coal-tar,  and 
employed  in  medicine.  It,  of  course,  possesses  all  the  qualities 
which  have  rendered  this  substance  almost  indispensable  in  modem 
medical  and  surgical  practice. 

I  had  hoped,  from  the  inexhaustible  abundance  with  which  the 
plant  grows  on  the  Neilgherries,  that  the  carboHc  acid  from  this 
source  could  be  prepared  at  less  cost  than  that  imported.  I  have 
not  yet  had  an  opportunity  of  working  on  a  laige  scale  with  an 
itinerant  still,  as  would  be  necessary  for  its  cheapest  production  ; 
but  &om  some  calculations  I  have  lately  made,  I  am  led  to  think  it 
can  scarcely  be  prepared  for  less  than  the  price  of  that  procured 


38  ANDROGRAPHIS. 

from  coal-tar.  The  purest  kinds  from  the  latter  source  cost  four 
shillingB  a-pound ;  I  estimate  the  cost  of  that  from  this  indigenous 
source  at  from  rupees  2.8  to  rupees  3.8  (five  to  seven  shillings)  per 
pound  in  this  country. 

The  carbolic  acid  &om  the  same  source  has  certain  advantages 
over  the  coal-tar  acid,  consequent  on  its  extreme  purity.  It  is  less 
deliquescent,  and  cannot  possibly  be  open  to  the  suspicion  of  con- 
tamination with  certain  other  products  of  coal-tar  which  possess  in- 
jurious qualities. 

In  conclusion,  I  am  led  to  the  belief  that  it  would  not  be  advis- 
able to  prepare  carbolic  acid  from  this  singular  source,  when  the 
comparative  cost  shows  that  the  gain  must  be  very  small  or  non- 
existent. But  it  appears  to  me  well  worthy  of  record,  that  should 
circumstances  render  the  supply  of  the  English  product  difficult  or 
uncertain,  as  in  the  case  of  war,  or  the  English  price  increase,  a 
practically  inexhaustible  source  exists  in  this  country  from  which 
this  indispensable  substance,  in  its  purest  state,  can  be  obtained  at 
a  slight  enhancement  of  the  present  price. — Broughton^s  Eepart  to 
Mad.  Govt,  Jan.  1871. — Pharm.  Joum.,  Oct  1871. 

(51)  Andrographifl  panicolata  (Wall.)    K  0.  Aoanthacejs. 

Shirat-Kuch-chi,  Nela-vembu,  Tah.    Nella-vemoo,  Tel.    Nila-veppa,  Kiriatha, 
Mal.    Mahatita^  Charayeti^,  Kiryat,  HmD.    Eala£iiath,  Duk.    CheroUi  Mahatita, 

BSNQ. 

Description. — Annual,  1-2  feet ;  stem  quadrangular,  pointed, 
smooth ;  leaves  opposite,  on  short  petioles,  lanceolate,  entire ; 
calyx  deeply  6-cleft;  corolla  bilabiate,  lips  linear,  reflected, 
upper  one  3-toothed,  lower  one  2-toothed;  flowers  remote,  alter- 
nate, on  long  petioles,  downy,  rose-coloured  or  white,  streaked, 
with  purple;  capsules  erect,  somewhat  cylindrical;  seeds  S-i  in 
each.  Fl.  Nov. — Feb. — LindL  Flor.  Med.  501 . — Justicia  pani- 
culata,  Boxb.  FL  Ind.  i.  118. — Bheede,  ix.  t  56. —  TFigkt  Icon.  t. 

518. ^Bengal,  in  dry  places  under  trees.    Cultivated  in  Tin- 

nevelly. 

Mbdigal  Usbs. — This  plant  is  much  valued  for  its  stomachic  and 
tonic  properties,  especially  the  root,  which  is  one  of  the  chief  in- 
gredients in  the  French  mixture  called  Drogue  am^re.  The  whole 
of  the  plant  is  very  bitter,  and  is  occasionally  used  in  cholera  and 
dysentery.  It  is  also  said  to  be  alexipharmic. — (Ainsl.  Lindl.)  It 
has  been  found  serviceable  in  general  debility,  and  in  the  advanced 
stages  of  dysentery.  The  expressed  juice  of  the  leaves  is  a  common 
native  domestic  remedy  in  the  bowel-complaints  of  children.  The 
tincture  of  Kariyat  is  said  to  be  tonic,  stimulant,  and  gently  aperient, 
and  to  prove  valuable  in  several  forms  of  dyspepsia.  Eoxburgh  re- 
marks that  its  Hindustani  name,  ^'Mahatita,"  signifies  "King  of 


ANDROPOGON.  39 

Bitters,"  and  a  very  powerful  and  niucl>e8teemed  one  it  is. — Roxh, 
Pharm,  of  India. — Fleming^  As.  Res,  xi. — Waringy  Indian  Ann.  of 
Med.  Set.  V.  618. 


(52)  Andropogon  citratnm  (Dec.)    K  0.  GBAMiNACEiE. 

Lemon-grass,  Eno.  Akya-ghas,  Hnn>.  Hazar-masaleh,  Duk.  yashanap-pnlla, 
Karpura-pullUj  Tah.  NimmA-gaddi,  Chippa-gaddi,  Tel.  Vasaziap-pulla,  Samb- 
hara-pulla^  Mal.  .  Agya-ghans,  Bemo. 

Desceiption. — Eoot  perennial ;  panicles  somewliat  secund ; 
spikes  conjugate,  ovate-oblong;  rachis  pubescent;  floscules 
sessile,  awnless ;  culms  5-7  feet,  erect,  smooth ;  leaves  many 
near  the  root,  bifarious,  soft,  pale  green,  3-4  feet  long ;  spike- 
lets  in  pairs,  on  a  common  pedicel  furnished  "with  a  spathe ; 
rachis  articulated,  hairy ;  flowers  in  pairs,  one  hermaphrodite 
and  sessile,  the  other  male  and  pedicelled. — Rheede,  xii  t.  72, 
— ^A.schoenanthus,  Linn. — BooA.  FL  Ind,  i.  274. — Cymbopogon 

schcenanthus,  Spreng. Travancore.    Bengal.    Cultivated  in 

CoromandeL 

Medical  Uses. — ^An  infusion  of  the  fragrant  leaves,  which  are 
bitter  and  aromatic,  is  given  to  children  as  an  excellent  stomachic. 
It  is  also  diaphoretic  An  essential  oil  is  prepared  from  them, 
which  is  a  most  valuable  remedy  in  rheumatism,  applied  externally. 
Mixed  with  butter-milk,  the  leaves  are  used  in  cases  of  ringwonn. 
It  is  a  remedy  of  considerable  value  in  affections  of  the  bowels.  It 
allays  and  arrests  vomiting  in  cholera,  and  aids  the  process  of  re- 
action. Externally  applied,  it  forms  a  useful  embrocation  in  chronic 
rheumatism,  neuralgia,  sprains,  and  similar  painful  affections. — 
{Pharm.  of  India.)  The  rhizomes  and  flowers  have  similar  qualities. — 
(Lindley.)  The  essential  oil,  when  first  distilled,  is  of  a  high  colour, 
owing  to  the  quantity  of  resin  in  it.  To  remove  this,  as  also  to  have 
the  oil  clear,  it  is  saturated  in  charcoal  grits  that  have  been  previ- 
ously well  washed  and  thoroughly  dried.  The  grits  saturated  with 
the  oil  are  thrown  into  the  still  with  the  required  quantity  of  water, 
made  slightly  sharp  to  the  taste  and  distilled.  The  oil  thus  obtained 
is  not  only  clear,  but  in  a  great  measure  free  irom  resin,  and  this 
passes  in  England  as  essence  of  Verbena  or  CitroneUe.  The  oil  of 
the  first  distilling,  which  is  of  a  high  colour,  is  known  as  the  Lemon- 
grass  oil.  Mr  C.  Kohlhoflf,  for  some  time  Conservator  of  Forests  in 
.  Travancore,  has  used  the  double-distilled  oil  as  an  embrocation  in 
cases  of  rheumatism,  and  found  it  a  most  efficacious  remedy,  and 
has  also  administered  it  in  cases  of  cholera  with  great  advantage. 
The  dose  is  from  12  to  20  drops  on  a  lump  of  sugar,  repeated  till 
the  symptoms  abate,  at  the  same  time  applying  it  externally  to  the 
lips,  back,  and  stomach,  to  prevent  the  cold  and  cramp  so  invariably 


40  ANDROPOGON. 

accompanying  that  disorder.  A  decoction  made  from  the  fresh 
leaves  is  used  by  the  natives  to  allay  thirst  in  various  diBordeis. — 
Pers.  OhA, 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^When  fresh  and  young,  the  leaves  are  used  in 
many  parts  of  the  country  as  a  substitute  for  tea,  and  the  white 
centre  of  the  succulent  leaf-culms  is  used  to  impart  a  flavour  to 
curries.  In  Bengal,  large  tracts  of  waste  land  are  covered  with  this 
grass.  The  export  of  Lemon-grass  oil  from  Ceylon  amounts  in  value 
to  nearly  X7000  annually. — Baxb,     Simmonds. 

J,       /  (53)  Andropogon  Iwanmcasa  (Eoxb,)    Do. 

Iwaran-kiusa,  Beno. 

jjjfr^i&4  Description. — Root  perennial,  fibrous;  culms  erect,  3-6 
feet,  smooth,  filled  with  a  light  spongy  substance ;  leaves  near 
the  root  longer  than  the  culm-points,  margins  hispid,  other- 
wise smooth;  panicles  axillary  and  terminal,  consisting  of 
numerous  fascicles  of  pedicelled,  thin,  5-jointed  spikes,  with  a 
spathe  to  each  pair  of  spikes ;  flowers  on  the  rachis  in  pairs, 
one  awned,  sessile,  the  other  one  awnless,  male,  and  pedicelled ; 
the  terminal  florets  are  three,  one  hermaphrodite,  two  male ; 
glumes  two,  1 -flowered,  with  which  the  rachis  and  pedicels  are 
woolly  at  the  base. — Boxb,  Fl.  Ind.  L  275. — Lindl.  Flor.  Med. 
611. -Skirts  of  the  mountains  of  N.  India.    Hurdwar. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  roots  of  this  fragrant  grass  are  used  by  the 
natives  in  Northern  India  in  intermittent  fevers.  In  habit  and 
taste  it  is  similar  to  the  A.  achcenanihua,  Dr  Boyle  denies  that  it 
yields  a  grass  oiL — Pereira.     Boyle. 

(54)  Andropogon  Martini  (Roxb.)    Do. 

Roussa-graas,  Eno.  Ganjni,  Hikd.  and  DuK.  Eamakshipullu,  mandap-pnlln, 
Kasottam-pullu,  Shunnarip-pullu,  Tam.  KamakshUKasuvu,  Kmnaochi-gadai,  TsL. 
Kamaksha-pulla,  Chora-pulla,  Mal.    Khama-kher,  Bvsq. 

Description. — Eoot  long,  fibrous;  culm  erect,  branched, 
5-6  feet^  glabrous ;  leaves  elongated,  very  delicate,  soft,  glab- 
rous, acuminate ;  ligula  membranaceous ;  panicles  linear,  sub- 
secund ;  spikelets  twin ;  rachis  jointed,  woolly ;  corolla  of  the 
hermaphrodite  floret  1-valved,  awned,  male  muticous. — Boaib, 
Flor,  Ind.  i.  277. — A.  nardus,  Linn. Balaghaut  highlsmds. 

Medical  Uses. — ^A  fragrant  oil  is  extracted  from  this  species. 
It  is  of  a  pale  straw  colour,  and  is  very  aromatic.  It  is  known  as 
the  grass-oil  of  Nemaur.     It  is  valuable  as  a  rubefacient,  and  is 


ANDROPOGON.  41 

employed  as  a  substitute  for  Cajeput  oil,  being  frequently  applied 
externally  in  rheumatic  affections^  also  as  a  stimulant  and  dia- 
phoretic. It  has  the  power,  in  a  remarkable  degree,  of  preventing 
the  hair  of  the  head  iram  falling  off  after  acute  diseases,  such  as 
feyer,  or  after  confinement  or  prolonged  nursing.  It  even  restores 
the  hair ;  but  it  must  be  strong  and  pure,  and  not  such  as  is  usuaDy 
sold  by  perfumers.  It  is  obtained  by  distillation  &om  the  fresh 
plant.  It  closely  assimilates  in  characters,  properties,  and  uses, 
with  the  analogous  product  of  A.  citratum. — LincUey.  Fereira. 
Phann,  of  India, 

EcoNOHio  Uses.  —  This  grass  is  a  natiye  of  the  highlands  of 
Balaghaut,  whence  the  seeds  were  brought  by  the  late  General 
Martin,  and  taken  to  Lucknow  as  well  as  to  the  botanic  garden  at 
Calcutta.  He  was  induced  to  take  particular  notice  of  this  long 
grass  by  observing  how  voraciously  fond  cattle  were  of  it,  notwith- 
standing its  strong  aromatic  and  pungent  taste,  insomuch  that  not 
only  the  flesh  of  the  animals,  but  also  the  milk  and  butter,  had  a 
very  strong  scent  of  it.  It  is  universally  spread  over  the  trap  dis- 
tricts of  the  Deccan,  though  seldom  found  on  the  ordinary  granite 
of  those  tracts.  It  is  much  used  in  perfumery — (Boyle).  A  volatile 
oil,  resembling  in  characters  the  two  preceding  oils,  is  the  produce, 
it  is  believed,  of  the  A,  pachnodes. — (Trin.)  It  has  obtained  con- 
siderable repute  as  an  external  application  in  rheumatic,  neuralgic, 
and  other  painful  affections. — PJiarm.  of  India. 

A  correspondent  in  the  '  Bombay  Gazette '  writes  as  follows,  while 
sending  specimens  of  paper  made  from  the  Koussa-grass :  ''  It  may 
be  had  almost  for  the  cutting  throughout  the  Deccan.  It  costs 
about  an  anna  a  hundredweight,  and  twelve  seers  (=  24  pounds)  has 
been  found  sufficient  to  make  sixty  quires  of  paper,  equal  in  quality 
to  that  used  by  Soucars  for  writing  their  hoondies  upon."  Eemark- 
ing  upon  the  two  specimens  forwarded  with  the  above,  the  editor 
observes  that  the  material  of  which  the  best  is  formed  might  be  con- 
verted, by  proper  processes  and  machinery,  into  as  good  paper  as 
ever  might  be  required  for  newspapers  or  book- work.  It  is  after  the 
oil  has  been  extracted  that  the  fibres  are  used  for  conversion  into 
paper. 


(55)  Andropogon  moricatum  (Eefz).    Do. 

Cuscus-grass.  Eno.  Balah,  Hikd.  and  Duk.  Vetti-ver,  Vizhal-ver,  Ilainich-cham- 
ver,  Viranam,  Tail  Vatti-veni,  AwTiru-gaddiveru,  Vidavali-veru,  Ouru-veru,  Tel. 
Vetti-ver,  Bamach-cham-ver,  Mal.    Bala,  Shandaler-jar,  Beno. 

Description. — Eoot  perennial,  fibrous;  culms  numerous, 
smooth,  slightly  compressed  at  the  base,  4-6  feet ;  leaves  bifa- 
rioiis  near  the  base,  narrow,  erect;  florets  in  pairs,  awnless, 
male  and  hermaphrodite,  the  former  pedicelled,  latter  sessile. 


42  ANEILEMA — ANETHUM. 

— Boxh,  Flor.  Ind.  L  265. — ^Anatherum  muricatum,  Beauv. — 
Phalaris  Zizania,  Linn. Bengal.    Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^An  infusion  of  the  root  is  used  as  a  gentle 
stimulant,  and  makes  a  grateful  drink  in  feyeis.  Beduced  to 
powder,  tlie  roots  are  employed  in  bilious  affections ;  and,  mixed 
with  milk,  are  used  externally  as  cooling  applications  to  skin  irri- 
tations. Antispasmodic,  diaphoretic,  diuretic,  and  emmenagogue 
properties  have  been  assigned  to  this  grass,  but  it  is  not  reckoned 
a  valuable  medicine. — Ainslie.     Pereira,     Fharm,  of  India. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — The  roots  are  made  into  fans,  and  being  thinly 
worked  into  bamboo  frames,  are  employed  for  the  purpose  of  cooling 
the  heated  atmosphere  in  dwelling-houses  during  the  hot  winds. 
These  are  known  as  the  Cuscus  tatties.  The  grass  is  used  for 
thatching  bungalows  and  for  covering  palanquins. — Bo3^. 

(56)  Aneilema  tuberosum  (Ham.)    K  0.  Commeltnaceje. 

Description. — Eoot  perennial,  composed  of  several  smooth 
elongated  tubers ;  stem  none,  except  the  sheathing  bases  of 
the  leaves  which  appear  after  the  flowers;  leaves  ensiform, 
waved,  acute,  smooth ;  racemes  radical,  erect,  smooth,  straight ; 
scape  branched  above,  branches  each  with  a  sheathing  bract, 
branchlets  with  several  pedicelled  blue  flowers,  rather  large. 
Ham.  in   Wall.  Cat.  5207.— Dalz.  Bomb.  Flor.   255.— Com- 

melyna  scapiflora,  Boicb.  —  Murdania    scapiflora,  Boyle. 

Southern  Goncan. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  tubers  are  considered  by  the  natives  hot 
and  dry.  They  are  employed  in  headaches  and  giddiness,  also  in 
fevers,  jaundice,  and  deafness.  Also  as  an  antidote  to  animal 
poisons  and  the  bites  of  venomous  serpents. — PowelTs  Pur^.  Prod. 

(57)  Anethmn  Sowa  (Boxh.)    K.  0.  Apiace^ 

Dill  or  Bishop's  weed,  Eno.     Bxivk  Soyah,  Hun).     Soyi,  DuK.    Satha-oooppa, 
Tam.    Sompa,  Tel.    Shatha-koopa,  Mal.    Soolpha,  Besq. 

Description. — ^Annual,  2-4  feet,  erect;  glabrous;  leaves 
decompound,  alternate;  leaflets  filiform;  petioles  sheathing 
below ;  stem  smooth,  covered  with  whitish  pubescence ;  petals 
roundish,  entire;  umbels  terminal,  without  involucels;  sta- 
mens about  the  length  of  the  petals ;  fruit  oblong,  compressed^ 
almost  destitute  of  a  membranaceous  margin ;  seeds  two ; 
flowers  yellow.    Fl.  Feb.— April.—  W.  &  A.  Prod,  i  372.— 


ANISOCHILUS — ^AN ISOMELES.  43 

Wight  Icon,  t  572. — Boa^,  Flor.  Ind,  ii  96.— A.  graveolens, 
WalL Bengal    Cultivated  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  seeds  are  to  be  met  with  in  every  Indian 
bazaar.  They  form  one  of  the  chief  ingredients  in  curry-powder. 
They  yield  a  valuable  oil,  prepared  by  distillation,  and  used 
medicinally.  Bruised  and  boiled  in  water  and  mixed  with  the 
roots,  these  seeds  are  applied  externally  in  rheumatic  and  other 
swellings  of  the  joints.  The  leaves,  applied  warm  and  moistened 
with  a  little  oil,  are  said  to  hasten  suppuration. — Atnsl.    Eoxb, 

I 

(58)  AnisochiluB  camosum  (Wall)    N.  0.  LAifiACEs. 

Thick-leaved  lavender,  Eng.     PanjiijL  Hnn).  and  DuK.    EaTpnravalli,  Tam. 
Roga-cLetta,  Omamu,  Tel.    Chomara,  Kattu-Koirkay  Pata-Enrrka,  Mal. 

Description. — Small  plant ;  stem  erect,  tetragonal ;  leaves 
petiolate,  ovate-roundish,  crenated,  cordate  at  the  base,  thick, 
fleshy,  tomentosely  villous  on  both  surfaces ;  spikes  on  long 
peduncles ;  calyx  with  upper  lip,  with  ciliated  edges,  lower 
lip  truncate,  quite  entire ;  corolla  bilabiate,  upper  lip  bluntly 
3-4  cleft,  lower  lip  entire ;  flowers  lilac.  FL  June — Sept. — 
Bheede  Mal.  x.  t  90. — Plectranthus  strobiliferus,  Roai>.  Mor. 

Ind.  m.  23. Clefts  of  rocks  among  mountains  in  N.  Circars 

and  Malabar.    Mysore. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  fresh  juice  squeezed  firom  the  leaves  of  this 
plant,  and  mixed  with  sugar  and  gingely  oil,  is  used  as  a  cooHng 
liniment  for  the  head.  The  leaves  and  stems  are  given  in  infuRion 
to  children  in  coughs  and  colds.  The  plant  also  yields  a  volatile 
oiL — (Ainsl.  Bheede.)  A  stimulant,  diaphoretic  and  expectorant, 
is  used  in  cynanche,  and  by  the  native  doctors  in  Travancore  in 
catarrhal  affections.  Dr  Bidie  states  that  as  a  mild  stimulant 
expectorant  it  is  particularly  useful  in  coughs  of  children. — Pharm. 
of  India. 

(59)  Anisomeles  ICalabarica  {R.  Br.)    Do.  • 

Malabar  Cat-mint,  Eno.  P^yam^tti,  Tam.  Moga-bira,  Tel.  Earintoomba, 
Mal. 

Description. — Shrub,  2-5  feet ;  branches  tomentose ;  leaves 
ovate-lanceolate,  crenately  serrated  at  the  upper  part,  entire 
below ;  calyx  5-cleft,  thickly  covered  with  long,  white,  some- 
what viscid  pubescence ;  upper  lip  of  corolla  entire,  white, 
under  one  3-cleft,  with  the  lateral  divisions  reflexed ;  anthers 
deep  purple ;  whorls  disposed  in  simple  racemea     FL  July 


44  ANONA. 

— Aug. —  Wight  Icon.  t.  864 — Nepeta  Malabarica,  Linn, — 

Ajuga  fruticosa,  Baosb.  FL  Ind.  iii  1. — Sheede,  x.  t  93. 

Travancore.    Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  juice  of  the  leaves  in  infuaion  is  given  to 
childien  in  colic,  indigestion,  and  fevers  arising  from  teething,  and 
is  also  employed  in  infusion  in  stomachic  complaints,  dysentery,  and 
intermittent  fevers.  Patients  suffering  from  ague  are  made  to  inhale 
the  vapour  arising  from  an  infusion  of  this  plant ;  copious  perspira- 
tion ensues,  which  is  kept  up  by  drinking  more  of  the  infusion.  The 
leaves,  which  are  bitter  and  astringent,  are  taken  to  assist  digestion, 
and  to  impart  tone  to  the  stomach.  A  clear  reddish  oil  is  distilled 
from  the  plant,  of  heavy  odour,  acrid  and  slightly  bitter.  A  decoc- 
tion of  the  whole  plant  is  antarthritic,  if  the  body  be  washed  with 
it.— (  Wight  Ainslie.  Lindley.)  An  oil  obtained  by  distillation  from 
the  leaves  is  likewise  stated  to  prove  an  effectual  external  application 
in  rheumatism.  The  A.  ovata  partakes  of  the  physical  characters  of 
the  preceding,  and,  according  to  Burman,  a  distilled  oil  prepared  from 
it  in  Ceylon  is  useful  in  uterine  affections. — Pharm.  of  India, 

(60)  Anona  Banamosa  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Anonaoe2b. 

Cnstard-apple,  Eno.  Atta-manim,  Mal.    Seeta-phul,  DUK.  Ata,  Hnn).    Loona, 
Meba,  Benq.    Sita-puUum,  Tam. 

Desceiption. — Shrub  or  small  tree,  15-20  feet;  leaves  ob- 
long, or  oblong-lanceolate,  glabrous,  pellucid-dotted;  calyx 
3-sepalled ;  petals  6  in  a  double  row :  exterior  ones  narrow- 
lanceolate,  three-cornered  near  the  apex ;  inner  ones  scarcely 
any ;  peduncles  axillary ;  flowers  whitish  green.  FL  March 
—April.— fT.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  T.—Rlieede,  iii  t  29— i2oa*.  Fl. 
Ind.  iL  657. ^Domesticated  everywhere  in  India. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves  gently  bruised  and  mixed  with  salt, 
and  reduced  to  the  form  of  a  plaster,  and  in  this  state  applied  to 
malignant  tumours,  will  act  powerfully  in  ripening  them.  The  seeds 
of  the  A.  retictdata  may  be  swallowed  whole  with  impunity,  though 
the  kernels  are  highly  poisonous.  The  bark  is  a  powerful  astringent, 
and  as  a  tonic  is  much  used  in  medicine  by  the  Malays  and  Chinese. 
— Longf  Iiidig.  Plants  of  Bengal.     Rheede. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  Anonas  are  all  South  American  plants. 
This  species,  as  well  as  the  A.  reticulata  (Sweet-sop  or  BuUock's- 
heart)  and  A.  muricata  (Sour-«op),  has  long  been  naturalised  in  the 
East  "  The  only  place,"  says  Royle,  "  where  I  have  seen  it  appa- 
rently wild,  was  on  the  sides  of  the  mountain  on  which  the  hill-fort 
of  Adjeegurh  in  Bundelcund  is  built,  and  this  it  covers  in  company 
with  the  teak-tree,  which  only  attains  a  dwarfish  size.     The  fruit  is 


ANTIARIS — ANTIDESMA.  45 

delicioiis  to  the  taste,  and  on  occasionB  of  famine  has  literally  proved 
the  staff  of  life  to  the  natives.  It  is  not  generally  known  that  the 
leaves  of  this  plant  have  a  heavy  disagreeable  odour,  and  the  seeds 
contain  a  highly  acrid  principle  fatal  to  insects,  on  which  aocount 
the  natives  of  India  use  them  powdered  and  mixed  with  the  flour 
of  gram  (Cicer  arietinum)  for  washing  the  hair.  When  in  fruit, 
the  Custard-apple  is  easily  distinguished  from  the  BuUock's-heaxt 
They  are  well  known  as  Seeia-phvJ  and  Ram-phvl.  The  Sour-sop 
or  rough  Anona  is  sparingly  cultivated  in  Madras ;  the  fruit  is  muri- 
cated  with  soft  prickles. — Moyle.     Oibson. 

(61)  Antiaris  saccidora  (Dalz,)    K  0.  Abtocarpaoejb. 

Nettavil-marum,  Tam.    Araya-angell,  Mal. 

Descreption. — Large  tree ;  leaves  alternate,  ovate  -  oblong, 
acuminate,  entire,  glabrous  above,  slightly  villous  beneath ; 
capitule  axillary,  aggregated  ;  drupe,  shape  and  size  of  a  small 
fig,  covered  with  purple  down.   FL  Oct. —  Wight  Icon,  t  1958. 

— ^Lepurandra  saccidora,  Nimmo  in  Orah's  Cat Malabar. 

North  Concan.    Travancore. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  natives  strip  the  bark  of  this  tree  into  large 
pieces,  soak  it  in  water,  and  beat  it  well,  when  it  becomes  white  and 
furry.  In  this  state  the  hill-people  use  it  as  clothing,  and  also  make 
it  into  large  bags  by  making  a  single  perpendicular  incision  in  the 
bark,  and  one  above  and  below,  and  then  sewing  the  sides  together 
again.  Paper  is  also  made  from  the  bark.  It  is  a  very  large  tree, 
18  feet  in  circumference  at  the  base.  On  wounding  the  fruit  a 
milky  viscid  fluid  exudes  in  large  quantities,  which  shortly  hardens, 
becoming  of  a  black  and  shining  colour,  and  of  the  consistency  of 
bees'- wax.  The  inner  bark  is  composed  of  very  strong  tenacious 
fibres,  which  seem  excellently  adapted  for  cordage  and  matting.  The 
nuts  are  intensely  bitter,  and  contain  an  azotised  principle,  which 
may  prove  an  active  medical  agent.  In  the  N.  Concans,  iJie  natives 
caU  the  tree  Juzoogry  and  Kurwut.  Sacks  made  horn  the  bark  are 
used  by  the  villagers  for  carrying  rice,  and  are  sold  for  six  annas 
each.  The  tree  was  first  noticed  by  Dr  Lush  at  Kandalla  in  1837. 
The  native  name  given  in  Graham's  catalogue  is  Chandul,  and  there 
described  as  having  dentate  serrulate  leaves. — Dalzell  in  Hodker^s 
Joum.  of  Bot,  iiL  232.     Nimmo.    •/.  Chrdh.  Cat 

(62)  Antidesma  bnnias  {Spreng.)   K  0.  STiLAomACEiE. 

Nolai-tali,  Tam.    NuU-tali,  Mal. 

Description. — Middle-sized  tree;  leaves  alternate,  entire, 
lanceolate-oblong ;  spikes  axillary  and  terminal ;  male  flowers 


46  APONOGETON — ^ARACHIS. 

triandrous,  with  an  abortive  column  in  the  centre;  flowers 
green ;  fruit  red.    Roxb.  FL  Ind,  iii.  758. —  Wight  Icon,  t  819. 

— Eheede,  iv.  t.   56. — ^Stilago  bunias,  Linn. Coromandel. 

Malabar.    Nepaul. 

Medical  Uses. — The  shining  deep -red  fruit  is  sub-acid,  and 
esteemed  for  its  cooling  qualities.  This  is  one  of  the  numerous 
plants  reckoned  as  a  remedy  against  the  bites  of  snakes.  The  leaves 
are  acid  and  diaphoretic,  and  when  young  are  boiled  with  pot-herbs, 
and  employed  by  the  natives  in  syphilitic  affections. — Ltndley, 

EeoNOMio  Uses. — ^The  bark  is  used  for  making  ropes,  especially  in. 
Travancore.  In  Assam  the  tree  grows  to  a  large  size,  the  trunk 
being  12  or  14  inches  in  diameter.  The  timber  is  greatly  affected 
by  immersion  in  the  water,  becoming  heavy  and  black  as  iron.  An- 
other species,  the  A.  diandrum,  found  on  the  Circar  mountains, 
yields  a  tolerable  timber,  useful  for  many  purposes.  Bopes  are  also 
made  from  the  A.  puhescens^  a  native  of  the  Northern  Circars,  where 
it  19  CEJled  Pollarie.     The  succulent  drupes  are  eatable. — Boxb. 

(63)  Aponogeton  monostachyon  {WUId.)    N.  0.  Juno  agin  ACEiE. 

Pama-kalanga,  Mal.    Ohechoo,  Hind.    Kotee-kalasgoo,  Tax.    Nama,  Tel. 

Description. — Perennial,  aquatic ;  roots  tuberous ;  leaves 
radical,  linear-oblong,  cordate  at  the  base,  pointed,  entire,  3-5 
nerved ;  scapes  slightly  striated,  as  long  as  the  leaves ;  spikes 
single,  closely  surrounded  with  flowers ;  capsules  3,  smooth, 
1-celled,  4-3-seeded;  anthers  blue. — RoaA,  Fl,  Ind.  ii,  210. — 
Bheede,  xi.  t.  15. Peninsula.     Concans. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  aquatic  plant  is  found  in  shallow  stand- 
ing water  and  the  beds  of  tanks,  flowering  during  the  rainy  season. 
The  natives  relish  the  small  tubers  as  an  article  of  diet.  Th^y  are 
said  to  be  as  good  as  potatoes,  and  esteemed  a  great  delicacy. — 
Boxb,    Ainsl. 

(64)  AracMs  hypogsda  (Linn.)    K  0.  Leguminos^. 

Earth-nut,  Manilla-nut,  Eno.     Vayer  or  Nelav-cadalay,  Tam.     Nela  Sanagalu, 
Tel.    Vel^tee-moong,  Duk.    Moong-phullee,  Hind. 

Description. — ^Annual,  diffuse ;  stem  hairy ;  leaves  abruptly 
pinnated ;  leaflets  2-pair ;  calyx  tubular,  long ;  corolla  papili- 
onaceous ;  stamens  and  petals  inserted  into  the  throat  of  the 
calyx;  flowers  above  ground  sterile,  aggregate,  axillaiy,  yel- 
low; legumes  long-stalked,  indehiscent,  1-celled,  2-3-seeded. 


ARACHIS.  47 

FL  June.— IT.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  iSO.—Roxb.  Fl  Ind.  iii  280. 
Cultivated  in  the  Peninsula. 

Economic   Uses. — Properly  indigenous  to  South  America,  but 
extensively  cultivated  in  the  Peninsula  for  the  sake  of  the  oil  yielded 
by  the  seeds.     This  plant  obtained  its  specific  name  from  the  pods 
burying  themselves  in  the  earth,  where  they  ripen  their  seeds.   These 
latter  are  roasted  in  America,  and  are  considered  a  good  substitute 
for  chocolate.     The  oil  which  is  expressed  from  them  is  much  used 
in  China  and  India  for  lamps.    The  poorer  classes  eat  the  nuts.    An 
experiment  was  made  in  France  as  to  the  relative  consumption  of 
the  ground-nut  oil  and  olive  oil  in  a  lamp  having  a  wick  of  one-eighth 
of  an  inch  in  diameter,  when  it  was  found  that  an  ounce  of  the 
ground-nut  oil  burned  9  hours  and  25  minutes,  while  olive  oil  under 
similar  circumstances  burned  only  8  hours.     It  has  the  additional 
advantage  of  giving  no  smoke.      In  Europe  a  bushel  of  ground- 
nuts produces  one  gallon  of  oil  when  expressed  cold ;  if  heat  be 
applied  a  still  greater  quantity  is  procured,  but  of  inferior  quality. 
The  nut,  according  to  Dr  Davy,  abounds  with  starch  as  well  as  oil, 
and  a  large  proportion  of  albuminous  matter,  and  in  no  other  in- 
stances had  he  found  so  large  a  proportion  of  starch  mixed  with  oil. 
The  leaf  is  something  like  that  of  clover,  and  affords  excellent  food 
for  cattle,  and  the  cakes  after  the  expression  of  the  oil  form  a  good 
manure.     Under  favourable  circumstances  the  nuts  wOl  produce 
half  their  weight  of  oil,  and  the  quantity  is  much  increased  by  heat 
and  pressure.     It  is  cultivated  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Calcutta,  the 
oil  being  used  for  pharmaceutical  purposes,  and  especially  for  lamps 
and  machinery.     A  great  quantity  of  the  oil  is  exported  annually  from 
the  Madras  territories.     It  does  not  seem  to  be  consumed  to  any 
large  extent  in  this  country,  although  the  nut  itself  is  much  eaten 
by  the  poorer  classes.     It  is  said  to  be  used  for  adulterating  gingely 
oil  in  Korth  Arcot,  where  it  costs  Es.  1-8  to  2-12  per  maund.     In 
the  iNellore  district  the  seeds  are  procured  at  Es.  1-8  per  maund,  and 
in  Tanjore  about  200  acres  are  cultivated,  producing  annually  75 
candies  of  oil,  at  Es.  2-6  per  maund.    The  seeds  yield  about  43  per 
cent  of  a  clear  straw-coloured  edible  oil,  which  is  an  excellent  sub- 
stitute for  olive  oil,  and  makes  a  good  soap.     Simmonds  has  re- 
marked upon  this  useful  product:   ''This  oil  is  good  for  every 
purpose  for  which  olive  or  almond  oil  is  used.     For  domestic  pur- 
poses it  is  esteemed,  and  it  does  not  become  rancid  so  quickly  as 
other  oils.     Experiments  have  been  made  on  its  inflanmiable  pro- 
perties, and  it  is  proved  that  the  brilliancy  of  light  was  superior  to 
that  of  olive  oil,  and  its  durability  was  likewise  proved  to  be  seven 
minutes  per  hour  beyond  the  combustion  of  the  best  olive  oil,  with 
the  additional  advantage  of  scarcely  any  smoke."     And  further : 
''  That  the  culture  of  the  Arachis  in  warm  climates,  or  even  in  a 
temperate  one  under  favourable  circumstances,  should  be  encour- 
aged, there  can  be  but  one  opinion,  especially  when  it  ia  considered 


48  ARECA. 

that  its  qualities  are  able  to  supeisede  that  of  the  olive  and  the 
almond,  which  are  but  precarioiu  in  their  crops.  ...  I  am 
informed  by  an  American  merchant  that  he  cleared  12,000  dollars 
in  one  year  on  the  single  article  of  ground  or  pea  nuts  obtained 
£rom  Africa.  Strange  as  it  may  appear,  nearly  all  these  nuts  are 
transhipped  to  France,  where  they  command  a  ready  sale ;  are  there 
converted  into  oil ;  and  then  find  their  way  over  the  world  in  the 
shape  of  olive  oil,  the  skill  of  the  French  chemists  enabling  them  to 
imitate  the  real  Lucca  and  Florence  oil,  so  as  to  deceive  tiie  nicest 
judges.  Indeed,  the  oil  from  the  pea-nuts  possesses  a  sweetness 
and  delicacy  that  cannot  be  surpassed."  There  are  two  varieties  of 
this  plant  grown  in  Malacca ;  also  in  Java — one  with  white,  the 
other  with  brown  seeds.  It  is  there  known  as  the  Katjang  oiL  So 
useful  a  plant  should  be  more  extensively  cultivated  in  this  country. 
It  thrives  well  on  a  light  sandy  soil,  and  is  very  prolific  In  some 
parts  of  America  it  yields  from  thirty  to  eighty  bushels  of  nuts  per 
acre.  On  the  western  coast  of  Africa  it  is  planted  to  a  great  extent 
— Ed,  FhU,  Mag.    JSimmonds,     Comm.  Prod,  Mad. 

(65)  Axeca  catechn  (Linn.)    N.  O.  Palmacejl 

Areca  or  Betel-nut  Palm,  Eiro.    Paak-marum  or  Camooghoo,  Tam.    Poka-chettu, 
TsL.    Suparie,  Duk.    Adaka  or  Cavooghoo,  Mal.    Gtooa,  Bsng. 

Desceiption. — Palm ;  spathe  double ;  spadix  much  branch- 
ed ;  male  flowers  numerous,  above  the  female,  sessile ;  calyx 
1-lobed,  3-comered,  3-partite;  petals  3,  oblong,  smooth; 
stamens  2-partite,  inserted  round  the  base  of  the  style ;  female 
flowers  1-3  at  the  base  of  each  ramification,  sessile;  calyx 
5-lobed,  flowers  small,  white,  fragrant.  FL  April — May. — 
Soxb.  FL  Ind.  iii  615.— Clw.  i.  t  76.— Bheede,  I  t.  6,  6,  7,  8. 
Cultivated. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^The  nut  is  used  as  a  masticatory  in  conjunction 
with  the  leaf  of  Piper  Betel  and  Chunam.  It  w  considered  to 
strengthen  the  gums,  sweeten  the  breath,  and  improve  the  tone  of 
the  digestive  organs.  The  seed,  reduced  to  charcoal  and  powdered, 
forms  an  excellent  dentifrice.  Dr  Shortt  states  that  the  powdered 
nut,  in  doses  of  ten  or  fifteen  grains  every  three  or  four  hours,  is 
useful  in  checking  diarrhoea  arising  from  debility.  The  dry  ex- 
panded petioles  serve  as  excellent  ready-made  splints  for  fractures. 
— Pharm.  of  India, 

EooNOMio  Uses. — In  appearance  the  Areca  Palm  is  perhaps  the 
most  graceful  and  elegant  of  Indian  Pabna  Its  native  place  is 
unknown,  but  it  is  extensively  distributed  in  India.  It  yidds  the 
betel-nut  of  commerce.  A  tree  will  produce  annually,  on  an  average, 
three  hundred  nuts.     The  catechu  which  they  yield  is  of  a  very 


ARECA.  49 

inferior  quality.  There  are  two  preparations  of  it,  which  are  re- 
spectively called  by  the  Tamools,  Cuttacamboo  and  Cashcnttie ;  in 
Teeloogoo,  Kansee ;  and  in  Dakhanie,  Bharab-cutta  and  Acha-cutta. 
The  first  (Cuttacamboo)  is  chewed  with  the  betel-leaf.  Like  most 
of  the  Paim  tribe,  the  trunk  is  much  used  for  ordinary  building 
purposes;  and  in  Travancore  is  especially  used  for  spear-handles, 
&c.  The  spathe  which  stretches  over  the  blossoms,  which  is  called 
Paak-muttay,  is  a  fibrous  substance,  with  which  the  Hindoos  make 
vessels  for  holding  arrack,  water,  &c. ;  also  caps,  dishes,  and  small 
umbrellas.  It  is  so  fine  that  it  can  be  written  on  with  ink.  The 
Areca  Palm  is  found  chiefly  in  Malabar,  Canara,  North  Bengal,  the 
lower  slopes  of  the  mountains  of  Nepaul,  and  the  south-west  coast 
of  Ceylon.  It  will  produce  firuit  at  five  years,  and  continue  to  bear 
for  twenty-five  years.  Unlike  the  Cocoa  Palm,  it  will  thrive  at 
high  regions,  and  at  a  distance  from  the  sea.  In  the  Eastern  Islands 
the  produce  of  the  tree  varies  from  two  hundred  to  one  thousand  nuts 
annually.  They  form  a  considerable  article  of  commerce  with  the 
Eastern  Islands  and  China,  and  are  also  one  of  the  staple  products 
of  Travancore,  The  nuts  are  gathered  in  Jidy  and  August,  though 
not  fally  ripe  till  October.  In  the  latter  country  the  nuts  are 
variously  prepared  for  use.  "  Those  that  are  used  by  families  of 
rank  are  collected  while  the  fruit  is  tender ;  the  husks  or  the  outer 
pod  is  removed ;  the  kernel,  a  round  fleshy  mass,  is  boiled  in  water : 
in  the  first  boiling  of  the  nut,  when  properly  done,  the  water  be- 
comes red,  thick,  and  starch-like,  and  this  is  afterwards  evaporated 
into  a  substance  like  catechu.  The  boiled  nuts  being  now  removed, 
sliced,  and  dried,  the  catechu-like  substance  is  rubbed  to  the  same 
and  dried  again  in  the  sun,  when  they  become  of  a  shining  black, 
ready  for  use.  Whole  nuts,  without  being  sliced,  are  also  prepared 
in  the  same  form  for  use  amongst  the  higher  classes ;  while  ripe 
nuts,  as  well  as  young  nuts  in  a  raw  state,  are  used  by  all  classes  of 
people  generally ;  and  ripe  nuts  preserved  in  water  with  the  pod  are 
also  used."  When  exported  to  other  districts,  the  nuts  are  sliced 
and  coloured  with  red  catechu,  as  also  the  nut  while  in  the  pod. 
The  average  amount  of  exports  of  the  prepared  nuts  from  Travan- 
core is  from  2000  to  3000  candies  annually,  exclusive  of  the  nuts 
in  their  ordinary  state,  great  quantities  of  which  are  shipped  to 
Bombay  and  other  ports.  According  to  the  last  survey  there  were 
upwards  of  a  million  trees  in  Travancore.  The  foUowing  mode  of 
extracting  the  catechu  from  the  nuts  in  Mysore  is  taken  from 
Heyne's  *  Tracts  on  India :  *  "  The  nuts  are  taken  as  they  come 
from  the  tree,  and  boiled  for  some  hours  in  an  iron  vessel.  They 
are  then  taken  out,  and  the  remaining  water  is  inspissated  by  con- 
tinual boiling.  This  process  furnishes  Kossa,  or  most  astringent 
terra  japonica,  which  is  black,  and  mixed  with  paddy-husks  and 
other  impurities.  After  the  nuts  are  dried  they  are  put  into  a  fresh 
quantity  of  water  and  boiled  again ;  and  this  water  being  inspissated 
like  the  former,  yields  the  best  or  dearest  kind  of  catechu,  called 

4 


50  AHQEMONE. 

Coony.  It  is  yellowkh  brown,  has  an  earthy  fracture,  and  is  firee 
from  the  admixture  of  foreign  bodies."  The  nuts  are  seldom  im- 
ported into  England.  The  catechu  has  of  late  years  superseded 
madder  in  the  calico-works  of  Europe  for  dyeing  a  golden  coffee- 
brown,  1  lb.  of  this  being  equal  to  6  lb.  of  madder.  On  the  moun- 
tains of  Travancore  and  Malabar,  a  wild  species,  the  A.  Dicksonii,  is 
found  in  great  abundance.  Of  this  the  poorer  classes  eat  the  nuts 
as  a  substitute  for  the  common  betel-nut,  but  no  other  part  of  the 
tree  appears  to  be  employed  for  any  useful  purpose. — Ainslie, 
Lindley,    Simmonds.    Rep.  on  Products  of  Travancore. 


(66)  Argemone  Mezicaiia  (Linn.)    N.  0.  FAPAVERACEiB. 

Tellow  thiitld  or  Mexican  poppy.  Eno.  Bramadandoo,  Tuf.  Brahmadandi, 
Tel.  Feiingie-datma,  or  Peala,  DUK.  Buro-shialkanta,  or  Thialkanta,  Bemg. 
Bherband,  Hnn). 

Desceiption. — ^Annual,  herbaceous ;  leaves  alternate,  sessile, 
repand-sinuate,  sharply  toothed;  sepals  2-3;  calyx  prickly, 
glabrous;  petals  4-6;  stem  bristly;  flowers  solitary  on  erect 
peduncles ;  capsules  prickly ;  seeds  roundish ;  flowers  yellow. 
Fl.  Oct— Nov. —  W.  &A.  Prod.  i.  18. CoromandeL  Mala- 
bar in  waste  places. 

Medical  Ussa — This  plant  is  a  native  of  Mexico,  but  is  now 
found  abundantly  in  Asia  and  AMca  over  a  very  extended  area. 
The  stalks  and  leaves  abound  with  a  bitter  yellow  juice  like  Gam- 
boge, which  is  used  in  chronic  ophthalmia.  The  seeds  are  used  in 
the  West  Indies  as  a  substitute  for  Ipecacuanha.  An  oil  is  also 
expressed  from  them,  which  in  South  America  is  much  used  by 
painters,  and  for  giving  a  shining  appearance  to  wood.  It  has  also 
been  employed  as  a  substitute  for  castor-oil,  and  is  applied  exter- 
nally in  headache  by  the  native  practitioners.  The  juice  of  the 
plant  in  infusion  is  diuretic,  relieves  strangury  from  blisters,  and 
heals  excoriations.  The  seeds  are  very  narcotic,  and  said  to  be 
stronger  than  opium.  Simmonds  says,  "  The  seeds  possess  an 
emetic  quality.  In  stomach  complaints  the  usual  dose  of  the  oil 
is  thirty  drops  on  a  lump  of  sugar,  and  its  effect  is  perfectly  magical, 
relieving  the  pain  instantaneously,  throwing  the  patient  into  a  pro- 
found refreshing  sleep,  and  relieving  the  bowels."  This  valuable 
but  neglected  plant  has  been  strongly  reconunended  as  an  aperient, 
anodyne,  and  hypnotic,  by  Dr  Hamilton  and  other  experienced  prac- 
titioners in  the  West  Indies. — (Vide  PharmL  Journal,  iv.,  v.,  and 
xii.)  Samples  of  the  oil  were  produced  at  the  Madras  Exhibition. 
It  is  cheap,  and  procurable  in  the  bazaars,  being  used  chiefly  for 
lamps. — (Ainslie.  Ldndley.  Simmonds.)  Age  apparently  affects  its 
activity,  the  freshly-prepared  oil  proving  more  energetic  and  uniform 
in  its  operation  than  that  which  has  been  kept  some  time.     It  has  a 


ARGYREIA.  51 

soothing  influence  on  all  herpetic  eruptions ;  and  as  a  local  applica- 
tion to  indolent  ulceis  the  expressed  juice  is  much  esteemed  by  the 
natives.  The  native  practice  of  applying  the  juice  to  the  eye  in 
ophthalmia  is  dangerous.  The  plajit  was  introduced  into  India 
from  Mexico  some  three  centuries  ago.  It  is  covered  with  strong 
prickles,  whence  the  Spaniards  called  it  Figo  del  Inferno— the  Fig 
of  Hell.  The  fresh  root,  bruised  and  applied  to  the  part  stung  by 
scorpions,  is  said  to  give  relief. — Pharm,  of  India,  Agric.  Joum,  of 
IndiUy  ix.  403. 

(67)  Argyreia  bracteata  (Choisy),    K  O.  Convolvulace^. 

Description. — Twining  shrub,  branched  ;  leaves  alternate, 
on  long  petioles,  broadly  cordate-ovate,  dark  shining  green 
above,  beneath  hirsute  and  somewhat  silky ;  calyx  5-cleft ; 
sepals  hairy ;  coroUa  campanulate,  hairy  externally,  purplish 
white,  with  a  deep  purple  eye ;  peduncles  axillary,  dividing  at 
the  extremity  in  two  or  three  branches  with  a  seasUe  ebracteated 
flower  in  the  fork,  each  of  the  pedicelled  flowers  with  three 
bracteas  at  the  base  of  the  calyx ;  berry  3-4  seeded,  deep 
orange  colour;    seeds  embedded  in  pulp.  —  Dec.  Prod.  ix. 

328. — Drury  Hand.  Ind.  Flor.  ii.  296. Madras.      Coro- 

mandel. 

Medical  Uses. — This  plant  is  filled  with  milky  juice.  Decoc- 
tions of  the  leaves  are  used  by  the  natives  as  fomentations  in  cases 
of  scrofulous  enlaigement  of  the  joints,  the  boiled  leaves  being  used 
as  poultices  at  the  same  time. — Wight 

(68)  Argyreia  Malabarica  (Choisy).    Do. 

Kattu  Kalangu,  Mal.    Paymoostey,  Tah. 

Description. — Twining  shrub ;  stem  downy ;  leaves  round- 
ish-cordate, acute,  furnished  with  a  few  scattered  hairs  on  both 
surfaces,  paler  below ;  corolla  campanulate ;  peduncles  as  long 
as  the  leaves,  many-flowered  at  the  apex  ;  sepals  5 ;  exterior 
ones  clothed  with  hoary  villi  with  revolute  edges ;  petioles 
and  peduncles  villous ;  flowers  small,  cream-coloured,  with 
deep  purple  eye.     Fl.  July — ^August. — Dec.  Prod.  ix.   331. 

Convolvulus  Malabaricus,  Linn. — Bheede,  xi.  t.  51. Mysore. 

Malabar.     Common  on  the  ghauts. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  is  cathartic.  This  plant  is  considered 
by  farriers  a  good  horse-medicine.     The  leaves  beaten  up  with  the 


52  ARGYREIA — ARISTOLOCHIA. 

Codi  Avanacu  (Tragia  ehamcelea)  and  fresh  butter  promote  the 
maturation  of  abscesses.  The  root  is  used  externally  in  erysipelas. 
— Aindie,    lOieede. 

(69)  Argyreia  SpecioBa  (Sweet).    Do. 

Elephant  Creeper,  Eno.  Samundar,  HiKD.  and  Duk.  Sbamnddirap-pachchai, 
Kadaf^paUi,  Tam.  Samudra-pala,  Chandra-poda,  Kokkita,  PalA-samudra,  Tel. 
Samudra-yogam,  Samadra-pali^  Mal. 

Description. — ^Twining,  tomentose  ;  leaves  cordate,  acute, 
glabrous  above,  thickly  nerved  beneath,  and  silky  silvery; 
sepals  5  ;  corolla  campanulate ;  peduncles  equal  in  length  to 
the  petioles,  umbellately  capitate ;  corolla  nearly  two  inches 
long,  deep  rose-coloured,  hairy  in  the  plicae  outside.  FL  July 
— August — Dec,  Prod.  ix.  328. — Convolvulus  speciosus,  Linn. 
— Lettsomia  nervosa,  Boai.  Fl.  Ind.  i  488. — Rheede,  xi.  t.  61. 

—  Wiglvt  Icon.  t.  851, 1360. Malabar  forests.     Hedges  in 

the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves  are  used  by  native  practitioners  in 
the  preparation  of  emollient  potdtices,  and  also  in  cutaneous  com- 
plaints, being  appHed  extemadly  to  the  parts  affected.  The  upper 
side  of  the  leaves  is  used  by  the  natives  to  act  as  a  discutient^  the 
under  or  white  side  as  a  maturant. — {Ainslie.  Gibson.)  In  a  case 
which  came  under  Dr  Wight's  observation  they  acted  as  a  powerful 
vesicant — Wight,  111.,  u.  201. 

(70)  Aristolochia  bracteata  (Retz).     K.  0.  Aristoloohiage^ 

Worm-kiUer,  Eno.  Addatinapalay,  Tam.  Gadida-guda-pa,  Tel.  Kera-mar, 
Hind,  and  Duk. 

Description.  —  Trailing;  roots  perennial,  fibrous;  st^ms 
striated,  waved ;  leaves  alternate,  petioled,  kidney -shaped, 
curled  at  the  margins,  glaucous  below ;  petioles  channelled ; 
flowers  axillary,  solitary,  peduncled,  drooping  ;  calyx  with  the 
upper  part  of  the  tube  and  tongue  erect ;  colour  dark  purple ; 
covered  on  the  inside  with  purple  hairs ;  capsules  ovate.    Fl. 

Nearly  all  the  year. — Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  490. Coromandel 

in  cultivated  places.    Travancore.     Banks  of  the  Jumna. 

Medical  Uses. — Every  part  of  this  plant  is  nauseously  bitter. 
In  cases  of  gripes,  two  of  the  fresh  leaves  are  rubbed  up  with  water 
and  given  once  in  twenty-four  hours.  An  infusion  of  the  dried  leaves 
is  given  as  an  anthelmintic.  Fresh  bruised  and  mixed  with  castoiK)!!, 
they  are  considered  a  valuable  remedy  in  obstinate  cases  of  that  kind 
of  Psora  called  in  Tamil  Carpang.     It  is  also  said  to  be  anti-periodic 


ARISTOLOCHIA — ^ARTEMISIA.  53 

and  eramenagogue.  The  fresh  leaves  applied  to  the  navel  of  a  child 
are  said  to  have  the  effect  of  moving  the  howels.  The  same,  Med 
with  castor-oil  and  made  into  a  ball  the  size  of  an  orange,  relieves 
horses  when  suffering  from  gripes.  The  leaves  beaten  up  with 
water  are  given  internally  in  cases  of  snake-bites ;  also  in  infusion 
for  boils  and  inflammatory  attacks.  The  plant  grows  abundantly  on 
dark  red  or  black  soil  in  the  Deccan.  The  natives  squeeze  the  juice 
into  wounds  to  kill  worms,  hence  its  name  ^'Keeramar." — {Racb. 
Atnslie.  Gibson,  Lindley,)  Dr  Newton  says  that  in  Scinde  the 
dried  root,  in  doses  of  about  a  dram  and  a  half,  in  the  form  of 
powder  or  in  infusion,  is  administered  to  increase  uterine  contrac- 
tions.— Pharm.  of  India. 

(71)  Aristolochia  Indica  {Linn,)    Do. 

Indian  birthworty  Eno.  laharmnl,  Hnn).,  DuK.,  and  Bsno.  Ich-chnnmuli, 
Peru-marindu^  Pemm-Kizhangu,  Tam.  Ishvara-veru,  Dala-govela,  Govila,  Tel. 
Karalekam,  £!arukap-pulla,  Kandvekam,  IshyaramiiTi,  Mal. 

Desckiption. — Perennial,  twining;  leaves  stalked,  wedge- 
shaped  or  obovate,  3-nerved,  pointed,  waved;  calyx  tubular, 
nearly  globose  at  the  base ;  racemes  axillary,  shorter  than  the 
leaves ;  flowers  erect ;  corolla  purplish ;  capsule  roundish, 
hexagonal,  6-celled ;  seeds  numerous.  Fl.  Sept. — Oct — Roocb, 
Fl,  Ind,  iii.  489.— JPFi^A^  Icon,  t  1858.— iZAcede,  viii.  t.  25. 

Copses  and  jungles  in  Travancore.    CoromandeL    Bengal. 

Hills  throughout  the  Concan. 

Medical  Use& — The  root  is  nauseously  bitter,  and  is  said  to 
possess  emmenagogue  and  antarthritic  virtues,  and  to  be  a  valuable 
antidote  to  snake-bites,  being  applied  both  externally  and  internally. 
For  particulars  regarding  the  alleged  efficacy  of  this  remedy,  see 
Journal  of  the  Agri.  Hort.  Soc.  of  India,  v.  138  and  742.  Mixed 
with  honey,  the  root  is  given  in  white  leprosy,  and  the  leaves 
internally  in  fever. — Ainalie.     Lindl. 

(72)  Artemisia  Indica  {Willd.)    K  O.  Composite 

llajtari,  Mastara,  Hind.     Machipattiri,  Tau.     liachipatri,  TxL.     Tira-nitri- 
pachha,  Mal.    Mastam,  Beko. 

Description. — Sufifruticose,  erect ;  leaves  white,  tomentose 
below,  pinnatifid,  upper  ones  trifid,  uppermost  and  branched 
ones  undivided,  and  with  the  lobes  oblong,  obtuse,  mucronate ; 
capitules  spicately  panicled,  oblong,  panicle  leafy  and  spreading, 
younger  racemes  nodding  ;  outer  scales  of  the  younger  pubes- 
cent involucre  leafy,  acute,  of  the  inner  ones  scariose,  obtuse ; 
flowers  small,  greenish  white.      WUld,  Sp.  iii.  1846. — Eoxb, 


54  ARTOCARPUS. 

Flor.  Ind.  iiL  449. — Ehcede,  x.  t  45. — X.  grata,  Dec, Com- 
mon on  high  lands.     Mysore. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  strong  aromatic  odour  and  bitter  taste  of 
this  plant  indicate  tonic  and  stomachic  properties.  Dr  Wight  states 
that  the  leaves  and  tops  are  administered  in  nervous  and  spasmodic 
affections  connected  with  debility,  and  also  that  an  infusion  of  them 
is  used  as  a  fomentation  in  phagedenic  ulceration.  Dr  L.  Stewart 
describes  an  infusion  of  the  tops  and  leaves  as  a  mild  stomachic 
tonic. — {Pharm,  of  India  J)  All  the  different  species  of  Artemisia 
are  aromatic  bitter  tonics,  and  most  of  them  have  anthelmintic  pro- 
perties. They  contain  an  essential  oil,  a  bitter  principle  called 
Absinthine,  and  a  peculiar  acrid.  They  are  principally  used  in 
intermittent  fevers  and  dyspepsia,  also  in  epilepsy  and  chorea.  The 
present  species  is  used  as  an  antispasmodic  in  hysteria.  It  might  be 
used  as  a  substitute  for  Cinchona,  though  inferior  in  intermittent 
fevers. — PotoelTs  Punj.  Products, 

(73)  ArtocariraB  hirsntos  {Lam.)    K  0.  Abtooarpaosa. 

Ai^jelee,  Tam.    Ayenee,  Ansjeli,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree ;  leaves  elliptic,  obtuse,  or  rounded  at 
both  ends,  glabrous,  hairy,  especially  on  the  nerves  beneath ; 
male  catkin  long,  cylindrical,  ascending,  afterwards  pendulous ; 
females  oval,  size  of  a  hen's  egg ;  fruit  globose,  echinata  Fl. 
Feb. — March. — Roxb.  Flor.  Ind,  iii  521. — RJieede,  iii.  t  32. — 
Wight  Icon,  t  1957. ^Forests  of  Malabar  and  Travancore. 

Economic  Use& — ^This  tree  yields  the  Anjely  wood  so  well  known 
on  the  western  coast  for  house-building,  ships,  frame-works,  &c. 
The  tree  attains  a  large  size  in  the  forests  on  the  western  coast, 
where  it  abounds.  The  fruit  is  the  size  of  a  large  orange,  and 
abounds  in  a  viscid  juice,  which  freely  flows  fix)m  the  rough  rind  if 
touched ;  this  is  manufactured  into  bird-lime.  The  pulpy  substance 
which  surrounds  the  seeds  is  much  relished  by  the  natives,  being 
almost  as  good  as  the  Jack-fruit.  The  bark  is  occasionally  used  in 
Canara  for  preparing  a  brown  dye. — Boxb.     Wight 

(74)  Artocarpns  integrifoliuB  (Linn,)    Do. 

Indian  Jack-tree,  E^a.     Pila,  Tam.     Panasa,  Tel.    Phonus,  DuK.     Pilavoo, 
Mal.    Kantal,  Bsng. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  young  branches  hirsute ;  leaves 
alternate,  petiolate,  ovate-oblong,  glabrous,  pale  below  and 
hirsute  with  stiif  hairs ;  flowers  male  and  female  on  the  same 
branch ;  peduncle  pendulous,  arising  from  the  trunk  orbranches; 
amentum  of  male  flowers  cylindrical ;  calyx  none  ;  petals  2  ; 


ARUM.  55 

fruit  ovate,  muricated.  Fl,  Nov. — Dec. — Boxb,  Flor,  Ind,  iii. 
522.— Cor.  iii.  t  250.— Meede,  iii.  t.  26-28.- Wi^ht  Icon.  t. 
678. — A.  heterophylla,  Lam. Malabar.   Peninsula.  Bengal. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  timber  of  this  tree,  so  well  known  as  the 
Jack- wood,  is  much  esteemed  for  making  furniture  of  aU  kinds,  for 
which  it  is  well  adapted.  At  iirst  it  is  somewhat  pale,  but  after- 
wards assumes  a  darker  tinge  approaching  to  mahogany,  and  when 
polished  becomes  one  of  the  best  fancy  woods  for  tables,  chairs,  aud 
frames.  The  root  of  the  older  trees  is  dark-coloured,  and  admirably 
adapted  for  picture-frames  and  carving-work  of  aU  kinds.  Like 
others  of  the  same  family,  the  tree  abounds  in  viscid,  milky  juice. 
The  fruit,  which  grows  to  an  enormous  size,  and  hangs  by  a  peduncle 
springing  from  the  trunk,  is  a  favourite  article  of  food  among  the 
natives.  There  are  several  varieties,  but  what  is  called  the  honey- 
jack  is  by  far  the  sweetest  and  best.  The  seeds  when  roasted  are 
also  much  prized  as  a  diet  among  the  poorer  classes.  The  leaves  are 
given  to  goats  and  other  cattle,  and  are  said  to  be  very  fattening. 
In  Travancore  the  Jack-tree  is  a  monopoly,  and  yields  an  annual 
tax  to  the  Sircar.  The  wood  yields  an  abundant  yellow  dye,  the 
sawdust  being  generally  boiled  for  this  purpose.  The  kernels  con- 
tain a  quantity  of  oiL  The  tree,  if  planted  in  stony  soil,  grows  short 
and  thick ;  if  in  sandy  ground,  tail  and  spreading  ;  and  if  the  roots 
happen  to  come  in  contact  with  water,  the  tree  will  not  bear  fruit. 
Bird-lime  is  manufactured  from  the  juice.  The  word  Jack  is  a  cor- 
ruption from  the  Sanscrit  word  ^'  Tchackka,"  which  means  the  fruit 
of  the  tree.  The  situation  of  the  fruit  varies  with  the  age  of  the 
tree,  being  first  borne  on  the  branches,  then  on  the  trunk,  and  in 
very  old  trees  on  the  roots.  In  Travancore  the  mode  of  propagation 
is  as  follows  :  The  natives  put  the  whole  fruit  in  the  ground,  and 
when  the  seeds  germinate  and  grow  up  they  tie  the  stems  together 
with  straw,  and  by  degrees  they  form  one  stem,  which  will  bear 
fruit  in  six  or  seven  years. — {Roa^.)  The  other  species  worthy  of 
mention  are  the  A.  Cliaplasha,  a  native  of  Ghittagong  and  the 
forests  east  of  Bengal.  It  grows  to  be  an  immense  tree,  and  canoes 
for  river  use  are  made  from  the  trunk.  The  timber  is  also  useful  for 
other  purposes,  especially  when  required  for  anything  under  water. 
The  A.  lakoocha  is  a  native  of  Bengd.  The  roots  are  used  for  dyeing 
yeUow.  The  male  spadix  is  acid  and  astringent,  and  is  eaten  by  the 
natives  in  their  curries. — (Boxb.  J.  Grah.)  The  A.  Echinaia  is  a 
large  tree,  growing  on  the  Neilgherries,  and  yielding  a  good  timber, 
but  hitherto  little  known. 


(75)  Anun  montanum  {Roxb.)   K.  O.  Araohs. 

Konda-rakis,  Tel. 

Description. — Stemless ;  root  a  cylindrical  tuber ;  leaves 


56  ASPARAGUS. 

cordate,  lepand,  polished  ;  spadix  nearly  as  long  as  the  hooded 
coloured  spathe ;  anthers  many-celled.  —  Sozb.  Fl,  Ind,  iii. 
iffl.— Wight  Icon,  t  796. Northern  Circars. 

EooNOHic  Uses. — A.  native  of  the  mountainous  parts  of  the  Nor- 
thern Circars,  where  the  root  is  employed  to  poison  tigers.  Among 
other  useful  plants  of  this  genus  may  he  mentioned  the  A,  lyratum 
(Roxb,),  also  a  native  of  the  Circar  mountains,  the  roots  of  which 
are  eaten  hy  the  natives,  and  reckoned  very  nutritious.  They  re- 
quire, however,  to  he  carefully  hoiled  several  times,  and  dressed  in 
a  particular  manner,  in  order  to  divest  them  of  a  somewhat  disagree- 
ahle  taste. — Roxb, 


(76)  Asparagus  racdmosns  (Willd,)    N.  O.  Luajlce^, 

Shakakul,  Hind,  and  Duk.    Tannir-muttan,  Shadavari,  Tam.    Challa-gaddalu, 
PUlipichara,  Pilli-tega,  Satavari,  Tkl.    Shatavaii,  Mal.    Sat-muli,  Besq, 

Description. — A  straggling  climbing  shrub ;  branches  stri- 
ated ;  leaves  fascicled,  linear,  falcate  ;  thorns  solitary,  reflexed; 
racemes  many-flowered,  axillary ;  flowers  small,  white.  FL 
Nov.— Dec— ifca?6.  FL  Ind,  ii.  151. —  Wight  Icon.  t.  2056. 
— ^Travancore.    Deccan. 

Medical  Uses. — This  plant,  says  Roxburgh,  will  perfume  the 
air  to  a  considerable  distance,  owing  to  the  delightful  fragrance  of  its 
flowers.  The  loot  boiled  in  milk  is  given  in  bilious  aflections.  It 
is  necessary  to  remove  the  bark  previous  to  administering  it,  as  it  is 
considered  poisonous.  The  leaves  boiled  and  mixed  with  ghee  are 
applied  externally  to  promote  suppuration  in  boils  and  tumours. — 
(Roxb.  Ainsl.)  It  acts  also  as  a  diuretic,  and  is  used  in  special 
diseases.  It  increases  the  appetite  and  removes  pains  in  the  bowels, 
and  is  also  considered  to  prevent  the  confluence  of  smaJl-pox. — (Punj. 
Prod,)  The  A.  sarmentosus  (Willd.),  also  a  native  of  the  Peninsula, 
has  also  medicinal  qualities.  It  is  known  as  the  Sufed  Mush ;  and 
on  this  Modeen  Sheriff'  remarks  (Suppl.  to  Pharm.  of  India,  p.  59) : 
"  There  are  two  kinds  of  Sufed  Mush,  one  found  in  the  bazaars  of 
Southern  India,  and  the  other  elsewhere.  The  former  is  the  dried 
and  split  roots  of  Asparagus  sarmentosus.  Dried  it  is  useless  as  a 
medicine,  but  when  fresh  it  is  nutrient  and  demulcent  The  Sufed 
Mush  of  all  other  parts  is  the  real  drug  to  which  the  name  is  appli- 
cable, and  is  the  root  of  Asparagits  ascendens.  It  is  a  useful  medi- 
cine, and  is  better  than  Salep,  for  which  it  is  used  as  a  substitute. 
It  is  known  under  the  Dukhanee  name  of  Shakakul-hindi.  It  grows 
in  Eohilcund  {Pharm.  of  India,  SuppL)  The  roots  of  the  A,  sarmen- 
tosus are  often  candied,  in  which  state  they  are  occasionally  brought 
from  China.     They  are  also  pickled  in  vinegar,  and  used  as  tonics. 


ASTERACANTHA — AVERBHOA.  57 

and  also  boiled  in  oil  and  applied  in  diseases  of  the  skin." — Ainslie. 
J.  Graham, 

(77)  Ajrteracantlia  longifolia  {Neea).    N.  O.  Acanthaceje. 

Neer-mooUie,  Tau.    Neer-goobbie,  Tjbl.   Gokshura.  Hiia>.  Eanta-koolika,  Bkno. 
Wahel-schulli,  Mal. 

Description. — ^Annual;  stem  erect,  bluntly  quadrangular, 
hispid ;  leaves  opposite,  ensiform,  very  long ;  calyx  4-cleft ; 
corolla  funnel-shaped,  5-cleft,  one  division  deeper  than  the 
rest ;  flowers  in  whorls,  axillary,  blue  or  bright  violet ;  spines, 
three  on  each  side  of  the  stem,  equal  in  length  to  the  whorls. 
jP7.  July — Dec. —  JVigJU  Icon.  t.4Ad, — ^Barleria  longifolia,  Linn. 
— Buellia  longifolia,  Boxb.  FL  Ind.  iiL  50. — Bheede,  ii.  t  45. 
Malabar.    Bengal 

Medical  .Uses. — This  plant  may  commonly  be  met  with  by  the 
side  of  paddy-fields  and  other  damp  situations.  The  roots  are  con- 
sidered tonic  and  diuretic,  administered  in  decoction.  They  are  also 
employed  in  dropsical  affections  and  gravel.  The  leaves  boiled  in 
vinegar  are  reckoned  diuretic. — Aijisl.     Pharm.  of  India. 

(78)  Atalaatia  monophylla  (Dec,)   K  0.  AuRAXTiACEiB. 

Wild-llme,  Esq.    Cat-ilimicliam,  Tam.    Mabmregam,  Mal.    Adivi-nimma,  T£L. 

Description.— Shrub,  8  feet ;  thorns  small ;  leaves  ovate  or 
oblong,  more  or  less  emarginate  at  the  apex;  calyx  4-toothed; 
petals  4 ;  racemes  short,  sessile ;  pedicels  long,  slender ;  berry 
globose,  size  of  a  lime,  3-4  seeded ;  flowers  axillary  and  termi- 
nal, small,  white.  Fl.  Oct. — Nov. —  fT.  &  A.  Prod,  i  91. — 
Limonia  monophylla,  Linn. — Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  378. — Cor.  i. 
t.  82. — Bheede,  iv.  t  12. Malabar.     Coromandel. 

Economic  Uses. — The  wood  is  hard,  heavy,  and  close-grained ;  of 
a  pale  yellow  colour,  and  very  suitable  for  cabinet-work.  In  the 
forests  of  Coromandel  it  grows  to  be  a  small  tree,  flowering  about 
the  rainy  season. — Roxb. 

(79)  Averrhoa  bilimbi  (Linn.)    K.  0.  OxALiUACEiB. 

BUimbi-tree,  Esq.    WUumpi,  MaL.    BiUmbi,  Bjenq.    Eamaranga,  Himd. 

Description. — Tree,  15-20  feet ;  leaves  alternate,  unequally 
pinnated  ;  leaflets  oblong,  lanceolate,  acuminated,  entire ;  calyx 
5-cleft,  pubescent;  petals  5;  flowers  reddish  purple,  in  racemes 


58  AVERRHOA — ^AVICENNIA. 

&om  the  trunk ;  fruit  oblong,  obtuse-angled  ;  seeds  without 
ariL  Fl  May— June.—  W,  &  A.  Prod.  i.  \42.—Roxb.  Fl.  Ind. 
ii.  451. — Efie€de,uLt.  4^5,4:6. Goa.  Travancora  Cultivated. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  juice  of  the  fruit  has  a  pleasant  acid  taste, 
from  which  a  syrup  is  made,  given  as  a  cooling  drink  in  fevers. 
The  leaves  are  slightly  sensitive  to  the  touch.  The  tree  is  a  native 
of  the  Moluccas.     The  fruits  are  pickled  or  preserved  in  sugar. 

(80)  Avexrhoa  carambola  (Linn.)    Do. 

Carambola-tree,  Eno.    Tamara-tonga,  or  Eamaranga,  Mal.    Camunmga,  Beno. 
Meetha-kumarunga,  Duk. 

Description. — ^Tree,  1 5-20  feet ;  leaves  alternate,  unequally 
pinnated  ;  leaflets  ovate,  acuminated,  2-5  pair  on  small  peti- 
oles ;  calyx  glabrous ;  stamens  5 ;  flowers  disposed  in  short 
racemes  arising  from  smaller  branches  on  the  trunk ;  corolla 
5-petalled,  campanulate;  petals  yellowish  purple;  fruit  acutely 
5-angled,  with  a  smooth  yellowish  rind ;  seeds  with  aril.  Fl. 
April — June. —  W.  &  A.  Prod.  L  141. — Rheede,  iii  t.  43,  44 — 
Boocb.Fl.  Ind.  u.  4:50. Travancore.  CoromandeL  Cultivated. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — This  beautiful  tree  originally  came  from  Ceylon 
and  the  Moluccas.  It  is  now  commonly  to  be  met  with  in  the 
Peninsula.  The  &uits,  which  contain  an  acid  watery  pulp,  are  good 
when  candied  or  made  into  syrup.  They  also  make  good  pickles, 
and  the  juice  is  very  useful  in  removing  iron-moulds  from  linen. 
The  leaves  are  a  good  substitute  for  sorrel.  The  root,  leaves,  and 
fruit  are  medicinal,  and  the  latter  is  used  for  dyeing  and  other  pur- 
'poseB.r^Itheede.    Don. 

(81)  Avicennia  tomentosa  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Verbekace^. 

White  Mangrove,  Eno.    Oepata,  Mal.    Bina,  Besq.    Nalla-madu,  Tel. 

Description. — Small  tree ;  leaves  opposite,  obovate  or  oval, 
slightly  tomentose  beneath;  flowers  terminal,  small,  dingy 
yellow.     Fl.  April — May. — Poxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  88. — Pheede, 

iv.   t.  45. —  Wight  Icon.   t.   1481. Soonderbunds.      Salt 

marshes  in  the  tropics. 

Economic  Uses. — ^A  preparation  is  made  from  the  ashes  of  the 
wood  which  natives  use  for  washing  and  cleaning  cotton  cloths. 
Painters  mix  the  same  with  their  colours  to  make  them  adhere  more 
firmly.  The  kernels  are  bitter  but  edible.  In  Eio  Janeiro  the  bark 
is  used  for  tanning. 


AZADTRACHTA.  59 

(82)  Azadirachta  Indica  {Ad  de  Juss,)    N.  0.  MsLiACEiE. 

Neem-tree,  Eno.    Aria-bepou,  Mal.    Vaypiim,  Tam.    Vepa,  Tel.    Neem,  Beno. 

Description. — Tree,  20  feet;  calyx  5-partite;  petals  5; 
anthers  ten  on  the  throat  of  the  stamen  tube ;  leaves  pinnated ; 
leaflets  ovate-lanceolate,  unequal-sided,  acuminated,  serrated ; 
panicles  axillary;  flowers  small,  white ;  fruit,  when  ripe,  purple, 
size  of  a  small  olive,  1-celled,  1-seeded.  FL  April — July. — 
TV.  &  A.  Prod.  L  118,— Boxb.  FL  Ind,  ii.  394u—Eheede,  iv. 

t  52. —  WigJU  Icon,  1 17.^Melia  azadirachta,  Linn, ^Malar 

bar.    Peninsula.    Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  bark,  which  has  a  remarkably  bitter  taste, 
has  been  much  employed  of  late  years  as  a  fair  substitute  for  Cin- 
chona. The  natives  consider  it  a  most  useful  tonic  in  intermittent 
fevers  and  chronic  rhemnatism,  administering  it  either  in  decoction 
or  powder.  The  dried  leaves,  added  to  common  poultices,  act  power- 
fiilly  in  preventing  glandular  tumours  from  coming  to  maturity.  The 
same  discutient  effect  is  produced  after  the  application  of  leeches,  in 
all  kinds  of  bruises  and  sprains,  by  a  watery  or  vinous  infusion  of 
them,  particularly  when  spirit  of  camphor  is  now  and  then  sprinkled 
over  the  cloth,  steeped  in  the  infusion.  The  greatest  benefit  has 
been  derived  &om  the  application  in  the  worst  cases  of  compound 
fracture.  A  saectilus  aromaticue  of  these  leaves,  with  a  few  grains 
of  powdered  camphor,  seldom  fails  to  afford  relief  in  rheumatic  affec- 
tions of  the  ears,  eyes,  and  teeth.  Dr  Wight  says, ''  The  leaves  beaten 
into  a  pulp,  and  externally  applied,  act  like  a  charm  in  removing  the 
most  intractable  form  of  psora  and  other  pustular  eruptions.''  On 
the  decline  of  the  small-pox,  it  is  almost  invariably  the  custom  of  the 
natives  to  cover  the  body  with  the  leaves  of  this  tree.  From  the 
pericarp  of  the  seed  an  acrid  bitter  oil  is  expressed,  which  is  a  useful 
remedy  in  leprosy,  and  is,  moreover,  anthelmintic  and  stimulant,  being 
used  extemsdly  in  cases  of  bad  ulcers,  and  as  a  liniment  in  headaches 
and  rheumatic  affections.  It  is  obtained  either  by  boiling  or  expres- 
sion ;  is  of  a  deep  yellow  colour.  The  seeds  after  being  skinned  are 
employed  to  kUl  insects,  and  the  kernels  powdered  and  mixed  with 
water  for  washing  the  hair.  A  gum  is  also  got  from  the  bark,  used 
medicinally  as  a  stimulant.  A  kind  of  toddy  called  Yaypumkhulloo,  is 
procured  from  the  young  trees,  which  is  said  to  be  a  good  stomachic. — 
(AinsUe,  Eoxb.  Wight)  Of  this  tree  there  are  two  kinds ;  one  of 
them,  which  has  a  black  appearance,  is  called  Karin-veppa;  the  other, 
with  green  phckly  leaves,  which  have  an  exceeding  bitter  taste,  is 
known  under  the  name  of  Arya-Karin-veppa.  The  latter  properly 
is  that  which  produces  the  real  Malabar  China.  The  bark  of  this 
tree,  however,  is  employed  by  the  natives  only  in  cases  of  necessity ; 
for  a  decoction  of  the  leaves,  if  the  coarser  parts  which  subside  to 


60  AZADIRAGHTA. 

the  bottom  of  the  vessel  be  used,  produce  as  powerful  au  effect.  The 
Brahmins  are  accustomed  to  prepare  from  the  juice  of  these  leaves 
what  they  call  Karil — ^that  is,  a  sauce  which  they  eat  with  their  rice. 
This  medicine  is  of  excellent  service  in  tertian  fevers,  in  cases  of 
worms,  and  in  all  disorders  arising  from  indigestion  and  weakness  of 
the  nerves  and  stomach.  If  the  green  leaves  be  bruised  and  applied 
to  wounds  and  ulcers  of  long  standing,  they  cleanse  them,  and  prevent 
from  spreading  or  becoming  cancerous.  In  a  word,  they  answer  the 
same  purpose  as  the  China  bark,  and  in  a  much  shorter  time,  because 
more  power  is  contained  in  the  juice  of  the  leaves  than  in  the  woody 
parts  of  the  stem  and  the  branches. — {Bart. ,  Voy.  to  E,  Ind.  ,413.)  Maj  or 
Lowther,  writing  to  the  Agri.  Hort.  Society,  says :  "  I  noticed  a  curi» 
ous  fact  connected  with  the  flow  of  sap  in  the  !N^eem-tree,  presenting 
the  animal  phenomenon  of  discharging  a  copious  fountain  of  juice 
into  a  sort  of  natural  basin  at  the  roots,  accompanied  by  a  curious 
pumping  noise  within  the  trunk.  Such  was  the  repute  in  which  this 
natural  medicine  was  held,  that  natives  came  in  crowds  and  carried 
away  the  liquor  in  their  vessels.  In  the  epidemic  cholera  which 
ravaged  the  station  of  Berhampore  more  than  twenty-five  years  ago, 
a  strong  decoction  of  the  leaves  was  given  with  much  success  to 
European  soldiers.  In  some  parts  of  India  the  Neem  will  not  grow 
on  its  own  roots,  but  ccones  to  great  perfection  when  budded  on  its 
congener,  the  Melia  sempervirens.  The  expressed  oil  is  much  used 
and  sold  in  the  bazaars  as  an  application  to  the  sores  of  csunels  and 
other  animals.  Probably  a  decoction  of  the  boiled  seeds  will  be 
found  a  good  application  to  the  roots  of  vegetation  attacked  by 
white  ants." 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^The  wood  is  very  like  mahogany,  beautifully 
mottled,  hard,  and  heavy.  The  old  trees  yield  an  excellent  wood  for 
furniture,  and  it  is  so  bitter  that  no  insects  will  attack  it.  It  is  also 
used  for  ship-building,  carts,  and  other  purposes.  The  oil  extracted 
from  the  seeds  is  used  for  lamps,  and  also  for  imparting  colours  to 
cotton  cloths. — (Bedd.  Flor.  Sylv.  t  13.  Rep,  Mad.  ExhiK)  It  is 
not  generally  known  that  the  timber  is  equally  durable  with  Camphor- 
wood,  and  makes  imperishable  trunks  and  chests,  the  contents  be- 
coming in  a  short  time  insect-proof.  A  handful' of  dried  Neem-leaves 
are  useful  in  packing  collections  of  seeds  and  in  guarding  dried  plants. 
In  the  latter  case  they  should  be  renewed  frequently. — Lowtlt^r  in 
Punj,  Agri.  Hort,  Soc.  Proc.  1857. 


61 


B 

(83)  Balanites  ^gsrptiaca  (Delile),  var.  Indica.  N.  0.  Amtridacks. 

Hlngen,  Beno.    Garee,  Tel.     Nunjoonda,  Tam. 

Description. — Tree,  20  feet;  leaves  alternate,  bifoliate; 
spines  axillary ;  calyx  5-parted ;  sepals  villous ;  petals  5,  lan- 
ceolate ;  pedicels  1-flowered ;  flowers  aggregate,  small,  green ; 
drupe  ovoid,  acute,  1-celled,  l-seeded,  with  a  woody  5-angled 
nut.  FL  April — May. — Ximenia  -ffigyptiaca,  Boxb.  FL  Ind. 
ii.  253. —  Wight  Icon.  274. Deccan.    Goozerat. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  is  a  variety  of  the  Egyptian  plant  which  is 
found  in  the  plains  of  the  Deccan.  The  flowers  are  very  Vagrant. 
In  Egypt,  the  fruit,  according  to  Delile,  passes  for  chebulic  myro- 
balans.  The  nut  is  covered  with  a  soft  pulpy  substance  like 
soap;  bitter  to  the  taste,  and  with  an  oflensive,  greasy  smell. 
It  is  very  hard,  and  used  in  fireworks.  For  this  purpose  a 
hole  is  drilled  in  it,  the  kernel  extracted,  and  the  shell  filled  with 
powder;  when  fired,  it  bursts  with  a  loud  report.  In  Africa, 
the  wood,  which  is  very  hard  and  of  a  yellow  colour,  is  used  for 
making  furniture.  An  oil  is  also  extracted  from  the  seeds.  The  un- 
ripe drupes  are  bitter  and  violently  purgative,  but  are  eaten  when 
ripe  without  any  unpleasant  consequences.  The  ryots  use  the  bark 
medicinally  for  their  cattle.  This  is  one  of  the  few  trees  which 
flourish  on  black  soil. — (Roxb.  LindL  J.  Grah,)  It  is  interesting, 
says  Eoyle,  to  find  this  plant  in  the  country  about  Delhi,  and  in  the 
Dooab  as  far  as  Allahabad,  especially  on  the  banks  of  the  Jumna,  as 
it  serves  with  other  plants  to  show  an  analogy  in  the  Flora  of  this 
part  of  India  with  that  of  Egypt,  where  also  this  plant  is  found,  as 
well  as  in  the  interior  and  western  parts  of  Africa.  This  was  first 
discovered  by  Dr  Roxburgh  as  belonging  to  the  Indian  Flora,  when 
he  suggested  that  it  should  be  formed  into  a  new  genus  rather  than 
be  referred  to  Ximenia,  and  described  it  as  common  on  the  driest  and 
most  barren  parts  of  the  Circars.  It  is  found  only  in  similar  situa- 
tions in  the  north  of  India,  and  is  one  of  those  plants  which  show 
the  great  uniformity  of  vegetation  over  a  great  extent  of  the  plains 
of  India. — Eoyle,  Himcd,  Bot 

(84)  Baliospennnm  montannm  (MuUer),    K  0.  Euphorbiacejb. 

Description. — tJndershrub ;  upper  leaves  lanceolate,  acute 
at  the  base,  lower  ones  broader,  ovate,  and  often  cordate  at  the 


62  6ALSAM0DENDR0N. 

base,  sinuately  toothed  or  deeply  3-lobed,  marked  with  long 
scattered  hairs ;  inflorescence  commonly  bisexual,  males  more 
loose  than  the  females,  and  longer  peduncled,  all  shorter  than 
the  petioles ;  fruit-bearing  pedicels  deflexed ;  sterile  bracteoles 
numerous ;  segments  of  the  male  calyx  orbicular-ovate,  of  the 
female,  lanceolate ;  capsules  sub-globose,  tridymous,  puberul- 
ous ;  seeds  smooth,  at  length  marbled.  Dec,  Prod,  xv.  s.  2,  p. 
1125. — Jatropha  montana,  WUld, — Croton  polyandrum,  Boxb, — 

B.    polyandrum,   Wight  Icon,  t  1885. Hills  in  Bengal 

Northern  parts  of  the  Peninsula.     Malabar. 

Medioal  Uses. — The  seeds  are  cathartic,  and  probably  furnish  the 
greater  part  of  the  Jumalgota  of  the  drug-seUers.  East  of  the  Sutloj 
its  leaves  are  in  high  repute  for  wounds,  and  its  sap  is  believed  to 
coirode  iron. — Stewards  Punj^  Plants. 

(85)  BalBamodendron  agallocha  {W.  ^  A.)    K  O.  Aktrtdaceje. 

Googol,  Beno. 

Dbsckiption. — ^Tree ;  trunk  crooked,  and  clothed  with  many 
drooping  crooked  branches  down  to  the  ground;  branchlets 
often  ending  in  thorny  points ;  calyx  4-toothed ;  petals  4 ; 
leaves  alternate,  petioled,  oval  or  elliptic,  serrulate,  smooth  on 
both  sides ;  at  the  base  or  apex  of  the  petiole  on  each  side  is 
generally  a  small  leaflet  giving  the  appearance  of  a  temate 
leaf;  flowers  on  short  peduncles,  axillary,  small,  red,  aggregate 
on  the  buds  by  the  former  year's  leaves :  berry  drupaceous, 
red,  smooth,  size  of  a  currant;  nut  2-celled,  1-seeded.  Fl. 
Feb. — March. —  Wight  lU.  i  185. — Amyris  commiphora,  Bo(d>. 
Fl.  Tnd.  ii  244 Silhet.    Assam. 

Economic  Ussa — This  tree  is  said  to  yield  the  Indian  bdellium, 
a  substance  like  myrrh.  Dr  Eoyle  has  remarked  that  all  the  species 
of  this  genus  require  to  be  carefully  examined  from  good  and  authentic 
specimens,  accompanied  by  their  respective  products,  so  much  doubt 
still  remains  in  the  opinions  of  botanists  regarding  the  tree  producing 
this  substance.  From  an  interesting  paper  by  Dr  Stocks  in  Hooker's 
'Journal  of  Botany'  (voL  L  p.  257),  it  would  appear  that  this  plant 
is  not  identical  with  the  B.  Mukul  which  grows  in  Scinde,  and  which, 
from  the  similarity  of  the  native  name  *  Googul,'  has  been  mistaken 
for  it.  It  is  important  to  notice  this  fact,  especially  when  so  much 
doubt  exists  as  to  the  true  plant  yielding  Indian  bdellium,  though 
in  all  probability  the  exudation  of  both  species  is  similar  in  its  pro- 
perties.    Of  the  one  under  notice,  Dr  Roxburgh  observes,  that  the 


BAMBUSA.  63 

whole  plant  while  growing  ia  very  odoriferous,  and  if  broken  in  any 
part  diffuses  around  a  grateful  fragrance,  like  that  of  the  finest  myrrh, 
yet  that  the  juice  never  congeals,  but  is  carried  off  by  evaporation, 
leaving  little  or  nothing  behind ;  and  all  that  he  could  procure  was 
a  minute  portion  of  gummy  matter,  which  certainly  resembles  myrrh 
both  in  smell  and  appearance,  but  has  no  tendency  to  be  even  tena^ 
cious  or  elastic.  The  Googul  is  collected  in  the  cold  season  by 
making  incisions  in  the  tree  and  letting  the  resin  fall  on  the  ground. 
This  accounts  for  the  dirty  condition  in  which  it  is  found  in  the 
shops.  Bdellium  is  properly  a  gum-resin,  of  which  there  are  several 
kinds.  It  occurs  in  brittle  masses  of  different  sizes  and  shapes,  of 
a  red,  yellow,  or  brownish  colour,  sometimes  transparent,  with  a 
bitterish  balsamic  taste  like  myrrh.  It  is  soluble  in  potass,  and 
contains  resin,  gum,  bassorine,  and  a  volatile  oiL  It  is  often  used 
as  a  substitute  for  myrrh,  to  which  it  has  some  resemblance  in  its 
effect  upon  the  human  frame.  The  odour  is  more  faint  and  more 
agreeable  than  myrrh,  by  which  it  may  be  distinguished.  It  wiU 
melt  in  the  mouth,  while  myrrh,  when  chewed,  adheres  to  the  teeth 
and  imparts  a  milky  colour  to  the  saliva. — Eoxb,  Boyle,  Hooker^s 
Jour. 


(86)  Bambusa  amndinacea  (WiUd.)    K  O.  Gbaminace^. 

Bamboo,  Eno.    Vedurn,  TxL.    KuU-mooUah,  Mal.    Bhans,  Due.    Mungil^  Tam. 
Bansb,  Bbno. 

Description. — Stems  erect,  bending  at  the  summit,  jointed, 
hollow  between  the  joints ;  branches  alternate ;  thorns  two  or 
three,  alternate  on  the  joints ;  when  double,  a  branchlet  occu- 
pies the  centre ;  when  triple,  the  largest  is  strong,  sharp,  and 
somewhat  recurved,  occasionally  wanting;  leaves  sheathing, 
linear-lanceolate,  upper  sides  and  margins  hispid,  sheaths 
downy ;  when  in  flower,  the  tree  is  leafless  and  the  extremities 
are  covered  with  flowers  like  one  large  panicle  composed  of 
numerous  verticillate  spikes,  each  verticel  composed  of  several 
oblong,  jointed,  sessile  spikelets ;  calyx  2-6-flowered,  3-valved ; 
flowers  hermaphrodite  and  male ;  seeds  size  and  appearance 
of  oats;  male  flowers  1-3  above  the  hermaphrodite  ones. 
Fl  March— May.— ife>a?6.  Fl.  Ind,  ii.  191.— Cor.  i.  t  79.— 
Arundo  bambos,  Linn, Forests  of  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  siliceous  concretion  known  as  Tdb(i8ti£€fi' 
(Tavakshiri,  a  Sanscrit  term  meaning  cow's  milk)  is  only  procured 
from  the  female  plant.  It  so  far  resembles  siLex  as  to  form  a  kind 
of  glass  when  fused  with  alkalies.  It  is  also  unaffected  by  $re  and 
acids.     It  IB  employed  medicinally  in  the  cures  of  paralytic  com- 


64  BAMBUSA. 

plaints  and  poisonings.  Sir  D.  Brewster  (PhU,  Trans.,  1819.  Ed. 
Journ.  of  Sci.y  viii.  286)  made  some  singular  discoyeries  on  the 
optical  properties  of  this  substance.     It  is  called  by  the  Hindoo 

i  physicians,  he  says,  bamboo  manna,  mUk,  sugar,  or  camphor  of 
bamboo,  and  appears  to  be  a  secretion  from  the  joints  of  the  reed  in 

.  a  state  of  disease,  malformation,  or  fracture.  The  ordinary  quantity 
produced  by  a  disorganised  joint  or  intemode  is  four  or  five  grains. 
It  consists  of  silica,  containing  a  minute  quantity  of  lime  and  vege- 
table matter.  Its  physical  properties  are  remarkable.  Its  re&active 
power  is  lower  than  that  of  any  other  body,  when  solid  or  fluid. 

")  With  certain  oils,  which  it  imbibes,  it  becomes  as  transparent  as 
glass.  It  absorbs  water,  and  becomes  as  white  and  opaque  as  if  it  had 
been  covered  with  white-lead.  It  is  highly  prized  in  native  practice 
as  a  stimulant  and  aphrodisiac.  Among  other  reputed  medical 
properties  of  the  bamboo,  the  root  is  said  to  be  a  diluent,  the  bark 
a  specific  in  eruptions,  and  the  leaves  as  anthelmintic  and  emmena- 
gogue. — Ainslie.  Pharm.  of  India.  Madras  Journ.  of  Med.  Sci.y 
1862,  p.  246. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^These  gigantic  arborescent  grasses,  which  cover 
the  sides  and  tops  of  the  mountains  throughout  the  continent  of 
India,  form  one  of  the  peculiar  as  well  as  most  striking*  features  of 
Oriental  scenery.  Few  objects  present  a  more  attractive  sight  in  the 
wild  forests  of  this  country  than  a  clump  of  these  beautiful  plants, 
with  their  tall  bending  stems  and  delicate  light-green  foliage.  With 
the  exception  of  the  cocoa,  and  some  other  palms  perhaps,  the  bam- 
boo is  the  most  useful  and  economical  of  all  the  vegetable  products 
of  the  East  In  no  other  plant  is  strength  and  lightness  combined 
to  that  degree  which  renders  this  so  important  an  article  in  building  - 
houses,  lifting  weights,  forming  rafts,  and  a  thousand  other  uses 
which  might  here  be  enumerated.  It  attains  a  considerable  height 
— ^some  70-80  feet — and  has  been  known  to  spring  up  thirty  inches 
in  six  days.  At  the  age  of  15  years  the  bamboo  is  said  to  bear 
fruit — a  whitish  seed  like  rice — and  then  to  die.  These  seeds  are 
eaten  by  the  poorer  classes. 

The  purpose  to  which  different  species  of  bamboo  are  applied  are 
so  numerous  that  it  would  be  difficult  to  point  out  an  object,  in 
which  strength  and  elasticity  are  requisite,  and  for  which  lightness 
is  no  objection,  to  which  the  steins  are  not  adapted  in  the  countries 
where  they  grow.  The  young  shoots  of  some  species  are  cut  when 
tender,  and  eaten  like  asparagus.  The  full-grown  stems,  while 
green,  form  elegant  cases,  exhaling  a  perpetual  moisture,  and  capable 
of  transporting  fresh  flowers  for  hundreds  of  miles.  Wben  ripe  and 
hard  they  are  converted  into  bows,  arrows,  and  quivers,  lance-shafts, 
the  masts  of  vessels,  bed-posts,  walking-sticks,  the  poles  of  palan- 
quins, to  floors  and  supporters  of  rustic  bridges,  and  a  variety  of 
similar  purposes.  In  a  growing  state  the  spiny  kinds  are  formed 
into  stockades,  which  are  impenetrable  to  any  but  regular  infantry, 
aided  by  artillery.     By  notching  their  sides  the  Malays  make  won- 


BAMBUSA.  65 

derfiilly  light  Bcaling-ladders,  which  can  be  conveyed  with  facility 
where  heavier  machines  could  not  be  transported.  Bruised  and 
crushed  in  water,  the  leaves  and  stems  form  Chinese  paper,  the  finer 
qualities  of  which  are  only  improved  by  a  mixture  of  raw  cotton 
and  by  more  careful  pounding.  The  leaves  of  a  small  species  are 
the  material  used  by  the  Chinese  for  the  lining  of  their  tea-chests. 
Cut  into  lengths  and  the  partitions  knocked  out,  they  form  durable 
water-pipes,  or,  by  a  little  contrivance,  are  made  into  excellent  cases 
for  holding  rolls  of  papers.  Slit  into  strips,  they  afford  a  most  dur- 
able material  for  weaving  into  mats,  baskets,  window-blinds,  and 
even  the  sails  of  boats.  Finally,  the  larger  and  thicker  truncheons 
are  exquisitely  carved  by  the  Chinese  into  beautiful  ornaments.  No 
plant  in  Bengal  is  applied  to  such  a  variety  of  useful  purposes  as  the 
bamboo.  Of  it  are  made  implements  for  weaving,  the  posts  and 
frames  of  the  roofs  of  huts,  scaffoldings  for  buildings,  portable  stages 
for  native  processions,  raised  floors  for  granaries,  stakes  for  nets  in 
rivers,  rafts,  masts,  yards,  oars,  spars,  and  in  boat-decks.  It  is  used 
for  building  bridges  across  creeks,  for  fences,  as  a  lever  for  raising 
water  for  irrigation,  and  as  flag-poles.  Several  agricultural  instru- 
ments are  made  of  it,  as  are  also  hackeries  or  carts,  doolies  or  litters, 
and  biers,  the  shafts  of  javelins  or  spears,  bows  and  lu^ows,  dubs, 
and  fishing-rods.  A  joint  of  bsunboo  serves  as  a  holder  for  pens, 
small  instruments,  and  tools.  It  is  used  as  a  case  in  which  things 
of  little  bulk  are  sent  to  a  distance.  The  eggs  of  silk-worms  were 
brought  in  a  bamboo-cane  from  China  to  Constantinople  in  the  time 
of  Justinian.  A  joint  of  bamboo  answers  the  purpose  of  a  bottle, 
and  a  section  of  it  is  a  measure  for  solids  and  liquids  in  bazaars.  A 
piece  of  it  is  used  as  a  blow-pipe,  and  as  a  tube  in  a  distilling  appara- 
tus. A  small  bit  of  it  split  at  one  end  serves  as  tongs  to  take  up 
burning  charcoal,  and  a  thin  slip  of  it  is  sharp  enough  to  be  used 
as  a  knife  in  shelling  betel-nuts,  &c.  Its  surface  is  so  hard  that  it 
answers  the  purpose  of  a  whetstone,  upon  which  the  ryots  sharpen 
their  bill-hooks  and  sickles. — Boxh,     Lindley, 

When  travelling  in  the  Himalaya,  Dr  Hooker  observed  a  manu- 
factory for  making  paper  out  of  the  bamboo.  Large  water-tanks 
were  constructed  in  the  fields  for  the  purpose  of  steeping  the  bam- 
boo stems.  They  appeared  to  be  steeped  for  a  length  of  time  in 
some  solution  of  lime.  They  were  then  removed  and  beaten  upon 
stones  until  they  became  quite  soft)  or  till  all  the  flinty  matter  which 
abounds  in  their  stems  was  removed. — Hooker y  Him,  Joum,y  311. 

A  correspondent  from  Burmah  furnishes  the  following  very  in- 
teresting account  of  the  flowering  of  the  bamboo,  and  of  its  uses : 
The  flowering  of  the  bamboo  is  considered  to  be  a  very  rare  occur- 
rence. Once  in  eighteen,  twenty,  and  even  twenty-five  years,  does 
it  flower,  and  still  less  seldom  does  it  produce  seed.  We  have 
shown  the  seed  to  Burmese  of  75  and  80  years  old,  and  they 
could  not  tell  what  it  was.  They  had  seen  none  before.  Among 
the  hill-people  and  the  tribes  who  are  buried  away  in  the  recesses 

5 


66  BARLERIA. 

of  our  foiests,  they  have  a  yery  supeTstitious  dread  of  this  phenome- 
noiL  They  mention  that  when  the  bamhoo  flowers,  fevers  and  sick- 
ness will  be  prevalent.  Their  traditions  havie  taught  them  so,  and 
hence  they  always  fear  the  appearance  of  this  particular  flower.  Of 
course  their  apprehensions  are  based  purely  on  superstition  and 
ignoranca  The  flowering  of  the  bamboo  may  be  ascribed  to  natural 
causes. 

It  is  one  of  the  most  valuable,  as  it  is  the  most  useful,  kind  of 
plants,  adapted  to  supply  the  wants  of  mankind.  It  is  employed  in 
a  great  variety  of  ways — ^for  houses,  ^miture,  utensils,  and  for  fueL 
Colonel  Kuthall,  who  spent  many  years  on  this  coast,  was  of  the 
deliberate  opinion,  from  his  great  experience  of  the  country,  that  no 
branch  of  industiy  would  yield  a  capitalist  more  handsome  profits 
than  the  growing  of  the  large-size  bamboo.  All  that  is  needed  is 
to  put  the  young  shoots  down,  and  they  will  run  up  rapidly  of  them- 
selves without  any  care  or  attention  to  them  whatever.  They  would 
proportionately  fetch  higher  prices  than  the  smaller  kinds,  for  which 
there  is  a  constant  demand  all  over  the  country.  The  use  of  bam- 
boo will  never  go  out  of  fashion  in  Burmah,  at  least  among  the  rural 
population.  Often  there  is  foimd  a  small  whitish  fungus  growing  on 
the  sides  of  the  bamboo,  which  is  called  by  the  people  "  Wah  moo,^* 
which  the  late  Dr  Judson  makes  synonymous  with  "  Than  moo" 
It  is  a  mushroom  growth,  and  when  rasped  or  bruised  down  to  a 
powder  it  is  administered  as  a  vermifuge  by  Burmese  physicians. 
It  is  said  to  be  a  very  eflectual  remedy  in  cases  of  worms,  with 
which  children  are  so  liable  to  be  troubled  in  infancy.  We  have 
no  doubt  that  if  this  Burmese  remedy  was  known  in  Europe,  it 
would  at  once  be  introduced  into  the  British  pharmacopoeia.  It  is 
a  more  manageable  article  than  some  of  the  substances  now  classified 
as  vermifuge  medicines. 

Immense  quantities  of  fine  bamboos  are  floated  down  the  various 
rivers  of  the  western  coast.  They  are  usually  60  feet  long,  and  5 
inches  in  diameter  near  the  root.  These  are  readily  purchased, 
standing  at  5  rupees,  and  small  ones  at  3^  rupees,  per  1000. 
Iklillions  are  annually  cut  in  the  forests,  and  taken  away  by  water 
in  rafts,  or  by  land  in  hackeries.  From  their  buoyancy  they  are 
much  used  for  floating  heavier  woods. — Gleghom's  Forests  of  8. 
India* 

(87)  Barleria  pxlonitis  (Linn,)    K  0.  Aoanthaors. 

Coletta-veetla,  Mal.     Shem-mull,  Tam.     Mnllii-goiiiita,  Tel.     KanthA-jathi, 
Bxira. 

Description. — Shrub,  4  feet ;  stem  herbaceous ;  leaves  op- 
posite, entire,  lanceolate-ovate ;  between  the  branch  and  the 
leaf  there  is  a  spine  with  four  sharp  rays  from  the  same  centre ; 

*  For  farther  accounts  of  the  bamboo,  see  Appendix  A. 


BARRINGTONIA.  67 

flowers  sessile,  axillary,  orange-coloured.  Fl.  Nearly  all  the 
year. — RosA.  Fl,  Ind.  iii  36. — WigM  Icon.  ii.  452. — Rheede, 
ix.  t  41. Peninsula.    Bengal 

MsDiOAL  Uses. — ^The  juice  of  the  leaves,  mixed  Tvith  sugar  and 
Tfater,  is  given  to  children  in  fevers  and  catarrhal  affections.  The 
ashes  of  the  burnt  plant,  mixed  with  water  and  rice  conjee,  are 
employed  in  cases  of  dropsy  and  anasarca ;  also  in  coughs. — Aittslie. 

(88)  Barringtonia  acntangnla  (Ooertn,)    N.  O.  Mtbtaoea. 

Earp4,  Tel.    Sjeria-samstravadi,  Mal. 

Descbiption. — Tree ;  leaves  crowded  about  the  ends  of  the 
branches,  cuneate-obovate,  serrulated;  racemes  long,  pendu- 
lous ;  pedicels  very  short ;  calyx  4-clefl ;  ovary  2-celled ;  fruit 
oblong,  4-sided,  sharp-angled ;  flowers  small,  reddish  white, 
with  scarlet  filaments.  FL  April — May. —  W,  &  A,  Prod, 
i  333. — Rheede,  iv.  t  7. — Roxh,  Fl.  Ind.  ii  635.  Eugenia 
acutangula,  Linn,  sp. Bengal.    Peninsula.     Travancore. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  is  bitter,  and  said  to  be  similar  to 
Cinchona^  but  also  cooling  and  aperient.  The  seeds  are  very  warm 
and  dry,  and  are  used  as  an  aromatic  in  colic  and  parturition. — 
PowelVa  Punj.  Prod, 

EcoNOKio  Uses. — The  wood  is  hard  and  of  a  fine  grain,  red,  and 
equivalent  to  mahogany. — {APClelland.)  It  is  suited  for  ordinary 
work 

(89)  Barringtonia  racemosa  {Roxh.)    Do. 

Samutra-pullam,  Tam.    Samndra-poo  or  Sam-Btravadi,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree ;  leaves  alternate,  short-petioled,  cune- 
ate-oblong,  acuminated,  serrulated,  smooth  on  both  sides ; 
racemes  terminal,  or  axillary  from  the  large  branches,  pendu- 
lous ;  flowers  on  short  pedicels,  large,  white  with  a  tinge  of 
rose ;  calyx  2-3  cleft ;  petals  four ;  filaments  longer  than  the 
petals ;  style  long ;  fruit  ovate,  drupaceous,  bluntly  4-angled, 
smooth,  brownish  red ;  endocarp  scarcely  separating  from  the 
epicarp;  seed  1.  Fl,  May. —  W,  &  A.  Prod,  i  333. —  Wight 
Icon,  t  152.  —  Roxb,  Fl.  Ind,  ii.  634. — Rheede,  iv.  t,  6. — 
Eugenia  racemosa,  Linn.  sp. Malabar.    Goromandel. 

Medical  Uses. — The  medicinal  properties  are  said  to  be  similar 
to  the  preceding  species.     The  roots  are  slightly  bitter,  but  not 


68  BASELLA — ^BASSTA. 

unpleasant.  They  aie  considered  by  Hindoo  doctors  valuable  on 
account  of  their  aperient,  deobstruent,  and  cooling  properties.  The 
fruit,  powdered,  is  used  to  clean  the  nostrils  in  cold  as  a  snuff,  and 
is  also  applied  externally,  in  combination  with  other  remedies,  in 
sore-throat  and  cutaneous  eruption. — Ainslie.    Boxh.    lAndley, 

(90)  Basella  rubra  {Linn,)    N.  0.  Basellaoe^. 

Malabar  nightshade,  Bnq.    Rakhto-pooi,  Beno.    Alla-batsalla,  Tel.    Pol,  Hind. 

Description. — Stem  scandent,  3-4  feet,  angular,  brownish 
purple ;  leaves  ovate,  acuminate,  purplish ;  spikes  nearly 
equalling  the  leaves,  long-peduncled ;  flowers  purple ;  outer 
divisions  of  the  calyx  oblong-eUiptic ;  berries  dark  purple, 
obsoletely  4-lobed,  greenish  and  purple  at  the  apex  before 
ripening ;  seeds  pale  brown.  Dec,  Prod,  xiii.  s.  2,  p.  222. — 
Wight  Icon,  t  896. Bengal.     Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  prescribed  by  native 
practitioners  in  doses  of  a  teaspoonful  thrice  a-day  to  children  suffer- 
ing from  catarrh. — {Faylkner,)    The  B,  alba  is  merely  a  variety. 

Economic  Uses. — This  esculent  herb  is  cultivated  in  almost  every 
part  of  the  country.  The  succulent  leaves  are  dressed  and  eaten 
like  spinach.  An  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  used  as  tea.  The  B,  cor- 
difolia  is  also  cultivated  as  a  pot-herb.  It  yields  a  very  rich  purple 
dye,  but  is  difficult  to  fix. — Lindley.     Boxb. 

(91)  Bassia  butyracea  (Boxh,)    K  O.  SAPOTACEiB. 

Indian  Battec-tree,  Eno.    Phulwara,  Beno. 

Dbscription. — Tree,  30-40  feet ;  leaves  obovate,  tomentose 
beneath ;  corolla  8-cleft ;  stamens  30-40  on  longish  filaments ; 
pedicels  aggregate,  and,  as  well  as  the  calyx,  woolly ;  drupes 
oval ;  flowers  smallish,  white.     Fl,  Jan. — Feb. — D,  Bon,  Fl, 

Nep,  p.   146.— -Boa;6.   Fl,   Ind,    ii   527. Almora  Hills. 

NepauL 

Medical  Uses. — A  pure  vegetable  butter  called  Choorie  is  pro- 
duced by  this  tree ;  the  mode  of  extraction  Dr  Eoxburgh  has  fully 
described  in  the  8th  voL  of  the  '  Asiatic  Eesearches.'  The  kernels 
of  the  fruit  are  bruised  into  the  consistence  of  cream,  which  is  then 
put  into  a  cloth  bag  with  a  moderate  weight  laid  upon  it,  and  left  to 
stand  till  the  oil  or  fat  is  expressed,  which  becomes  immediately  of 
the  consistence  of  hog's  lard,  and  is  of  a  delicate  white  colour.  Its 
uses  in  medicine  are  much  esteemed  in  rheumatism  and  contractions 
of  the  limbs.     It  is  also  an  excellent  emollient  for  chapped  hands. 


BASS  [A.  69 

It  resembles  piney  tallow  in  its  clieinical  properties,  and  is  of  a  pale 
yellow  colour. — Pharm,  of  India,     Moxb. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^The  pulp  of  the  fruit  is  eatable.  The  juice  is 
extracted  from  the  flowers  and  made  into  sugar  by  the  natives.  It 
is  sold  in  the  Calcutta  bazaar,  and  has  all  the  appearance  of  date- 
sugar,  to  which  it  is  equal  if  not  superior  in  quality.  The  butter 
which  is  obtained  from  the  kernels  of  the  fruit  is  reckoned  a  valuable 
preservative  when  applied  to  the  hair,  mixed  with  sweet-scented  oil, 
and  thus  sold  and  exported.  Being  cheaper  than  ghee,  it  is  used  to 
adulterate  that  article.  By  experiments  in  England,  a  specimen  was 
found  to  consist  of  solid  oil,  34  of  fluid  oil,  and  6  parts  of  vegetable 
impurities.  The  original  specimen  dissolved  readily  in  warm  alcohol, 
a  property  which  may  render  it  of  great  advantage  in  medicinal  pur- 
poses. It  makes  excellent  soap.  When  pure,  it  bums  bright  with- 
out smoke  or  smell,  and  might  be  advantageously  employed  in  mak- 
ing candles. 

It  is  a  peculiar  characteristic  of  the  seeds  of  the  Bassia  trees  that 
they  contain  at  the  same  time  saccharine  matter,  spirit,  and  oil,  fit 
both  for  food  and  burning  in  lamps.  The  butter  procured  from  this 
species  of  Bassia  is  not  liable  to  become  rancid,  even  if  kept  for  some 
time.  It  is  completely  melted  at  a  temperature  of  120*^. — Eoxb. 
Boyle.     8immond8, 

(92)  Bassia  latifolla  {Roxh.)    Do.        ^  ^ 

'^  Mahwah-tree,  Eng.  Pooiinnin,  Mal.  Caat>elloopei,  Tam.  Ipie,  Tel.  Moola, 
HiNO.    Mahwah  or  Muhooa,  Beno.  T  K  K  i' 

Description. — Tree,  40  feet;  leaves  altemateT oblong  or 
elliptic,  crowded  about  the  extremities  of  the  branches,  smooth 
above,  somewhat  whitish  below;  stamens  20-30  within  the 
gibbous  tube  of  the  corolla,  on  short  filaments ;  corolla  thick, 
fleshy,  with  a  more  than  8-lobed  limb ;  lobes  cordate ;  sepals 
4 ;  pedicels  drooping,  terminal ;  flowers  white,  with  a  tinge  of 
green  and  cream  colour,  numerous,  crowded  from  the  extrem- 
ities of  the  branchlets,  peduncled,  and  bent  with  the  mouth 
of  the  flowers  directly  to  the  ground ;  berry  size  of  a  small 
apple,  1-4  seeded.  FL  March — April. — Roxb.  Fl,  hid.  iL  526. 
— CoT.y  i.  t  19. Circar  mountains.    Bengal    Concans. 

Economic  Uses. — The  timber  of  this  tree  is  hard  and  strong,  and 
is  in  request  for  naves  of  wheels,  carriages,  and  similar  uses.  An 
ardent  spirit  is*  distilled  from  the  flowers  by  the  hill  tribes  (where 
the  tree  is  abundant),  which  makes  a  strong  and  intoxicating  liquor. 
.The  flowers  are  sweet-tasted,  and  are  eaten  raw.  Jackals  are  parti- 
cularly fond  of  them.  The  seeds  yield  by  expression  a  large  quan- 
tity of  concrete  oU,  which  is  used  in  lamps,  to  adulterate  ghee,  and 


70  BASSIA. 

for  frjmg  cakes.  The  kernels  are  easily  extracted  fix)in  the  smooth 
chestnut-coloured  pericarps,  when  they  are  bruised,  rubbed,  and  sub- 
jected to  a  moderate  pressure.  The  oil  concretes  immediately  it  is 
expressed,  and  retains  its  consistency  at  a  temperature  of  95^.  The 
oil  is,  however,  thick  and  coarse,  and  only  used  by  the  poorer 
classes. 

The  following  account  by  Dr  Gibson  is  given  of  this  plant  in 
Guzerat  and  Eajpootana,  where  it  abounds :  '^  This  flower  is  col- 
lected in  the  hot  season  by  Bheels  and  others  from  the  forests,  also 
from  the  planted  trees,  which  are  most  abundant  in  the  more  open 
parts  of  Guzerat  and  Eajwarra.  The  ripe  flower  has  a  sickly  sweet 
taste  resembling  manna.  Being  very  deciduous,  it  is  found  in  large 
quantities  under  the  trees  every  morning  during  the  season.  A 
single  tree  will  afibrd  from  200  to  400  lb.  of  tiie  flowers.  The 
seeds  afford  a  great  quantity  of  concrete  oil,  used  in  the  manufeu^ture 
of  soap.  The  forest  or  Bheel  population  also  store  great  quantities 
of  the  dried  flowers  as  a  staple  article  of  food ;  and  hence,  in  expedi- 
tions undertaken  for  the  punishment  or  subjection  of  those  tribes 
when  unruly,  their  Bassia  trees  are  threatened  to  be  cut  down  by  the 
invading  force,  and  the  threat  most  commonly  insures  the  submission 
of  the  tribes." 

'^  In  Guzerat  and  Eajpootana  every  village  has  its  spirit-shop  for 
the  sale  of  the  distilled  liquor  from  the  flowers.  In  the  island  of 
Caranja,  opposite  to  Bombay,  the  Government  duty  on  the  spirits 
distilled  (chiefly  horn  this  flower)  amounts  to  at  least  £60,000  per 
annum;  I  rather  think  that  £80,000  is  most  generally  l^e  sum. 
The  Parsees  are  the  great  distillers  and  sellers  of  it  in  all  the  country 
between  Surat  and  Bombay,  and  they  usually  push  their  distilleries 
and  shops  into  the  heart  of  the  forest  which  lines  the  eastern  border 
and  hills  of  those  coimtries.  The  spirit  produced  from  the  Bassia  is, 
when  carefully  distUled,  much  like  good  Irish  whisky,  having  a 
strong,  smoky,  and  rather  fetid  flavour ;  this  latter  disappears  with 
age.  The  fresh  spirit  is,  owing  to  the  quantity  of  aromatic  or  em- 
pyreumatic  oil  which  it  contains,  very  deleterious ;  and  to  the  Euro- 
pean troops  stationed  at  Guzerat  some  thirty  years  ago,  appeared  to 
be  quite  as  poisonous  as  the  worst  new  rum  of  the  West  Indies  has 
generally  proved  to  our  soldiers.  It  excited  immediately  gastric 
irritation,  and  on  this  supervened  the  malarious  fever  so  common  in 
those  countries." — Hooh,  Joum,  of  Bot,  1853,  p.  90.     Boxb, 

In  1848  a  quantity  of  Mahwah  oil  was  forwaixled  to  the  Secretary 
of  the  E.  L  and  China  Association,  with  the  view  of  ascertaining 
its  market  value  and  applicability  for  the  manu&cture  of  candles 
and  soap.  The  managing  director  of  Price's  Patent  Candle  Com- 
pany stated  in  reply :  "  I  beg  to  inform  you  that  the  '  Mowah  *  oil, 
of  which  you  fucmshed  us  samples,  is  worth  in  this  country,  for  the 
manufacture  of  candles,  £8  per  ton  less  than  Petersburg  tallow. 
We  have  tried  a  great  many  experiments  upon  it,  and  found  it  to 
be  of  the  same  value  as  cocoa-nut  oil,  as  its  being  harder  makes  up 


BASSIA.  71 

for  the  colour  being  inferior.  Large  quantities  could  be  used  in  this 
country  at  about  £36  per  ton.  I  send  some  candles  and  oil,  but 
fear  that  the  formerivill  not  remain  in  a  solid  state  through  the 
voyage  to  India.  We  have,  however,  processes  secured  to  us  by 
which  we  can  make  candles  &om  Mowah  oil  sufficiently  hard  for  the 
Indian  market." 


(93)  Bassia  longifolia  (Linn,)    Do. 

EUoopie,  Mal.    EUoops,  Tam.    Ippa,  Tkl.    Mohe,  Hind. 

Description. — Tree,  40  feet ;  leaves  ovate-lanceolate,  entire, 
crowded  about  the  ends  of  the  branchlets,  immediately  above 
the  peduncles;  young  shoots  and  petioles  slightly  villous; 
calyx  of  two  opposite  pairs  of  leaflets ;  corolla  8-cleft ;  fila- 
ments scarcely  any;  pedicels  axillary,  drooping,  crowded, 
l-flowered;  stamens  16-20,  within  the  gibbous  tube  of  the 
corolla;  flowers  whitish;  fruit  olive-shaped,  yellowish  when 
ripe,  8-9  seeded;  seeds  solitary.  Fl.  May. — Roxib,  Fl,  Ind.  ii. 
523. CoromandeL    Malabar.    Circars. 

Medical  Uses. — Like  most  Sapotads,  this  tree  abounds  in  a 
gummy  juice  which  exudes  from  the  bark.  It  is  employed  by  the 
Yytians  in  rheumatic  affections.  The  bark  itself  is  used  in  decoc- 
tion as  an  astringent  and  emollient,  and  also  as  a  remedy  in  the  cure 
of  itch. — Ainslie, 

EooNOMio  Uses. — The  flowers  are  roasted  and  eaten,  and  are  also 
bruised  and  boiled  to  a  jelly,  and  made  into  small  balls,  which  are 
exchanged  by  the  natives  for  flsh  and  rice.  An  oil  is  expressed  from 
the  ripe  fruits  which  is  used  for  lamps  among  the  poorer  classes,  and 
is  one  of  the  principal  ingredients  in  making  country  soap.  It  is  to 
the  common  people  a  substitute  for  ghee  and  cocoa-nut  oil  in  their 
cakes  and  curries.  The  cakes  which  are  left  after  the  oil  is  expressed 
are  used  for  washing  the  head,  and  are  carried  as  articles  of  trade  to 
those  countries  where  the  tree  does  not  grow.  The  oil  is  solid  at  a 
moderate  temperature,  but  will  not  keep  any  length  of  time — ^not 
more  than  a  fortnight  or  three  weeks  in  the  warm  season ;  it  then 
becomes  rancid,  emitting  a  disagreeable  odour.  If,  however,  it  be 
well  corked  and  secured  from  contact  with  the  air,  it  will  in  cold 
weather  keep  for  some  months.  In  England  it  is  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  candles.  The  price  of  this  oU  is  about  three  rupees  and  a 
half  a  maund.  The  wood  of  this  tree  is  hard,  and  nearly  as  durable 
as  teak,  but  not  so  easUy  worked,  nor  is  it  procurable  of  such  length 
for  beams  and  planks.  It  thrives  best  on  deep  light  soils. — Roxh 
Hunter  on  Veg.  OUa  of  8*  India, 


72  BATATAS — ^BAUHINIA. 

(94)  Batatas  ednlis  (Choisy),    N.  0.  CoNVOLvuLAO&fi. 

Sweet  or  Spanish  Potato.  Eno.    Eappa-kalenga,  Mal.    Shukar-kimdoo-aloo, 
BXNO.    Chillagada,  Grasugada,  Tel. 

Description. — Stem  creeping,  rarely  twining ;  leaves  vari- 
able, usually  angular,  also  lobed,  cordate ;  sepals  5 ;  corolla 
campanulate ;  peduncles  equal  in  length  to  the  petioles,  3-4 
flowered;  flowers  white  outside,  purple  inside.  FL  Feb. — 
March. — Bheede,  vii.  t  50. — Convolvulus  batatas,  Linn, — 
JRoxb,  Fl.  Ind,  i.  483. — Ipomsea  batatas.  Lam, Cultivated 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^This  plant  is  said  originally  to  have  been  found 
wild  in  the  woods  of  the  Malayan  Archipelago,  from  whence  it  was 
introduced  into  this  country.  There  are  two  varieties,  one  with  red, 
the  other  with  white  tubers.  The  red  variety  is  considered  the  best ; 
both  are  very  nutritious  and  palatable,  though  slightly  laxative. 
This  esculent  root  was  brought  to  England  from  Spain  and  Portugal 
before  the  common  potato  became  known.  ^'  The  sweet  potato,"  says 
Sir  Joseph  Banks,  ^'  was  used  in  England  as  a  delicacy  long  before 
the  introduction  of  our  potatoes.  It  was  imported  in  considerable 
quantities  from  Spain  and  the  Canaries,  and  was  supposed  to  possess 
the  power  of  restoring  decayed  vigour."  In  India  they  are  cultivated 
by  all  classes.  They  require  very  httle  care ;  the  ground  being  merely 
cleared  of  weeds,  the  plants  will  grow  on  any  soil.  In  taste  they 
are  sweet  and  palatable,  possessing  a  quantity  of  saccharine  matter. 
The  natives  eat  the  tubers,  leaves,  and  tender  shoots.  The  former 
are  considered  as  nourishing  as  the  potato,  and  a  lighter  food.  The 
tubers  yield  a  large  proportion  of  starch  They  must  be  kept  dry, 
or  they  decay  soon.  The  herbage  is  employed  for  feeding  cattle. — 
Don,     Simmonds, 

Batatas  betacea,  the  Beet-rooted  sweet  Potato,  figured  in  the  Bot. 
Reg.,  t.  66  (1840),  has  been  lately  introduced.  The  following  parti- 
culars are  given  in  the  Jury  Reports,  Mad.  Exh.  1856  : — 

"  Four  small  roots  were  sent  from  AustraHa  by  Mr  DowdesweU, 
and  planted  by  Mr  Rohde  at  Guntoor,  whence  it  has  been  already 
largely  distributed.  It  has  been  in  ddly  use  as  a  vegetable  for  the 
last  six  months,  and  is  preferred  to  the  conunon  sweet  potato,  as 
being  less  sweet  and  more  farinaceous." 

The  large  turnip-shaped  roots  of  the  B,  panimdata  dried  in  the 
sun,  reduced  to  powder,  and  then  boiled  with  sugar  and  butter,  are 
said  to  promote  obesity.  They  are  also  cathartic,  and  as  such  are 
used  by  the  natives.     Cattle  are  very  fond  of  them. — Boxh, 

(96)  Bauhinia  racemosa  {Lam,)    K  0.  LEOUMiNOSiE. 

Bun-raj,  Beko.    Arree,  Tel. 

Description.  —  Small  tree,   unarmed,  bushy;    branchlets 


BAUfllNIA.  73 

drooping;  leaves  cordate  at  the  base,  upper  side  glabrous, 
under  villous,  or  pubescent,  or  nearly  glabrous ;  leaflets  round- 
ish or  broadly  ovate,  united  to  about  the  middle,  3-nerved ; 
racemes  solitary,  terminal  or  leaf-opposed,  leafless,  much  longer 
than  the  leaves ;  flowers  scattered,  small,  white ;  calyx  spatha^ 
ceous,  at  length  reflexed,  5-toothed,  pubescent ;  petals  linear, 
lanceolate,  slightly  hairy  outside ;  stamens  all  fertile,  imited  at 
the  base ;  filaments  and  anthers  bearded ;  style  none  (!) ;  stigma 
flat,  sessile;  legumes  linear,  straightish  or  curved,  scarcely 
dehiscent,  many-seeded.    FL  May — ^June. — W.JkA.Prod.  i. 

295.— B.  parviflora,  Vahl.—Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii  323. My- 

sora    Coucan  mountains.    Bengal 

Economic  Usbs. — ^This  tree  has  a  thick  bark,  of  which  matchlock- 
men  make  their  matches.  It  bums  long  and  slowly  without  any 
substance  being  mixed  with  it.  To  prepare  the  bark  it  is  boiled, 
dried,  and  beaten.  Strong  ropes  are  made  from  the  bark  stripped 
from  the  green  branches,  used  for  cots,  tying  fences,  and  various 
other  purposes.  The  fibre  is  not  exported,  and  the  price  is  very 
low.  Among  other  Bauhinias  which  yield  fibres  may  be  mentioned 
the  B,  diphyllay  which  is  common  about  Cuddapah  and  Guntoor, 
where  it  is  Imown  as  the  Authee  nar,  Yepy,  and  Apa. — Roxh,  Jury 
Rep.  M.  E. 

A  fibre  is  also  procured  from  the  B,  seandens,  a  large  climber, 
growing  in  the  CJoncans  and  Travancore.  A  line  made  from  it  was 
tested  by  Captain  Thomson,  who  found  that  it  sustained  a  weight  of 
168  lb.  for  the  space  of  forty-five  minutes,  thereby  equalling  in 
strength  the  best  Sunn  hemp. — Boyle, 


AMJa  o^^^ 


*~^(96)  BanhlniA  tomentosa  (Linn.)    Do. 

Gaat-attie,  Triviat-pntrum,  Tam.    Chanscheha,  Mal. 

Description. — Shrub,  6  to  12  feet;  unarmed ;  leaves  ovate  or 
roundish  at  the  base,  under  surface  villous  as  well  as  the  peti- 
oles, branches,  peduncles,  and  calyx ;  leaflets  connected  beyond 
the  middle,  oval,  obtuse,  3-nerved ;  peduncles  2-flowered,  leaf- 
opposed;  pedicels  each  with  3  bracteas  at  the  base;  calyx 
spathaceous,  5-toothed ;  petals  oval ;  stamens  all  fertile ;  le- 
gumes flat,  lanceolate,  5-6-seeded ;  flowers  large,  pale  sulphur ; 
one  petal  usually  with  a  dark  purple  spot  inside.  FL  July — 
August— TT.  &  A.  Prod,  i.  295,— Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii  323.— 
Rheede,  L  t.  35. Malabar.     Coix)mandeL     Oude. 


74  BAUHINTA. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  native  doctors  administer  the  dried  leaves 
and  young  flowers  in  dysenteric  affections,  and  a  decoction  of  the 
bark  of  the  root  is  given  in  cases  of  liver  and  phlegmatic  complaints, 
and  also  as  a  vermifuge.  The  bruised  bark  is  also  occasionally  ap- 
plied to  tumours  and  wounds. — (Ainslie.  Rheede,)  The  leaves  of 
several  species  of  Bauhinia  are  used  in  Bengal  as  demulcent  or  muci- 
laginous remedies  in  dysentery.  The  seeds  are  eaten,  and  are  said  to 
be  tonic  and  aphrodisiac. — PowelVs  PunJ.  Prod, 


(97)  Bauhinia  Vahlil  (W.  ^  A,)    Do. 

Mahwal,  Hind.    Adda^  Tel. 

Description. — Shrub,  climbing  to  aii  immense  extent;  young 
8hoots,petioles,  peduncles,  and  tendrils  covered  with  thick  rusty- 
eoloured  tomentum;  leaves  roundish,  deeply  cordate  at  the 
base,  upper  side  nearly  glabrous,  under  tomentose;  leaflets 
oval,  obtuse,  united  to  a  little  above  the  middle,  4-6  nerved ; 
nerves  covered  with  rusty  tomentum ;  tendrils  opposite,  below 
the  leaves,  spiral;  racemes  terminal,  corymbiform;  pedicels 
elongated,  and  with  the  calyx  densely  villous;  calyx  ovate, 
splitting  to  the  base  of  the  limb  into  two  reflexed  segments ; 
petals  densely  clothed  on  the  back  with  silky  hairs,  the  three 
upper  a  little  larger  than  the  others ;  fertile  stamens  3,  villous 
at  the  base ;  ovary  densely  villous,  its  stalk  cohering  on  one 
side  with  the  calyx  tube;  legumes  pendulous,  long,  linear, 
compressed,  8-12  seeded;  flowers  largish,  white,  gradually  be- 
coming cream-coloured.   FL  March — ^April. —  W,  &  A.  Prod.  i. 

297.    B.  racemosa,  Vahl. — Eoxb.  Flor.  Ind,  ii  325. Circars. 

Bengal 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  is  one  of  the  largest  of  the  Bauhinias,  and 
a  native  of  alpine  districts.  The  large  leaves  are  nearly  a  foot  in 
diameter,  and  are  collected  in  the  northern  districts  of  the  Circars, 
and  sold  in  the  bazaars  for  various  purposes,  such  as  plates  and  pack- 
ages. The  seeds  are  eaten  raw  when  ripe,  tasting  like  cashew-nuts. 
The  flowers  hang  down  in  elegant  festoons,  and  the  branches  are 
very  extensive,  j&rom  100  to  300  feet  long,  climbing  over  the  highest 
trees.  Hopes  are  made  ^m  the  bark ;  the  natives  boil  and  then 
beat  it,  which  makes  it  soft  and  pliable.  It  will,  however,  rot  if 
kept  too  long  in  the  water.  The  ropes  have  been  occasionally  used 
for  suspension-bridges  over  the  mountain-torrents  in  the  Himalayan 
valleys. — Royle^  Fib.  Plants.    Moxb. 


BAUHINIA — BEESHA.  75 

(98)  Batihinia  variegata  (Linn.)    Do. 

Chovaima  Mandaree,  Mal.    Sona,  Hind. 

Dbscjription. — Tree,  20-30  feet ;  tmanned;  leaves  roundish, 
upper  side  glabrous,  under  when  young  villous,  cordate  at 
the  base ;  leaflets  oval,  obtuse,  5-nerved,  united  far  beyond  the 
middle ;  petals  oblong,  nearly  sessile,  the  upper  one  somewhat 
larger  and  on  a  rather  longer  claw  th£Ln  the  others ;  fertile 
stamens  5,  all  shortly  united  at  the  base ;  racemes  axillary 
and  terminal ;  calyx  spathaceous,  5-toothed  at  the  apex ;  leg- 
umes straight,  5-12  seeded.  Fl.  Feb. — March. — W.  &  A.  Prod. 
I  296.— Meede,  i  t  32,  33. 

The  two  varieties  are : — 

a — B.  purpurascens — Bukhta-kanchun,  Beedul,  Beno. — four 
petals  reddish  and  varied  with  purple ;  the  fifth  varie- 
gated with  purple,  brown,  and  yellow — ^B.  purpurea, 

JjTo/i— B.  variegata,  Boaib.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  319. Malabar. 

CoromandeL 

b — B.  Candida — Kana-raj,  Benq. — four  petals  whitish;  the 
fifth  variegated  on  the  inner  side,  with  yeUow  and 

green.     Boxb.  FL  Ind.  ii.  318. Bengal    Malabar. 

Oude. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  bark  is  astringent,  and  used  as  a  tonic  in 
fevers.  The  natives  reckon  the  dried  buds  astnngent,  and  useful 
in  diarrhcea  and  woims. — PowdVs  Punj.  Prod. 

Economic  Uses. — The  buds  are  eaten  as  vegetables  when  pre- 
pared with  animal  food.  The  astringent  bark  is  used  for  tanning 
and  dyeing  purposes. — Boxb. 

(99)  Beesha  Bheedii  (Kunth).    K.  0.  Grahinace^. 

Beesha,  Mal.    Bish-bansh,  Beng. 

Description. — Unarmed;  leaves  alternate,  ovate-lanceolate, 
bifarious,  smooth  on  both  sides ;  sheaths  villous,  bearded  at  the 
mouth;  pericarp  a  large,  fleshy,  conical-curved  and  pointed 
fruit,  with  a  single  oval  seed  in  each.  M.  July — Sept. — Boaib. 
Fl.  Ind.  ii.  197. — Bambusa  baccifera,  Kimth. — Boxb.  Cor.  iiL 

1 243. — Bheede,  v.  t.  60. Peninsula.    Chittagong  mountains. 

Malabar. 

EcoNOXio  Uses. — Indigenous  to  the  mountains  in  Chittagong^ 


76  BERBERIS. 

where  it  is  called  Paga-tullu.  It  bears  no  thorns,  and  is,  moreover, 
remarkable  for  its  large  pendulous  pericarp.  Pierard,  quoted  by 
Eozburgh,  says  that  this  bamboo  is  in  common  use  in  the  country 
where  it  grows,  for  every  purpose  of  building.  "  It  grows  in  dry- 
places  chiefly  on  the  sides  of  hills,  where  the  upper  stratum  of  the 
soil  is  sandy.  The  circumference  near  the  base  is  12-13  inches,  the 
height  &om  50  to  70  feet,  beautifully  erect,  and  -Without  the  least 
flexure  or  inequality  of  surface,  bare  of  branches,  except  near  the 
extremity.  Perishes  after  yielding  its  fruit.  It  yields  more  or  less 
of  the  Tabasheer  of  a  siliceous  crystallisation ;  sometimes  it  ia  said 
the  cavity  is  nearly  filled  with  this,  which  the  people  called  *  chuna, 
or  lime.' ''  The  natives  make  arrows  and  bows  from  the  stems,  and 
pwis  from  the  younger  shoots. — (Roxb.)  The  native  name  is  pro- 
noimced  Vay  or  Vaysha.  It  is  very  common  on  the  Travancore 
hills,  growing  also  in  the  low  country.  The  leaves  are  often  put 
on  verandahs  and  roofs  of  houses  to  keep  away  the  white  ants,  and 
for  this  purpose  the  most  effectual  and  simple  remedy  known  where 
the  plants  are  common. — Pers,  Obs. 

(100)  BerberiB  lyciuxn  (Eoyle).    X.  0.  EERBEiuDKfi. 

Raisin  Berberry,  Enq. 

Descbiption. — Shrub,  6-8  feet;  spines  trifid  or  simple;  leaves 
oval,  cuueated  or  elliptical,  mucronate,  smooth,  under  surface, 
glaucous,  entire  or  spinulosely  toothed ;  racemes  short,  many- 
flowered,  corymbose,  shorter  than  the  leaves ;  pedicels  elon- 
gated, 1-flowered;  berries  purplish;  flowers  small,  yellow.  FL 
May — June. Nepaul.    Kumaon. 

Medical  Uses. — This  plant  is  distinguished  from  other  species  by 
the  very  short  racemes  of  its  flowers.  The  fruit  is  oblong,  purplish 
or  pinkish,  wrinkled  and  covered  with  bloom  like  that  of  the  best 
raisins.  Among  many  conflicting  opinions  of  botanists  it  becomes 
difficult  to  identify  the  several  described  species  of  Berberis.  It  has 
now  been  definitively  settled  by  Dr  Royle  that  this  is  the  Lyeium 
Indicum  of  Dioscorides,  over  which  much  doubt  has  hung  for  a  long 
period.  The  medicine  it  yields  is  of  the  highest  antiquity,  and  has 
been  known  to  the  Hindoos  from  very  early  ages.  The  most  cele- 
brated part  is  the  extract  called  Rusot,  which  is  prepared  by  digest- 
ing in  water  pieces  of  the  root,  stem,  and  branches.  This  is 
frequently  employed  as  a  remedy  in  ophthalmia,  especially  useful 
after  the  acute  symptoms  have  subsided.  Some  say  that  it  is  one 
of  the  best  applications  ever  used  in  that  complaint  The  tincture, 
which  is  also  prepared  from  the  bark  of  the  root,  is  recommended  as 
preferable  to  the  extract.  It  \a  very  bitter,  yielding  a  principle 
called  Berberine,  As  a  medicine  it  is  reckoned  exceedingly  valu- 
able, and  is  easily  prepared  where  the  plant  is  indigenous.     Accord- 


BERBERIS.  V7 

ing  to  Dr  O'Shaughnessy,  the  medicine  is  best  administered  as  a 
febrifuge,  promoting  digestion  and  acting  as  a  gentle  but  certain 
aperient.  In  ague  and  remittent  fevers,  it  is  peculiarly  useful,  and 
by  some  it  is  reckoned  only  second  to  quinine,  externally  either 
alone  or  with  equal  parts  of  alum  and  opium  mixed  up  in  water  and 
applied  round  the  eye.  The  B.  lycium  is  found  at  a  lower  elevation 
(viz.  at  3000  feet)  than  any  of  the  other  species,  and  therefore  may 
be  acclimated  in  the  plains. 

All  the  species  of  Berberry  are  supposed  to  possess  similar  pro- 
perties in  a  greater  or  less  degree.  There  has  been  much  confusion 
in  arranging  them,  but  the  following  may  perhaps  be  enumerated  as 
distinct  plants : — 

B.  aristata. — Spines  very  stiff  and  three  parted ;  leaves  oblong  or 
oblong-lanceolate,  nearly  entire  or  toothed,  sometimes  deeply 
or  coarsely  veined;   flowers  in  long  loose  slender  racemes. 

Common  in  Northern  India,  distinguished  by  its  slender 

pendulous  or  erect  racemes  of  flowers,  longer  than  the  leaves, 
and  not  cor3rmbose. 

B.  Sinensis. — Spines  3-5  or  more ;  leaves  lanceolate,  very  acute, 
much  netted,  entire,  or  regularly  toothed ;  flowers  numerous, 

in  drooping  racemes  not  much  longer  than  the  leaves. 

Found  in  Northern  India  and  China. — ^Berries  are  said  to  be 
dark  purple. 

B.  Wallichiana. —  Spines  long,  slender,  3 -parted;  leaves  oblong- 
lanceolate,  deep  green,  sharp-pointed,  finely  serrated;  flowers 

very  numerous,  in  clusters  shorter  than  the  leaves. ^Native 

of  Nepaul  at  very  high  elevations. 

B.  Nepaulensis. — Leaves  3-5  pairs,  ovate ;  leaflets  spiny,  toothed ; 

racemes  upright,  slender,  elongated ;  fruit  bluish  purple. 

Native  of  mountainous  parts  in  Northern  India,  growing  10- 
12  feet  high  at  8000  feet  elevations.  Said  to  be  one  of  the 
finest  of  the  species.  It  differs  very  little  from  B.  Leschen- 
aultii. — (W.  ^  A.  Prod,  L  16.) — Royle,  Loudon,  Indian 
Ann,  of  Med,  Science, 

(101)  Berberis  tinctoria  (Leech.)    Do. 

Dyei's  Berberry,  Enq. 

Description. — Shrub,  6-10  feet;  leaves  simple,  oboval,  en- 
tire, or  with  distant,  small,  spiny  teeth,  glaucous,  with  the 
principal  veins  and  nerves  prominent  beneath,  but  not  above ; 
racemes  stalked,  longer  than  the  leaves;  pedicels  slender; 
petals  6,  distinctly  biglandular;  sepals  5,  spines  deeply  divided 
into  three  sharp  rigid  segments ;  flowers  yellow ;  berries  2-3 

seeded,     FL  Jan. — April — W.  &  A.  Prod,  i,  16. Neil- 

gherries.    Pulney  mountains. 


78  BEHaERA. 

EooNOMio  TJsBS. — ^Thifl  species  of  Berbeny,  fotind  on  the  l^eil- 
glienies,  serves,  as  the  name  implies,  for  dyeing  a  yellow  colour. 
The  roots  contain  17  per  cent  of  nseful  colouring  matter.  Accord- 
ing to  Leschenault,  who  had  the  wood  analysed,  it  contained  the 
yellow  colouring  principle  in  a  greater  state  of  purity  than  the 
common  English  Berberry.  According  to  recent  investigations,  this, 
species  is  identical  with  the  B.  arifftata.-^Dee.)  It  ranges  on  the 
mountains  of  India  from  the  Himalaya  to  the  Neilgherries,  and  to 
Newera  Ellia  in  Ceylon.  It  is  a  handsome  and  ornamental  shrub, 
remarkable  for  its  fine  large  compound  racemes  of  flowers ;  the  fruit 
is  of  an  oblong  shape  and  brownish-purple  colour,  with  little  or  no 
bloom.  It  is  very  distinct  from  other  species,  and  grows  quickly. 
The  root  and  wood  are  of  a  dark  yellow  colour,  and  form  the  yellow 
wood  of  Persian  .authors.  In  Kepaul  the  fruit  of  this  .species  is 
dried  like  raisins. — Wight,  Loudon,  Joum,  Agri,  Hort,  SoCy  iii. 
272. 


(102)  Bergera  Kosnigii  (Keen,)    K  0.  Aurantiace^e. 

Carry-leaf-tree,  Eno.  Kari-bepon,  Earreya-pela,  Mal.  Carroova-pOlay,  Tak. 
Kari-yepa,  Tsu    Earay-paak,  Hind,    fiorsunga,  Bsmg. 

Description.  —  Small  tree  with  pinnate  leaves;  leaflets 
alternate,  ovate,  acuminate,  pubescent,  somewhat  serrated; 
panicles  corymbiform,  terminal ;  calyx  5-cleft ;  petals  5, 
spreading;  berry  1-celled,  1-seeded;  flowers  small,  whita 
Fl.  April— July.— IT.  &  A,  Prod,  i  94.— jBoajJ.  Fl  Ind.  ii. 
376. — Cor.  ii.  t  112. — Bheede,  iv.  t  53. — Murraya  Kcenigii, 
Sprerig, Circar  mountains.  Malabar.  Cultivated  in  gar- 
dens. 

Medical  Uses. — The  root  is  laxative,  and  both  bark  and  roots 
are  stimulant,  and  are  used  externally  as  remedies  in  eruptions,  and 
in  infusion  to  check  vomitings  in  cholera.  It  is  used  for  bites  of 
poisonous  animals,  the  tender  leaves  being  boiled  in  milk,  bruised, 
and  applied  as  a  poultice  to  the  parts  affected.  The  fresh  leaves  are 
eaten  raw  in  dysentery.  The  pulp  of  the  fruit  gives  out  a  kind  of 
white  juice,  which  blackens  the  skin  like  walnuts. — Ainslie, 

Economic  Uses. — The  natives  put  the  leaves  of  this  tree  in  their 
curries,  to  which  they  impart  an  agreeable  flavour.  When  rubbed 
together  they  emit  a  pleasant  aromatic  smell.  They  retain  their 
flavour  when  dried,  and  are  sold  in  that  state  in  the  bazaars.  The 
wood  is  hard  and  durable,  and  is  used  for  implements  of  husbandry. 
A  yellow,  clear,  and  transparent  oil  is  procured  from  the  seeds,  kndwn 
as  the  Limbolee  oil. — Boxb, 


BIGNONIA — ^BIXA.  79 

(103)  Bignonia  snberosa  (Eoxh.)    K  0.  BiGNONiAciBJs. 

Indian  Ck)rk-tree,  "Esq. 

Desctription. — ^Tree,  40-50  feet ;  leaves  opposite,  supra-de- 
compound ;  leaflets  acuminated,  sub-cordate,  entire ;  panicles 
terminal,  with  horizontal  ramifications,  the  first  trichotomous, 
then  dichotomous,  with  generally  a  simple  flower  in  the  fork ; 
flowers  numerous,  large,  pure  white,  fragrant.  FL  June — ^Aug. 
— Boxb.  FL  Ind,  iii.  111. Tanjore.    Courtallum.     Madras. 

Economic  TJsBa — ^The  wood  is  white,  firm,  and  close-grained.  The 
bark  is  very  spongy,  yielding  an  inferior  kind  of  cork.  The  tree 
grows  rapidly,  is  handsome  and  ornamental,  and  well  adapted  for 
avenues  and  plantations. — (jRoxb.  Jury  Reports,  Mad,  FxJdb.) 
The  B,  xylocarpa  is  a  large  but  common  tree  in  almost  all  the 
Madras  forests,  as  well  as  in  Mysore,  Bengal,  and  Bombay.  It 
grows  rapidly.  It  is  called  Vadenoami  in  Tamil  The  wood  is 
brownish  yellow,  rather  close-grained,  takes  a  good  pohsh,  and  is 
used  for  cabinet  purposes. — Bedd,^  Fl,  Sylv,,  t  70. 

(104)  Biza  OreUana  (Linn.)    K  0.  Bixikels. 

Arnotto-tree,  Eno.  Konmgoomimga,  Mal.  Jafia,  Tel.  Kooragoomangjul, 
Tail    Gawpurgee,  Hiin). 

Desoeiption. — Tree,  30  feet;  leaves  cordate-ovate,  acumi- 
nated, entire  or  angular,  smooth  on  both  surfaces ;  sepals  5, 
orbicular ;  petals  5,  capsule  2-valved,  prickly  on  the  outside ; 
seeds  8-10  attached  to  each  placenta,  surrounded  by  a  red 
pulp;  corymbs  terminal,  panicled;  peduncles  2-4  flowered; 
flowers  pale  peach-coloured,  or  white.    Fl.  May — ^Aug. — W. 

&  A.  Prod.  i.  31. — Roxb.  Fl,  Ind.  iL  581. Travancore. 

Bengal.    Mysore. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  pulp  surromiding  the  seeds  is  astringent 
and  slightly  purgative,  and  is  esteemed  a  good  antidote  in  dysentery 
and  diseases  of  &e  kidneys. — (Moxb.)  The  seeds  are  cordial,  astrin- 
gent, and  febrifdgal,  and  the  red  pulp  is  a  supposed  antidote  to  the 
Mandioc  poison. — lAndley. 

Economic  Uses. — ^A  valuable  dye  known  as  the  Amotto  dye  is 
produced  from  the  pulp  surrounding  the  seeds  of  this  plant.  It  is 
prepared  by  macerating  the  pods  in  boiling  water,  extracting  the 
seeds,  and  leaving  the  pidp  to  subside ;  the  fluid  being  subsequently 
thrown  ofll  The  residuum,  with  which  oil  is  sometimes  mixed,  is 
placed  in  shallow  vessels  and  dried  in  the  shade.  When  properly 
made  it  should  be  of  a  bright  yellow  colour.     It  imparts  a  deep 


80  BLUMEA. 

orange  tinge  to  silk  and  cotton,  and  is  used  by  the  dyers  for  that 
purpose.  The  Spanish  Americans  mix  it  with  their  chocolate.  In 
this  country  the  dye  prepared  is  of  a  pale  rose-colour.  The  cloth  is 
prepared  by  first  being  soaked  in  strong  alum-water ;  the  colour  is 
then  suspended  in  butter-milk,  into  which  the  cloth  is  dipped  and 
charged  with  the  colour.  The  dye  is  not  very  durable,  and  requires 
to  be  renewed  from  time  to  time;  and  that  of  the  Indian  variety  is 
inferior  to  that  of  the  West  Indian  plant.  Mixed  with  lemon-juice 
and  gum,  it  makes  the  paint  with  which  the  American  Indians 
adorn  their  persons.  The  same  people  produce  fire  by  the  friction 
of  two  pieces  of  the  wood.  Cordage  is  made  from  the  bark  in  the 
West  Indies. 

Several  specimens  of  the  Amotto  dye  were  sent  to  the  Madras 
Exhibition.  It  is  soluble  in  alkalies,  by  which  means  it  is  fixed  to 
silk  or  wooL  In  Europe  it  is  frequently  used  to  impart  a  tinge  to 
butter,  cheese,  oils,  and  vamisL  The  article  is  chiefly  prepared  and 
exported  from  South  America  to  Europe.  Dr  Ure,  in  his  *  Dictionary 
of  Arts,'  has  given  a  long  account  of  the  process  of  manufacture  in 
the  West  Indies,  part  of  which  is  here  subjoined.  "  The  substanxse 
thus  extracted  is  passed  through  sieves,  in  order  to  separate  the  re- 
mainder of  the  seeds,  and  the  colour  is  allowed  te  subside.  The  pre- 
cipitate is  boiled  in  coppers  till  it  be  reduced  to  a  consistent  paste ; 
it  is  then  suffered  to  cool,  and  be  dried  in  the  shade.  Instead  of 
this  long  and  painful  labour,  which  occasions  diseases  by  the  putre- 
faction induced,  and  which  affords  a  spoiled  product,  Leblond  pro- 
poses simply  to  wash  the  seeds  of  Amotto  till  they  be  entirely 
deprived  of  their  colour,  which  lies  wholly  on  their  suiface ;  to  pre- 
cipitate the  colour  by  means  of  vinegar  or  lemon-juice,  and  to  boil  it 
up  in  the  ordinary  manner,  or  to  drain  it  in  bags,  as  is  practised 
with  Indigo. 

"  The  experiments  which  Vauquelin  made  on  the  seeds  of  Amotto 
imported  by  Leblond,  confirmed  the  efficacy  of  the  process  which  he 
proposed ;  and  the  dyers  ascertained  that  the  Amotto  obtained  in 
this  manner  was  worth  at  least  four  times  more  than  that  of  com- 
merce ;  that,  moreover,  it  was  more  easily  employed,  that  it  required 
less  solvents,  that  it  gave  less  trouble  in  the  copper,  and  furnished 
a  purer  colour." 

The  plant  is  cultivated  in  Mysore  and  the  northern  parts  of 
India.  There  is  a  large  importation,  about  3,000,000  lb.  per 
annum,  for  home  consumption,  chiefly  from  South  America.  In 
Ix>ndon  the  value  is  about  a  shilling  a  pound. — Eoxb.  Simmonds. 
Ure, 


(105)  Blnmea  balsamifera  (Dec,)    K  0.  Compobitjs. 

Description.— Stem  suffmticose  at  the  base,  branches  woolly- 
villous  ;  leaves  oblong  or  elliptic-lanceolate,  duplicato-dentate, 


BOEHMEHIA.  81 

villous  above,  silky-villous  beneath,  the  veins  wrinkled,  lobes 
linear-lanceolate,  appendiculate  ;  corymb  sub-panicled,  divari- 
cate ;  involucral  scales  linear,  acute,  hirsute ;  flowers  small, 
yellow.  FL  Feb. — March. — Dec,  Prod.  v.  p.  447. — Conyza 
balsamifera,  Linn. — C.  odorata,  Rumph. — Baccharis  salvia^ 
Lour. Concana    Assam. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  plant,  which  inhabits  the  Moluccas  and 
Ceylon  as  well  as  India,  possesses  a  strong  camphoiaoeous  odour  and 
pungent  taste.  A  wann  infusion  of  the  plant  {Horsf.  As.  Joum^ 
viiL  272)  acts  as  a  powerful  sudorific,  and  is  in  very  general  use 
among  the  Javanese  and  Chinese  as  an  expectorant.  It  has  also 
been  repeatedly  employed  in  catarrhal  affections.  Loureiro  {Flor, 
Coch.,  p.  603)  mentions  its  use  in  Cochin  China  as  a  stomachic^ 
antispasmodic,  and  emmenagogae« — PTiarm.  of  India. 

(106)  Boehmeria  nivea  (Hook.  ^  Arn.)    K.  O.  tfRTicACEii!. 

China  grass,  Eng. 

Description. — ^Perennial,  herbaceous;  leaves  large,  alter- 
nate, of  equal  shape,  broadly  ovate  or  elliptic-rounded,  acumi- 
nate, cordate  at  the  base,  or  more  often  shortly  cuneate  near 
the  petiole,  more  seldom  alternate  or  truncated  at  the  base, 
crenato  -  serrate,  snowy  -  tomentose  beneath,  scabrous  above; 
stipules  free;  glomerules  loosely  cymose-panicled ;  fructifer- 
ous perigonium  elliptic  or  oblong-compressed,  hairy.  Hook. 
<k  Am.  Bot  Voy.  Beech,  p.  214. — Dec.  Prod.  xvi.  s.  p.  206. — 
Urtica  nivea,  Linn.^—Hook.  Joum.  Bot  1851,  t  8. — B.  Candi- 
cansj  (var.) — Urtica  candicans,  Burm. — U.  tenacissima,  Itoxb* 
—  Wight  Icon.  t.  688. Cultivated. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  fibres  of  the  batk  are  second  to  none  in 
strength  and  beauty.  They  are  used  throughout  the  East  for  making 
textile  fabrics.  The  plant  is  very  easy  of  cultivation,  and  of  most 
luxuriant  and  rapid  vegetation,  throwing  up  numerous  shoots,  which 
may  be  cut  and  will  be  renewed  three  or  four  times  in  the  course  of 
the  year.  Its  stem  would  become  ligneous  and  covered  with  brown 
bark  if  suffered  to  attain  its  full  growth,  while  it  would  throw  out 
many  branches  ;  but  the  young  shoots  are  those  which  are  used,  and 
on  the  stem  being  cut  down  niunerous  straight  ^mple  shoots  spring 
up  from  one  to  eight  feet,  according  to  the  season,  quality  of  the 
soil,  and  other  circumstances. — iMnkester,  Veg.  Subst. 

The  Indo-Chinese  prepare  the  Eheea  fibre  as  follows  :  The  plant 
is  fit  for  cutting  when  the  stems  become  of  a  brown  colour  for  about 
six  inches  upwards  from  the  root.     In  order  to  strip  off  the  bark  and 

6 


82  BOERUAVIA. 

fibie,  the  operator  holda  the  stalk  in  both  hands  nearly  in  the 
middle,  and,  pressing  the  fore-finger  and  thumb  of  both  hands  firmly, 
gives  it  a  peculiar  twist,  by  which  the  inner  pith  is  broken ;  and  then, 
passing  the  fingers  of  his  right  and  left  hand  alternately  towards  each 
end,  the  bark  and  fibre  are  completely  separated  from  the  stalk  in  two 
strands.  The  strands  of  bark  and  fibre  are  then  made  up  into  bundles 
of  convenient  size,  tied  at  the  smaller  end  with  a  shred  of  fibre,  and 
put  into  clean  water  for  a  few  hours,  which  probably  deprives  the 
plant  of  its  tannin  or  colounng  matter,  the  water  becoming  quite 
red  in  a  short  time.  The  deaning  process  is  as  follows :  The 
bundles  are  put  on  a  hook  fastened  in  a  post  by  means  of  the  tie  at 
the  smaller  end,  at  a  convenient  height  for  the  operator,  who  takes 
each  strand  of  the  larger  end  separately  in  his  left  hand,  passes  the 
thumb  of  his  right  hand  quickly  along  the  inner  side,  by  which 
operation  the  outer  bark  is  completely  separated  from  the  fibre,  and 
the  ribbon  of  fibre  is  then  thoroughly  cleaned  by  two  or  three 
scrapings  with  a  small  knife.  This  completes  the  operation,  with 
some  loss,  however — say  one-fifth ;  and  if  quickly  dried  in  the  sun, 
it  might  at  once  be  made  up  for  exportation ;  but  the  appearance  of 
the  fibre  is  much  improved  by  exposure  (immediately  after  cleaning) 
on  the  grass  to  a  night's  heavy  dew  in  September  or  October,  or  a 
shower  of  rain  during  the  rainy  season.  From  its  great  value,  if 
any  other  cheaper  method  of  preparation  could  be  discovered,  it 
would  undersell  all  other  fibre& 

(107)  Boerhavia  diftasa  (Linn,)    K  0.  Ntctaoikacea. 

Spreading  Hoe-weed,  Eno.    Mookaretti,  Tam.    Ataka-Mamidi,  Tel.    Tameer- 
ama,  Taludama,  Mal.    Tikri,  Hind.    Gada-pooma,  Swhet-pooma,  Bemq. 

DfiSCEimoN.  —  Low  creeping  plant  with  many  diffused 
stalks,  about  two  feet  long ;  flowers  pale  rose-coloured,  much 
scattered  on  long  branching  peduncles  from  the  axils  and  at 
the  end  of  the  branches ;  seeds  brown,  oblong,  striated,  very 
rough ;  leaves  ovate,  rather  roundish,  bright  green  above, 
whitish  below ;  sometimes  curled  at  tlie  edges.  FL  All  the 
year. — Boaib.  Fl.  Ind.  i  146. — Bheede,  vii  t  56. —  Wight  Icon. 
t.  874. CoTomandeL    Travancore.    India  generally. 

Medical  Uses. — Of  this  troublesome  weed,  which  is  common  in 
all  parts  of  India,  there  are  two  varieties— one  with  white,  the  other 
with  rose-coloured  flowers.  The  root  is  given  in  powder  as  a  laxa- 
tive, and  in  infusion  as  a  vermifuge.  The  taste  is  slightly  bitter  and 
nauseous.  In  Jamaica  the  leaves  are  given  to  hogs,  whence  the 
English  name. — {Ainslie.)  It  has  been  found  a  good  expectorant, 
and  been  prescribed  in  asthma  with  marked  success,  given  in  the 
form  of  powder,  decoction,  and  infusion.  Taken  largely,  it  acts  as 
an  emetic. — Pharm.  of  India, 


B0RAS8US.  83 

(108)  Borassns  flabeUiformis  (Linm)    N.  0.  Palkacejb. 

Palmyra  Palm,  Ev<l.    Pana,  Mal.   Pannei,  Tam.    Tadi,  Tbl.    Talgachh,  Bbng. 
and  HiMD.    Tala,  Baits. 

Description.— Trunk,  30-40  feet,  .everywhere  marked  with 
old  cicatrices  of  fallen  leaves;  fronds  composed  of  several 
folded  linear-lanceolate  divisions  united  as  far  as  the  centre  ; 
flowers  male  and  female  on  different  trees  ;  drupe  subglobular, 
flattened  at  the  apex,  filled  with  soft  yellow  pulp ;  nuts  3, 
perforated  at  the  apex. — Lontarus  domestica,  Burwph. — Boob. 

Car.  i  t.  71.— Fl.  Ind.  iiL  790.— Eheede,  i  t.  9, 10. Com- 

mon  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^The  saccharine  juice  obtained  by  exdsion  from 
the  spadix  or  young  flowering-branch  is,  when  freshly  drawn  before 
sunrise,  of  a  pleasant  sweet  taste,  and  if  taken  in  doses  of  a  tumbler- 
ful every  morning  acts  as  a  laxative.  After  fermentation  has  com- 
menced, it  becomes  converted  into  arrack,  one  of  the  intoxicating 
drinks  of  the  country.  A  useful  stimulant  application,  called  Toddy 
Poultice,  is  prepared  by  adding  fi^esh  drawn  toddy  to  rice-flour  till 
it  has  the  consistence  of  a  soft  poultice ;  and  this  being  subjected  to 
a  gentle  fire,  fermentation  takes  place.  This,  spread  on  a  doth  and 
applied  to  the  parts,  acts  as  a  valuable  stimulant  application  to 
gangrenous  ulcerations,  carbuncles,  and  indolent  ulcers.  The  light- 
brown  cotton-like  substance  from  the  outside  of  the  base  of  the 
fix>nds  is  employed  as  a  styptic  for  aiiesting  haemorrhage  from  super- 
ficial wounds. — Pharm,  of  India. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^This  palm  is  most  extensively  distributed  over 
the  continent  of  India,  especially  near  the  sea-coast.  Sir  W.  Jones 
said  that  it  was  justly  styled  the  king  of  its  order  among  those 
which  the  Hindoos  call  grass-trees.  Its  uses  are  manifold,  the  best 
known  among  which  is  the  fermented  liquor  called  toddy,  and  this 
constitutes  its  chief  value  to  the  native  inhabitants.  The  mode  of 
procuring  the  vinous  sap  is  as  follows :  The  spadix  or  young 
flowering-branch  is  cut  off  near  the  top,  and  an  earthen  chatty  or 
pitcher  fiien  tied  on  to  the  stump ;  into  this  the  juice  runs.  Every 
morning  it  is  emptied  and  replaced,  the  stump  being  again  cut,  the 
vessel  placed  as  before,  and  so  on,  until  the  whole  has  been  gradually 
exhausted  and  cut  away.  It  is  known  in  Tamil  as  the  Pannung- 
khulloo.  It  is  from  this  liquor  that  sugar  is  extracted,  and  by  the 
same  process  as  that  described  for  procuring  the  toddy,  except  that 
the  inside  of  the  earthen  vessel  or  receiver  is  powdered  with  chunam, 
which  prevents  any  fermentation ;  the  juice  is  then  boiled  down,  and 
dried  by  exposure.  Some  few  trees  that  from  unknown  causes  do 
not  flower  in  spring,  put  out  their  flowers  in  the  cold  season,  and 
give  a  scanty  supply ;  but  in  spring  many  are  rendered  artificially 


84  BOSWELLIA. 

barren  by  breaking  off  the  flowering-bud  as  it  begins  to  form.  These 
also  flower  in  the  winter  season,  and  are  called  Basanti  They  do 
not  give  abore  2^  maunds  of  juice,  but  this  is  of  as  much  value  as 
the  6  maunds  which  a  tree  gives  in  spring.  Either  the  male  or 
female  will  answer  for  the  spring  or  winter  crop,  but  the  female 
alone  will  yield  juice  in  the  rainy  season.  When  this  is  wanted, 
the  fruit  is  allowed  to  form,  and  afterwards  the  point  of  the  spadix 
or  stem  which  supports  the  clusters  is  cut  and  allowed  to  bleed. 
This  does  not  prevent  a  great  many  fruit  on  each  cluster  from  coming 
to  maturity.  Palms  managed  thus  are  called  Ghour.  The  fruit 
ripens  in  August^  but  many  of  the  stems  continue  to  bleed  until 
October.  A  coleopterous  insect  often  attacks  the  heart  of  this  tree, 
and  occasions  it  to  languish.  The  remedy  is  to  cut  a  hole  about  six 
inches  long  and  two  wide  entirely  through  the  middle  of  the  «tem, 
and  four  or  five  feet  from  the  ground.  The  stem  is  found  hollow, 
and  a  great  deal  of  rubbish  like  sawdust  faUs  out,  but  the  palm  soon 
recovers.  The  insect  probably  undergoes  a  change,  and  comes  out 
by  the  hole.  The  coarse  sugar  is  called  Jaggery ;  and  in  Tamil, 
Karepootee.  It  is  used  for  medicinal  purposes,  as  well  as  for  sweet- 
ening drinkSi  The  pulpy  matter  surrounding  the  fresh  seeds  is 
cooling  and  pleasant  to  the  taste,  but  after  they  ripen  it  becomes 
insipid.  The  stems  when  old  become  very  hard,  and  are  capable  of 
taking  a  fine  polish^  being  used  for  bows,  &c.  For  house-building 
and  various  domestic  purposes,  the  timber  is  the  most  generally  used 
of  the  palm  tribei  It  is  used  chiefly  for  rafters,  joists,  and  reapers, 
protected  from  moisture,  and  esteemed  especially  when  of  good  age. 
For  this  purpose  the  trunk  is  split  into  4  for  rafters,  into  8  for 
reapers,  and  these  are  dressed  with  an  adze.  From  the  structure  of 
the  fibres,  it  splits  easily  in  the  direction  of  its  length,  but  supports 
a  greater  cross-strain  than  any  other  wood  ;  iron  nails,  however,  will 
rust  rapidly  in  it.  The  fruits  and  fusiform  roots  are  used  as  food  by 
the  poorer  classes  in  the  N.  Circars  ;  the  leaves  are  used  for  writing 
on.  They  are  also  employed  for  thatching  houses  and  making 
baskets,  mats,  umbrellas,  and  fans.  Strong  and  durable  fibres  are 
produced  from  the  petioles  of  the  fronds. — Boxb.  Ldnd,  Ainsl. 
Jury  Rep,  Mad,  Ezhib, 


(109)  BosweUia  glabra  (Roxh.)    N.  0.  T^REfiiNT&Acfi^. 

Koonthrekum,  Mal.    Ooogoola,  Tkl.    Koondicnim,  Tam. 

Description. — Tall  erect  tree  covered  with  greenish  ash- 
coloured  bark;  leaves  alternate,  unequally  pinnate,  at  the 
extremities  of  the  brancblets ;  leaflets  6-10  pairs,  opposite, 
broadly  lanceolate^  obtuse,  serrated,  glabrous ;  flowers  numer- 
ous, on  short  pedicels,  small,  white ;  calyx  small,  5-toothed  ; 
petals  5 ;  capsule  3-angled,  3-celled,  3-valved ;  seeds  solitary. 


BOSWELLIA.  85 

surrounded  by  a  membranaceous  wing ;  racemes  simple,  teiv 
minal,  fascicled,  shorter  than  the  leaves.  FL  March — ^April. 
—  W,  &  A.  Prod.  L  174.— iZocJ.  Flor,  Ind.  ii  384— Con 
iii.  t  207. Coromandel  mountains.    Peccan, 

Medical  Uses. — This  tree  yields  a  fragrant  resinous  substance 
known  as  Koondricum,  It  is  bitter  and  pungent,  and  is  soluble  in 
ether  and  spirits  of  wine.  Eesin  exudes  from  wounds  in  the  bark. 
It  soon  becomes  hard  and  brittle,  and  is  often  used,  when  bpiled 
with  oil;  as  a  substitute  for  pitch,  and  called  Googul  by  the  Telin- 
gies.  Mixed  with  ghee,  the  native  doctors  prescribe  it  in  gonorrhoea 
and  other  complaints.  The  resin  is  much  buri)t  as  an  incense  in 
the  religious  ceremonies  of  the  Hindoos.  Mixed  with  lime-juice  or 
cocoa-nut  oil,  it  is  applied  as  a  plaster  in  cutaneous  affections,  as  well 
as  in  cases  of  ulcers  and  bad  wounds. — (Ainslie.  Eoxb.)  The  resin 
both  of  this  and  the  following  species  is  employed  as  an  incense  in 
India,  and  both  might  be  much  more  extensively  collected  than 
they  are  at  present,  as  there  is  reason  to  beheve  that  Central  India 
alone  furnishes  the  greatest  portion  of  the  Indian  olibanum  of  com- 
merce, as  it  is  chiefly  exported  from  Bembay. — (Boyle,)  There  are 
extensive  tracts  of  Googalam  jungles  in  Goomsur  and  Cuttack  pro- 
vinces. The  Khoonds  and  Woodias  living  in  or  near  these  jungles 
wound  the  trees  in  several  places.  The  resin  flows  out,  and  is 
collected  when  sufficiently  solid.  The  dammer  collected  from  the 
decayed  parts  of  the  tree  is  of  a  dark  colour.  The  Khoonds  and 
Uryas  make  the  leaves  into  the  plates  from  off  which  they  eat 
their  food,  and  also  roll  up  tobacco  in  them  to  smoke  like  a 
cheroot.  In  times  of  flEumine  the  above  tribes  live  on  a  soup  made 
from  the  fruit  of  the  tree. — Be^,  Mad,  EaMb, 


(110)  Boswellia  thnrifera  {Bjoxb.)    Do, 

Salai,  Beno.    Luban,  Hnrp. 

Descbiption.  —  Large  tree ;  .leaves  unequally  pinnated  ; 
leaflets  oblong,  obtuse,  serrated,  pubescent ;  racemes  axillary, 
single,  shorter  than  the  leaves ;  calyx  5-toothed ;  petals  6 ; 
flowers  small,  white  ;  seeds  solitary,  with  a  winged  membrane; 
capsule  3-angled.  Fl  March — April. — W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  174. 
— Eoah.  Fl,  Ind,  ii,  383.  ^-^ — Mountains  of  OoromandeL 
Belgaum. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  is  a  large  tree,  affording  good  timber. 
Colebrooke,  in  the  Asiatic  Eesearches,  has  identified  the  olibanum 
or  frankincense  of  the  ancients  with  the  balsamic  gum-resin  which 
it  produces.     It  is  called  Koondooroo,  or  Ghundurus,  or  Cundun,  in 


86  BRAGANTIA. 

Bengal  For  a  long  time  this  substance  was  supposed  to  have  been 
produced  by  various  species  of  junipers,  and  this  opinion  is  held 
to  this  day  by  some ;  but  it  is  known  that  the  conifersB,  to  which 
family  the  junipers  belong,  yield  pure  resin  only,  but  not  gum-resin. 
Of  the  present  olibanum  there  are  two  varieties,  one  of  which  is  far 
inferior  to  the  other.  The  best  is  found  in  pieces  as  large  as  a  wal- 
nut, of  a  high  yellowish  colour,  inclining  to  red  or  brown,  covered 
on  the  outside  with  a  white  powder,  the  whole  becoming  a  whitish 
powder  when  pounded.  It  bums  with  a  clear  and  steady  light,  not 
easily  extinguished,  and  diffuses  a  pleasant  fragrance.  In  taste  it  is 
slightly  bitter,  and  not  perfectly  soluble  in  water  or  alcohoL  It  is 
seldom  used  in  medicine,  but  has  astringent  and  stimulant  properties. 
The  incense  burnt  in  Roman  Catholic  churches  is  the  produce  of 
this  tree. — Colebr.  in  As.  Res,,  ix.  377.     Bozb,     Ainslie, 

Dr  Eoyle  says,  *^  The  Salai  or  Saleh  of  the  Hindoos  is  common 
in  Central  India  and  Bundlecund,  where  I  have  seen  it,  especially 
about  the  Bisrumgunge  Ghaut.  It  is  probably  also  produced  by 
the  B.  glabra,  which  has  the  same  native  name,  and,  though  ex- 
tending to  a  more'  northern  latitude,  is  distributed  over  many  of  the 
same  localities.  It  is  common  on  the  lulls  above  Mohun  Chowkee, 
where  I  have  collected  some  very  clear,  pure,  and  fragrant  resin, 
which  bums  rapidly  away  with  a  bright  light,  dijQTusing  a  pleasant 
odour." — (Royle,)  The  timber  both  of  this  and  the  preceding  species 
is  hardy  heavy,  and  durable. — Boxb, 


(111)  Bragantia  Wallichii  (R  Br,)    K  0.  Aristolochuce^. 

Alpam,  Mal. 

Desceiption. — Shrub ;  leaves  alternate,  oblong,  lanceolate ; 
3-nerved  at  the  base ;  tube  of  the  perianth  smooth,  lobes  of 
the  limb  acutish;  anther  9,  S-adelphous,  united  by  threes; 
male  pistil  very  short,  stigmas,  9  radiating,  united  at  the  base, 
three  of  them  bifid ;  fruit  terete. —  W.  &  A.  in  Ed.  Phil  Jour. 

1S32.— Wight  Icon.  ii.  t  520.— Eheede,  vi.  t  28 S.  Con- 

cans.    Wynaad.    Travancore. 

Mbdical  Usb& — ^This  is  by  no  means  a  common  plant,  and  would 
appear  to  be  peculiar  to  the  western  coast.  The  whole  plant,  mixed 
with  oil  and  reduced  to  an  ointment,  is  said  to  be  very  efficacious 
in  the  treatment  of  psora  or  inveterate  ulcers.  Like  other  plants 
belonging  to  the  same  natural  order,  it  is  supposed  to  have  virtues 
in  the  cure  of  snake-bites.  The  juice  of  the  leaves,  mixed  with  the 
Vussumboo  root,  the  root  itself  rubbed  up  with  lime-juice,  and  made 
into  a  poultice  and  externally  applied,  are  the  chief  modes  of  ad- 
ministering it  among  the  natives. 

Bartolomeo,  in  his  *  Voyage  to  the  East  Indies,'  says,  "  The  only 


BRIDELIA — ^BRYONIA.  87 

Malabar  plant  which  I  can  with  certainty  call  an  antidote  to  poison 
is  a  shrub  about  thiee  or  four  feet  in  height,  named  Alpam.  The 
root  is  pounded,  and  administered  in  warm  water  to  those  who  have 
been  poisoned.  A  Malabar  proverb  says,  'Alpam  agatta,  Yeszam 
poratta' " — As  soon  as  the  Alpam  root  enteis  the  body,  poison  leaves 
it — Bheede,  BartolomeOy  Voy.  to  East  Indies,  Wight  ^  Am,  in 
Ed.  Phil.  Jour.  1832. 

(112)  Bridelia  spinoia  {WiUd.)    N.  0.  Euphobbiaok& 

MooUoo-Tengay,  Tax.    If  oolbo-Tangay,  Mal.    CoTBinan,  Tkl.    Bdd,  Duk. 

Description. — Tree,  30-40  feet;  bark  scabrous;  branches 
numerous,  spreading ;  thorns  large,  few,  chiefly  on  the  large 
branches ;  leaves  oblong,  alternate,  pointed,  entire,  with  con- 
spicuous parallel  veins  running  from  centre  to  circumference ; 
spikes  axillary  or  terminal ;  flowers  aggregate,  small,  greenish 
yellow,  males  and  females  together.  Fl.  July— Oct — Boocb. 
Fl.  Ind.  iii.  735. — Cluytia  spinosa,  Roocb.  Cor.  ii  t.  172. — 
Wight  Icon.  1 1905. Circars.    Assam.    Travancore. 

EooNomo  Uses. — The  bark  is  a  strong  astringent^  and  the  wood 
dark-coloured,  hard,  and  durable.  Cattle  are  fond  of  the  leaves, 
which  are  said  to  free  them  from  intestinal  worms. — Roxb. 

(113)  Bryonia  callosa  {RoUl.)    N.  0.  Cuourbitacea. 

Toomutti,  Tam.    Boddama,  Tel. 

Description. — Climbing  shrub,  spreading;  stem  filiform, 
furrowed,  rough  vrith  bristly  hairs ;  leaves  on  long  petioles, 
cordate,  3-5  lobed,  roundish,  toothed,  scabrous,  and  hispid  on 
the  veins  below;  berries  globose,  largish,  smooth;  flowers 
yellow. — BotUer  ap.  Aindie,  ii.  428. Coromandel. 

Mbdioal  Uses. — ^The  seeds,  which  are  bitter-tasted,  are  mixed 
with  oil,  and  employed  as  a  vermifuge.  They  are  also  occasionally 
used  by  fEuriers  in  diseases  of  horses.  They  yield  a  fixed  oil  by 
boiling,  which  is  used  for  lamps  by  the  poorer  classes. — Ainalie, 

(114)  Bryonia  epigaa  {Rottl)    Do. 

Kolnng  Kovay,  Tam.     Akaaagarooda,  Tail    Bakos,  Hnrax 

Description. — Climbing  shrub ;  stem  glabrous,  often  very 
flexuose  at  the  joints ;  tendrils  simple ;  leaves  somewhat 
fleshy  on  longish  petioles,  cordate,  usually  3-lobed,  densely 


88  BRYONIA — BUCHANANU. 

covered  on  both  sides  with  short  bristly  hairs ;  lobes  rounded, 
the  lateral  ones  the  broadest,  and  slightly  2-lobed,  all  remotely 
and  slightly  toothed;  male  flowers  shortly  racemose  at  the 
apex  of  a  long  thickish  peduncle ;  calyx  campanulate  ;  females 
short  peduncled,  solitary,  in  the  same  or  different  axils  from 
the  males;  berry  ovate,  rostrate,  glabrous,  few-seeded;  seeds 
white,  compressed. —  W.  &  A.  Prod,  i.  346. — B.  glabra,  Roxb. 
FL  Ind.  iii  725.-- — Coromandel. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  of  this  species  was  once  supposed  to  he 
the  famous  Calumba  root,  which  it  resembles  in  its  medicinal  quali- 
ties. It  has  a  bitter  sub-acid  taste,  and  is  marked  on  the  outside 
with  whitish  circular  rings.  It  is  used  as  an  external  application, 
in  conjunction  with  cununin-seeds,  onion^,  and  oastor-oil,  as  a  kind 
of  liniment  for  chronic  rheum^tisuL  It  has  also  other  medicinal 
uses,  and  is  esteemed  of  special  value  in  dysenteric  and  long-stand- 
ing venereal  coippjainta.  The  root  lives  in  the  air  without  water, 
and  will  grow  and  send  forth  shoots  in  that  position. — Ainslie, 

The  people  of  the  Deccan  regard  it  as  a  powerful  internal  and 
local  remedy  in  snake-bites.  It  is  used  for  similar  purposes  in 
Mysore. — Pharm  of  India, 

(115)  Bryonia  rostrata  {RotU.)    Do. 

Appakoray,  Tam. 

Description. — Climbing ;  stem  slender,  hairy  or  pubescent ; 
tendrils  simple ;  leaves  on  longish  petioles,  roundish  cordate, 
sinuate,  toothed,  pubescent ;  male  flowers  usually  two  together, 
pedicelled,  on  a  slender  peduncle,  longer  than  the  petiole; 
calyx  campanulate;  female  solitary,  very  shortly  peduncled, 
in  the  same  axils  with  the  male,  being  ovate,  rostrate,  longi- 
tudinally striated,  hairy,  2-6  seeded ;  seeds  black,  compressed, 
with  a  thin  margin. —  W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  346. — B.  pilosa,  Boxb, 
FL  Ind,  iii.  726. ^Tranquebar. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root,  which  is  small  and  of  a  light-grey 
colour,  is  sweet  and  mucilaginous  to  the  taste.  It  is  administered 
internally  in  cases  of  piles,  and,  powdered,  is  sometimes  given  as  a 
demulcent  in  humoral  asthma.  The  leaves  are  eaten  as  greens  in 
Southern  IndiELT—Ainslie, 

(116)  Buchao^nia  latifolia  (Roxb,)    N.  0.  Terebinthacks. 

Moneda,  Mowda,  or  Kat  Mango  Marum,  Tah.  Piyala,  Bkko.  Chara  puppoe^  Tel. 
Pceyar  Cheroonjie,  Hind.    Gala  marum,  Mal.  »vj^  ^  t/  ''<  ^  i 

Descbiption. — Tree,  30  feet ;  leaves  alternate,  entire,  broadly 


BUTEA.  89 

oval  or  obovate,  obtuse ;  calyx  small,  obtusely  5-cleft ;  petals 
5,  sessile  recurved ;  branches  of  the  panicles  hirsute,  terminal, 
and  axillary,  with  the  flowers  crowded,  assuming  the  appear- 
ance of  a  corymb  at  the  tops  of  the  branches ;  fruit  a  drupe 
with  slightly  fleshy-red  sarcocarp ;  nut  very  hard,  2-valved, 
1-celled ;  flowers  small,  greenish  white.    Fl,  Feb. — March. — 

W,  Jk  A.  Prod.  i.  169.— iJoa*.  Fl  Ind,  ii.  385. Mountains 

of  Coromandel  and  Malabar.    Belgaum  forests.     Mysore. 

EcoNOHio  Uses. — The  wood  is  used  for  various  purposes.  The 
kernels  are  a  general  substitute  for  almonds  among  the  natives. 
They  are  much  esteemed  in  confectionery,  or  roasted  and  eaten  with 
milk.  The  bark  is  used  in  tanning.  An  oil  is  extracted  from  the 
seeds,  of  a  pale  straw  colour,  known  as  the  Cheroonjie  oil,  and  also 
a  black  varnish,  similar  to  that  obtained  from  the  nuts  of  the  Seine- 
carpus  anacardium  and  other  trees  of  the  same  order.  Another 
species,  the  B.  lancifolia  (Roxh.),  grows  in  Chittagong,  the  tender 
unripe  fruit  of  which  is  eaten  by  the  natives  in  their  curries. — (Jury 
Rep,  Roxh.  lAndley.)  The  B.  angustifolia  (Colah  Mavuh  in  Tamil) 
is  common  in  the  Trichore  forests.  The  bark  is  much  used  on  the 
western  coast  for  its  adhesive  properties,  for  which  purpose  it  is 
frequently  mixed  with  chunam.  An  oil  exudes  from  the  cut  bark, 
used  in  lamps,  and  would  probably  serve  as  an  excellent  vamisL — 
Fera,  Oha, 

(117)  Bntea  frondosa  (Roxh.)    K  0.  LEouMmos^ 

Bastard  Teak,  Eno.  Porasum,  Tam.  Moduga,  Tel.  PaUuiie,  Mal.  Palas, 
Hind.    Palas,  Dhak,  Beno. 


DESCRiPTiON.-:-Middle-sized  tree ;  leaves^ pinnaJelylrifolio- 
late;  leaflets  large,  roundish  ovate,  rather  velvety  beneath; 
corolla  papilionaceous;  racemes  simple,  many-flowered,  lax; 
calyx  segments  short,  slightly  acute,  several  times  shorter  than 
the  tube;  corolla  densely  pubescent;  vexillum  ovate,  acute, 
recurved;  keel  and  alse  incurved;  legume  flat,  thin,  with  a 
large  solitary  seed  at  the  apex  ;  flowers  in  threes,  bright  scarlet 
Fl.  Dec— Feb.— PT.  <fe  A.  Prod.  i.  2&\.—Roxb.  Cor.  L  t  21, 

—  FL  Ind.    iii    244.  —  Erythrina  monosperma,  Lam. 

Malabar.    Circars. 

Medical  Uses. — The  seeds  are  reckoned  an  excellent  vermifuge, 
especially  with  the  Mohammedan  doctors.  English  practitioners  have 
also  testified  to  their  value  in  this  respect.  The  seeds  are  first 
soaked  in  water,  the  testa  removed,  and  the  kernel  then  dried  and 
pulverised.     In  large  doses,  however,  this  medicine  is  apt  to  produce 


90  BUTEA. 

vomiting ;  and,  further,  is  apt  to  irritate  the  kidneys.  The  pounded 
seeds  made  into  a  paste  have  been  found  useful  in  lingworm.  The 
inspissated  juice  obtained  from  the  stem  by  incision  is  known  as 
the  Bengal  Kino,  and  is  an  efficient  substitute  for  the  real  kino. 
A  similar  exudation  is  yielded  by  the  B.  euperba  and  B,  partnflora. 
Both  are  employed  medicinally  by  the  natives,  being  possessed  of 
some  efficiency  as  astringents. — (Fharm,  of  India.)  The  flowers 
are  used  as  a  fomentation  in  dysuria.  The  seeds  are  considered 
warm  purgatives,  and  are  used  in  fevers,  and  also  as  anthelmintics. 
The  juice  ia  used  in  diarrhoea,  pyrosis,  and  after  parturition. — 
{PowelVa  Punj,  Prod.)  The  Butea  kino  is  one  of  the  most  valuable 
articles  of  the  class  to  which  it  belongs.  It  appears  to  be  one  of  the 
most  useful  kinds  of  gum,  and  might  be  supplied  to  any  extent  from 
the  province  of  Pegu. — {McClelland,)  The  exudation  of  the  Butea 
or  Pulos  kino,  when  exported  to  England  a  few  years  ago,  was  recog- 
nised as  being  ''gummi  rubrum  astringens"  of  the  old  druggists. 
M.  Guibert  of  Paris,  to  whom  some  of  it  had  been  sent,  states  his 
opinion  in  his  work  on  drugs  that  it  is  the  original  kino,  which  had 
entirely  disappeared  from  commerce,  and  was  once  so  much  valued 
as  to  be  sold  for  nearly  a  guinea  a-pound.  Amherst  province  can 
furnish  almost  any  quantity  of  the  article,  the  tree  which  produces 
it  being  one  of  the  most  common  denizens  of  its  forests. — {Mason.) 
The  true  Pulos  goond  or  Bengal  kino  is  of  brittle  texture  and  ruby- 
red  colour,  &eely  soluble  in  the  mouth,  inodorous,  of  excessively 
astringent  taste,  soluble  in  water,  the  solution  being  of  a  deep-red 
colour,  partially  soluble  in  alcohol,  giving  a  pale  tincture.  The  juice 
is  at  first  very  fluid  and  red,  then  becomes  paler  and  hardens.  Its 
extraction  takes  place  during  the  hot  season.  In  the  '  Dublin  Phar- 
macopoeia' the  exudation  is  described  as  a  variety  of  kino.  The 
true  kino,  however,  proceeds  from  a  different  source ;  but  in  chemical 
effects  and  medical  propeities  both  are  identicaL  The  Pulos  kino 
is  extremely  rich  in  tannic  and  gallic  acids,  and  contains,  moreover, 
arabine  and  ulnina  From  this  composition,  as  might  be  expected, 
it  exercises  the  most  powerful  astiingent  effects.  In  two  or  three 
grain  doses  it  is  an  excellent  remedy  in  many  forms  of  chronic 
diarrhoea;  and  as  an  external  astringent  application  it  is  quite 
unrivalled. — 0' Slumghnessy. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  tree,  when  in  flower,  has  a  very  striking 

appearance,  from  the  gaudy  appearance  of  its  bright  scarlet  corollas. 

.       >     ^    Peacock  in  his  *  Greece  in  India '  has  remarked  that  the  name  of 

V       '^i  ^   Pelassi  has  been^dgrived  from  this  plant.     In  modem  times  the 

name  of  t^lassy,  so  celebrated  in  Indian  history,  is  nothing  more 

I  than  Palas  or  Palasie,  the  Hindoostanee  name  for  this  beautiful  tree. 

The  natives  are  very  fond  of  offering  the  flowers  in  their  temples ; 

and  the  women,  by  intertwining  the  rich  scarlet  blossoms  in  their  hair, 

assume  a  very  attractive  and  pleasing  appearance.   The  natives  in  the 

North-Western  Provinces  employ  the  kino  for  precipitating  their 

indigo,  and  in  tanning ;  but  in  !]^gland  it  is  objected  to  on  account 


BUTEA.  91 

of  the  discoloration  it  imparts  to  leather.  The  lac  insects  are  fre- 
quently found  upon  the  smaller  branches  and  petioles  of  the  tree ; 
but  whether  the  natural  juices  of  its  bark  contribute  to  improve  the 
red  colouring  matter  of  the  lac  has  not  been  determined.  The 
expressed  juice  of  the  fresh  flowers,  und  infusion  of  the  dried  flowers, 
yield  a  water-colour  brighter  than  gamboge ;  they  also  yield  a  fine 
durable  yellow  lake  in  a  large  proportion.  The  wood  of  the  tree  is 
one  of  tiiose  burnt  for  gunpowder  charcoaL  Strong  ropes  are  made 
from  the  fibre  of  the  roots,  used  immediately  after  the  bark  has  been 
stripped  oflf. — G.  Don,    Eoxb.     Ainslie. 

(118)  Butea  saperba  (Roach.)    Do. 

Tigs-modnga,  Til. 

Description. — Twining  shrub  with  pinnated  3  foliolate 
leaves ;  leaflets  roundish,  velvety  beneath ;  racemes  simple, 
lax ;  pedicels  about  twice  the  length  of  the  calyx ;  corolla 
papilionaceous ;  legumes  flat^  compressed,  thin,  clothed  with 
rusty  tomentum,  with  one  solitary  seed  at  the  apex ;  calyx 
segments  shortish,  acuminate  ;  vexillum  ovate,  acute ;  flowers 
large,  bright  scarlet    Fl.  March. — W,  &  A.  Prod,  i  261. — 

JRoxb.  Cor.  L  t.  22. — FL  ItujL  iil  247. Travancore  forests. 

Circar  mountains. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  red  juice  which  flows  from  fissures  in  the 
bark  of  this  creeper  is  one  of  the  kinds  of  East  Indian  kino,  and  is 
similar  in  most  respects  to  that  procured  from  the  B.  frondosa.  The 
flowers  are  in  like  manner  used  for  dyeing  yellow,  and  for  preparing 
a  yellow  pigment.  Strong  ropes  are  made  from  the  roots  of  both 
species,  used  as  cordage,  and  for  agricultural  purposes.  The  colour 
of  the  kino  is  ruby  red,  brittle  and  transparent,  consisting  of  small 
roimd  tears.  It  becomes  opaque  and  dark-coloured  after  keeping. 
Exposed  to  heat,  it  ignites.  It  imparts  a  fine  red  colour  to  water, 
the  interior  only  dissolving.  In  hot  water  the  entire  will  dissolve. 
The  exudation  should  be  collected  when  fresh  and  only  just  harden- 
ing, as  being  then  far  more  applicable  to  useful  purposes  than  when 
after  exposure  to  the  air.  It  is  soluble  in  alcohol,  but  far  less  than 
in  water ;  also  in  ether  slightly.  It  contains  a  lajrge  proportion  of 
tannin,  which  might  render  it  useful  in  the  arts  and  in  tanning 
leather,  especially  for  thick  hides. — iSoUy  in  As.  Researches.  Ainslie, 
Royle. 


92 


G 

(119)  Csesalpinia  coriaria  (Willd,)    K.  0.  Leouminosjs. 

American  Sumach,  Divi-divi  or  Dibi-dibi,  Enq. 

Description. — Tree,  25-30  feet,  unarmed ;  leaves  bipinnate ; 
pinnee  6-7  pairs ;  leaflets  15-20  pairs,  linear,  obtuse;  racemes 
panicled ;  pedicels  shorter  than  the  flowers  ;  calyx  cup-shaped 
at  the  base,  5-lobed ;  petals  5,  unequal,  upper  one  shorter  than 
the  rest;  legume  oblong,  incurved  laterally;  flowers  small, 
yellow.     Fi  Dec. — Jan. Cultivated  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — The  powder  of  the  dried  pods  has  been  recom- 
mended as  an  antiperiodic  in  cases  of  intermittent  fever,  the  dose 
ranging  from  40  to  60  grains.  A  decoction  of  the  legume  forms  a 
good  injection  in  bleeding  piles. — (Pharm.  of  Lidia.)  The  astrin- 
gent pods  are  an  excellent  remedy  for  prolapsus  ani  in  children. 
They  are  better  if  gathered  before  becoming  ripe.  The  pods  are 
admitted  to  English  markets  free  of  all  duty.  (For  properties  of 
divi-divi,  see  Pharm,  Joum,  v.  443 ;  and  Joum.  Agru  Hort,  Soc 
Beng,  vol.  iv.  passim.) 

Economic  Uses. — This  tree  was  introduced  into  India  by  Dr 
Wallich  twenty-five  years  ago.  It  is  properly  a  native  of  the  sea- 
shore of  St  Domingo  and  of  Cura^oa,  but  has  now  become  so  exten- 
sively distributed  in  this  country,  and  promises  to  be  so  useful 'a 
tree,  that  it  is  well  deserving  of  a  place  here.  Its  chief  virtue 
resides  in  the  pods,  which  are  greatly  employed  for  tanning  pur- 
poses. These  pods  are  said  to  contain  about  50  per  cent  of  tannin. 
The  average  yearly  produce  of  pods  from  a  single  full-grown  tree  in 
the  West  Indies  is  100  lb.,  which,  deducting  25  lb.  for  seeds,  leaves 
75  lb.  of  tanning  material.  The  pods  form  an  article  of  export  into 
Great  Britain  from  the  West  Indies.  By  experiments  it  was  ascer- 
tained that  one  part  of  divi-divi  (which  is  the  commercial  name  for 
the  pod)  is  equal  to  four  parts  of  bark  for  tanning  purposes,  and  the 
process  occupies  about  one-third  of  the  time.  The  price  of  the  pods 
ranges  from  £S  to  £13  per  ton.  The  pods  are  considered  superior 
to  any  other  material  used  in  the  tanneries  of  this  country.  When 
cured  with  this  substance,  leather  resembles  that  tanned  with  oak- 
bark.  The  tree  is  easily  propagated  from  seeds  ;  indeed,  they  grow 
so  fast  and  luxuriantly  that  large  plantations  might  soon  be  raised 
with  little"  outlay  in  the  moist  climate  of  the  western  coast. — 
(Simmxmds,     Jury  Rep,  Mad,  Exhih,     Pers.  obe,)    An  oil  is  ex- 


CuESALPINIA.  93 

pressed  from  the  seeds  of  the  (7.  digyna  which  the  natives  use  in 
lamps. 

(120)  CsBsalpinia  sappan  {Linn.)    Do. 

Sappan  and  Brasiletto,  Eng.     Patungha,  Tah.      Bukkum,  Hikd.  and  Beng. 
Tbiapangum,  Hal.    Bukkapu,  Tel.    Puttung,  Duk. 

Desceiption. — Tree,  40  feet,  armed;  pinnae  10-12  pair; 
leaflets  10-12  pair,  unequal-sided,  obliquely  oval-oblong,  emar- 
ginate,  pale  on  the  under  side;  terminal  panicles;  legumes 
compressed,  glabrous,  elliptic -obovate,  obliquely  truncated, 
cuspidate  at  the  apex,  3-4  seeded ;  flowers  yellow.  FL  March 
— May.— JT.  A  A,  Prod,  i.  281.— i2oa:6.  Cor.  i  t  16.— FL 
Ind,  ii.  367. — Bheede,  vi.  t,  2. CoromandeL     Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — The  wood  contains  much  tannic  and  gallic  acids, 
and  is  a  good  substitute  for  logwood. — Pharm.,  of  India. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^The  wood,  which  is  the  red  wood  of  commerce, 
is  extensively  used  in  dyeing,  and  is  exported  for  that  purpose.  It  is 
an  ingredient  in  the  red  dye  on  the  Coromandel  coast  called  the 
Chay-dye.  Where  a  cheap  red  is  required  for  cotton  cloth,  the  wood 
is  employed  by  the  native  dyers,  but  they  cannot  make  it  stand. 
The  process  of  the  Telinga  dyers  is  as  follows :  The  cotton  doth  is 
well  washed,  to  remove  any  remains  of  the  quicklime,  &c.,  used  in 
bleaching';  an  infusion  of  half  a  pound  of  the  powdered  kadukai 
(Temiinalia  chebida)  in  a  pint  and  a  half  of  cold  water,  strained,  is 
employed  to  prepare  the  cloth,  which  is  done  by  wetting  it  twice  in 
the  same  infusion,  drying  it  between  and  after.  The  following  day 
it  is  twice  wetted  in  a  strong  solution  of  alum,  and  as  often  dried  in 
the  sun.  Next  day  a  decoction  of  the  Sappan-wood  is  prepared  as 
follows :  Take  1  pound  of  Sappan-wood  in  powder,  water  12  quarts ; 
boil  it  till  a  third  is  consumed ;  divide  the  remaining  8  quarts  into  3 
parts,  one  of  4  and  the  other  two  of  2  quarts  each ;  into  the  4  quarts 
put  the  cloth,  wet  it  well,  wring  it  gently,  and  half-dry  it ;  it  is 
again  wetted  in  one  of  the  small  portions,  and,  when  half-dry, 
wetted  for  the  third  and  last  time  in  the  other  remaining  portion  of 
the  decoction ;  dry  in  the  shade,  which  finishes  the  process.  In 
Paulghaut  the  tree  is  cultivated  for  the  sake  of  the  dye,  which  is 
used  for  colouring  the  mats  made  at  that  place.  Much  Sappan-wood 
is  annually  exported  from  Ceylon.  The  tree  grows  freely  without 
any  care,  and  is  of  the  finest  quality  in  Malabar  and  Mergui.  It  is 
laigely  shipped  for  the  London  market  from  Calcutta. — {Roxh,  Ainsl. 
Dm.  Simmonds.)  The  export  of  Sappan-wood  from  Bombay  in 
1870-71  was  1085  cwt.,  valued  at  4194  rupees.  A  custom  prevails 
in  Malabar  among  the  Moplahs  to  plant,  on  the  birth  of  a  female 
child,  40  or  60  seeds  of  Sappan,  and  the  trees  which  reach  maturity 
in  10  or  12  years  are  her  dowry  when  she  is  married. — Rep.  Mad. 
Ezhib. 


94  CiESALPINIA — CAJANUS. 

(121)  Cawalplnia  seplaxia  (Boxb,)    Do. 

Mysore  thoni|  Eng.    Hyder  ka  Jhar,  Hnm.    Chillur,  DuK. 

Description. — Scandent ;  branches  and  petioles  anned  with 
short,  strong,  sharp,  recurved  prickles ;  pinnae  of  the  leaves 
6-10  pair;  leaflets  8-12  pair,  linear-oblong,  obtuse;  petioles 
pubescent ;  stipules  broad,  semi-sagittate ;  racemes  axillary, 
solitary ;  calyx  coloured,  the  segments  soon  reflexed ;  legumes 
linear-oblong,  glabrous,  with  a  long  cuspidate  point,  4-8  seeded. 
—Roacb.  FL  Ind.  ii  360.— Tf.  &  A.  Prod.  282.— i>ec.  Prod.  iL 
484.— Wight  Icon.  t.  37. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^This  species  is  indigenous  to  Mysore,  but  is 
now  generally  difPused  throughout  the  country,  and  known  as  the 
Mysore  thorn.  Hyder  Ali  had  it  planted  as  a  means  of  defence 
around  his  strongholds.  It  is  employed  as  a  fence  in  the  Baghyan 
lands  of  the  Dekkan,  and  possesses  the  twofold  advantage  of  beauty 
and  durability. 

Immediately  the  shoot  appears  above  ground,  it  separates  into 
numerous  lateral  branches,  which  are  strongly  armed  with  recurved 
prickles.  It  is  one  of  the  best  plants  for  a  general  enclosure.  It  is 
easily  raised  from  seed,  and  grows  vigorously.  The  hedge  requires 
little  care  beyond  occasionally  trimming  the  side  branches,  and  per- 
haps the  introduction  of  a  few  dead  stakes  at  intervals  to  steady  and 
strengthen  it. 

(122)  CaJanuB  Indicns  {Spreng.)    N.  0.  Leoumikosa. 

Pigeon-pea,  Enq.    Thoyaray,  Tax.    Candaloo,  Tel.    Toor,  Hind.    Dal  Urar, 
Bbno. 

Description. — Shrub,  3-6  feet,  softly  pubescent ;  leaves  pin- 
nately  trifoliolate ;  leaves  oval,  lanceolate,  mucronate ;  calyx 
campanulate,  somewhat  bilabiate ;  lips  nearly  equal  in  lei^h, 
upper  one  shortly  bifid,  lower  one  3-partite ;  segments  slightly 
curved  upwards ;  apices  recurved ;  corolla  papilionaceous ; 
petals  equal  in  length ;  vexillum  broad,  bi-callous  at  the  base ; 
keel  falcate ;  racemes  axillary ;  pedicels  slender,  in  pairs ;  le- 
gumes hirsutely  pubescent ;  flowers  yeUow.  FL  Oct — Nov. 
—  W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  256. Peninsula.     BengaL     Assam. 

Of  this  shrub  there  are  two  varieties  which  differ  by  the 
colour  of  the  vexillum  alone. 

■Segapoo  Thovaray,  Tarn, — Yerray  candaloo,  Td. — Lai 
Toor,  Hind. — Vexillum  of  a  uniform  yellow  colour  on 


CALAMUS.  95 

both  sides. — C.  flavus,  Dec. — Cytisus  cajan,  Linn. — 
R(xxh.  Fl  Ind,  iii  325. 
h — Maenthoveray,  Tarn. — Conda  Candaloo,  Tel — ^Paoud- 
ke-Toor,  Eind. — ^Vexillum  purplish,  and  veined  on  the 
outside,  yellow  on  the  inside. — 0.  bicolor,  Dec. — Cytisus 
pseudo  cajan,  Jacq. — Rheede,  Mai.  vL  1 13. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  seeds  are  much  esteemed  by  the  natives, 
who  hold  them  third  in  rank  among  their  leguminous  seeds,  though 
they  are  apt  to  produce  costiveness.  Cattle  are  very  fond  of  the  tender 
parts  of  the  phmt,  both  green  and  dry.  The  dried  stem  makes  ex- 
cellent fuel,  and  is  well  adapted  for  producing  fire  by  friction. — 
(Roxb.)  That  which  is  known  as  the  small  '^  Toor  "  ripens  half  as 
soon  again  as  the  larger  one.  Some  varieties  are  remarkable  for  the 
gaudy  colours  of  their  orange  and  red-spotted  flowers.  The  pulse  is 
chiefly  eaten  mixed  with  rice,  a  mess  known  as  kedjarL  The  best 
Toor  is  sown  in  alternate  drills  with  Sorghum  wlgare^  which  ripens 
first,  and  is  cut  while  the  Cajanus  is  yet  smaU.  It  then  remains 
two  or  three  months  longer,  and  is  reaped  at  the  end  of  the  harvest. 
The  stalks  are  strong  and  woody,  and  well  adapted  for  making  char- 
coal required  in  gunpowder  manufacture. — W.  Elliott. 


(123)  Oalamns  fasciculatns  {Roxb.)    K  0.  PALHACSiB. 

Rattan-cane,  ENa    Perambu,  Mal.    Paramboo,  Tam.    Boro-bet,  Beno. 

Description. — Stem  scandent,  elongated ;  fronds  without 
tendrils ;  pinnae  aggregated  into  many  distant  fascicles,  ensi- 
form ;  prickles  of  the  fronds  straight,  scattered,  and  confluent ; 
spadix  decompound,  abortive  ones  whip -shaped;  berries 
ovate.  Fl.  June — Aug.  —  Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii  779.  —  Mart. 
Paim.  209. Cuttack.    Bengal 

Economic  XTses. — ^These  plants,  though  arranged  among  the  Palm 
tribe,  hold  a  middle  station  between  the  Palms  and  Grasses,  having 
the  habit  of  the  former,  whereas  their  inflorescence  resembles  that  of 
the  latter.  Canes  and  rattans,  which  are  the  stems  of  different 
species  of  Calamus,  form  considerable  articles  of  commerce.  They 
are  exported  from  the  valleys  of  the  Himalaya  into  the  plains, 
though  the  species  yielding  them  are  not  well  known.  In  some 
years  from  four  to  five  millions  have  been  exported  from  this  coun- 
try. The  stems  of  this  species,  when  divested  of  their  sheaths,  are 
about  as  thick  as  the  forefinger,  and  are  used  as  walking-sticks. — 
Roxb.     Rayle. 


96  CALAMUS. 

(124)  Calamus  Botang  (Linn.)    Do. 

Battan-cane,  Eno.    Bet  or  Beta,  Beng.  and  Hind.    Bettam,  Tel. 

Description. — Stem  scandent;  fronds  without  tendrils, 
pinn8B  somewhat  equidistant,  linear^lanceolate,  acuminate  ; 
prickles  of  the  sheaths  frequent,  compressed,  straight,  of  the 
rachis  straight  and  recurved,  of  the  spathes  and  tendrils  bent ; 
spadix  compound;  male  calyx  3-clefb,  campanulate,  a  half 
shorter  than  the  broad  triangular  segments  of  the  corolla; 
berries  ovate,  sub-globose,  size  of  a  small  cherry.  FL  June — 
Aug.— iZoa*.  Fl  Ind.  m,  111. —Mart  Palm.  208,  t  116,  p.  8. 
Moist  jungles  in  Bengal  and  the  Peninsula, 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  yields  the  common  rattan.  It  is  the  T^eru 
tejurd  of  Eheede  {Mai.  xii  t.  64)  and  G.  Roxburghii  of  Griffith, 
and  is  common  in  the  S.  Concans,  as  well  as  in  Goromandel  and 
Bengal.  Though  the  several  species  yielding  the  rattans  of  com- 
merce have  not  been  distinctly  identiiied,  yet  it  is  believed  that  this 
one  is  a  stouter  kind  than  the  others.  Some  rattans  grow  to  an 
immense  length,  climbing  over  the  highest  trees  in  the  forest,  even 
as  long  as  500  or  600  feet.  Such  are  the  dimensions  given  of  the 
C.  extensus,  a  native  of  Silhet.  When  fresh  gathered,  the  stems  are 
covered  with  green  sheaths,  but  are  divested  of  them  while  yet  in  a 
green  state,  and  then  dried.  They  are  extensively  used  as  props  for 
plants,  as  well  as  for  cables,  ropes,  wicker-work,  baskets,  chairs,  and 
couches ;  and  being  very  strong,  and  at  the  same  time  flexible,  are 
admirably  adapted  for  those  purposes.  Cordage  and  cables  for 
vessels  are  sometimes  made  from  the  stems  twisted  together.  In 
fact,  their  strength  is  exceedingly  great  when  several  are  twisted  in 
this  way^  and  will  answer  all  the  purposes  of  the  strongest  cables. 
In  China  and  Japan  they  are  in  great  request.  Marco  Polo  refers 
to  their  uses  in  those  countries.  Talking  of  a  certain  place  in  China, 
he  says,  "  They  do  not  employ  hempen  cordage,  excepting  for  the 
masts  and  sails  (standing  and  running  rigging).  They  have  canes  of 
the  length  of  fifteen  paces,  such  as  have  been  already  described, 
which  they  split  in  their  whole  length  into  very  thin  pieces,  and 
these,  by  twisting  them  together,  they  form  into  ropes  three  hundred 
paces  long.  So  skilfully  are  they  manufactured,  that  they  are  equal 
in  strength  to  cordage  made  of  hemp.  With  these  ropes  the  vessels 
are  tracked  along  the  rivers,  by  means  of  ten  or  twelve  horses  to 
each,  as  well  upwards  against  the  current  as  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion.'' Here  he  evidently  refers  to  the  rattan-canes,  and  not  to 
bamboos,  as  supposed  by  some.  The  seeds  are  surrounded  by  a 
fleshy  kind  of  substance,  which  is  eaten  as  weU  as  the  young  tender 
shoots,  which  are  reckoned  very  delicate  food.  Of  the  species  best 
known  in  India  and  the  neighbouring  countries  the  following  may 


CALLIOARPA — CALQNYCTION.  97 

be  ennxneiated:  C.  ruderUum  (Lour.),  native  of  the  Moluccas;  C. 
ereciua  (Boxb.),  indigenous  to  Silbet^  where  the  poorer  classes  use 
the  seeds  as  a  substitute  for  betel-nut ;  C.  verus  (Lour.),  Moluccas 
and  Cochin  China;  C.  scipionum  (Lour.),  which  yields  the  so-called 
Malacca  cane ;  C,  Boyleanus,  a  species  found  in  Dheyra  Dhoon ; 
C,  draco  (Willd.),  Sumatra  and  the  Moluccas  ;  C.  gracilis  and  tenuis^  y 

A^     both  of  Chittagong, — ^with  several  others.     What  are  toiown  oo  the  6Ui^e/CA 
^oJHusjC  Penang  lawyers  are  yielded  by  a  small  Palm,  the  lAcudla  aeutiflda.       -^ 
— Bjoyle^    Bcxcb, 

(125)  Oalliearpft  laaata  (Linn,)    N.  0.  Verbenacejs. 

Gaai  eomul,  Tam.    Baatre,  Hind.    MasBandaree,  Beno.    Tonditeregam,  Mal. 

Description. — Shrub,  or  small  tree ;  branches,  peduncles, 
and  leaves  covered  with  a  kind  of  woolly  nap  ;  leaves  ovate ; 
peduncles  axillary,  solitary ;  calyx  4-cleft ;  coroUa  monopeta- 
lous,  funnel-shaped,  4-cleft ;  berry  1-celled,  4-8eeded,  convex 
on  one  side,  concave  on  the  other ;  margin  slightly  elevated ; 
flowers  purpla     FL  Feb. — ^March. — Roaib.  Fl  Ind.  L  391. — 

C.  cana,  Linn. — C.  tomentosa.  Lam, — JRheede,  iv.  t  60. 

Travancore.    Neilgherries.    Coromandel. 

EooNOMic  Uses. — ^The  bark,  which  is  sub-aromatic  and  slightly 
bitter  to  the  taste,  is  chewed  by  the  Cingalese  instead  of  betel-leaves. 
In  Upper  Hindoostan  the  root  is  employed  in  cutaneous  complauit& 
It  is  one  of  the  trees  used  for  making  charcoal  A  fibre  is  procured 
from  the  inner  bark  called  the  Aroosha  fibre  in  Chittagong,  but  not 
much  value  is  attached  to  it. — Ainslu,  Royle,  Jour,  Agn,  Hort, 
8oc,  vi.  186. 

(126)  Oalonyction  Bpedosimi  (Choisy).    N.  0.  Convolvulacejl 

Description. — Stem  climbing  to  a  great  extent;  leaves 
large,  quite  smooth,  cordate,  pointed;  peduncles  very  long, 
1-5  flowered  ;  flowers  very  large,  pure  white,  opening  at  sun- 
set     Fl.  June — Sept. — Dec,   Prod.  ix.  345. — Choisy  Conv. 

p.  59. — Ipomsea  bona  nox,  Linn, — I.  grandiflora,  Roaib. 

Common  everywhere. 

Medical  Uses. — ^Tlus  species  contains  in  its  roots  resin,  fatty 
matter,  volatile  oil,  albumen,  starch,  fibre,  malic  acid,  and  various 
salts.  The  bark  of  the  root  is  used  by  the  natives  as  a  purgative. — 
Lang^  Indig.  Plants  of  Bengal, 

7 


98  CALOPHYLLUM. 

(127)  Oalophylliim  elatnm  (Bedd.)    K  0.  Guttifers. 

PoonBpar,  Eno.  Poon,  Poongoo,  Mal. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  young  shoots,  panicles,  and  outer 
sepals  ferruginous ;  leaves  elliptic,  acuminate,  attenuated  at 
the  base,  very  shining ;  panicles  terminal  and  from  the  upper 
axils,  large,  many-flowered;  sepals  4,  two  outer  ones  sub- 
rotund,  small,  two  inner  ones  petaloid ;  petals  4 ;  fruit  ovoid, 
pointed,  about  the  size  of  a  thrush's  egg.    FL  Jan. — ^Feb. — 

Beddome  FL  Sj/lv.  t  2. ^Forests  of  the  Western  Ghauts. 

Coorg.     Mysore,    Travancore. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  tree  is  never  found  in  dry  deciduous 
forests,  but  in  the  damp  jungles  of  the  western  coast.  It  yields 
the  Poonspar  of  commeTce.  The  wood  is  scarcely  known  except  as 
a  spar ;  and  some  years  ago  a  good  specimen  for  that  purpose  would 
fetch  a  thousand  rupees.  It  is  reddish  and  coarse-gramed. — Bed- 
dome. 

(128)  Oalophyllnm  inopbyllnm  {Linn.)    Do. 

Alexandrian  Laurel,  Eno.  Ponna,  Mal.  Pinnay,  Tam.  Ponna,  Tel.  Sultan- 
charapa,  Him).    Oondee,  DuK. 

Descjription. — ^Tree,  50  feet ;  branches  terete ;  leaves  ellip- 
tical or  oboval,  obtuse  or  retuse,  furnished  with  numerous 
parallel  slender  nerves ;  racemes  longer  than  the  leaves  from 
the  upper  axils,  or  disposed  in  a  terminal  panicle ;  sepals  4 ; 
drupe  spherical,  1-celled,  1-seeded;  flowers  white,  very  fra- 
grant. FL  June — ^Dec. —  W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  103.  C.  bintagor, 
Boxh.  FL  Ind.  ii  606,— Rheede,  iv.  t  ISS,— Wight  Icon,  t  77. 
Malabar.    Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^A  fixed  oil  is  yielded  by  the  kernels,  held  by 
the  natives  in  high  esteem  as  an  external  application  in  riieumatism. 
From  the  bark  exudes  a  resinous  substance,  erroneously  thought  to 
be  the  Tacamahaca  of  the  old  pharmacologists.  It  resembles 
myrrh,  and  is  a  useful  application  to  indolent  ulcers. — {Pharm,  oj 
India.)  The  gum  which  flows  from  the  wounded  branches,  being 
mixed  with  strips  of  the  bark  and  leaves,  is  steeped  in  water,  and 
the  oil  which  rises  to  the  surface  is  used  as  an  apphcation  to  sore 
eyes.  Horsfield  says  that  in  Java  the  tree  is  supposed  to  possess 
diuretic  properties. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  tree  is  not  less  esteemed  for  its  ornamental 
appearance  than  for  the  delicious  fragrance  of  its  flowers.     A  dark- 


CALOPHYLLUM — CALOTROPIS.  99 

gieen  oil  of  a  disagreeable  odour  is  procured  from  the  &esh  seeds 
when  subjected  to  pressure.  It  is  more  used  as  medicine  than  for 
domestic  purposes ;  nor  is  it  now  exported  from  this  country,  except 
in  small  quantity  to  Ceylon.  It  is  known  as  the  Pinnay  oil  The 
seeds,  says  Simmonds,  or  berries,  contain  nearly  60  per  cent  of  a 
fixed  oil,  which  is  used  for  burning  as  well  as  for  medicinal  pur- 
poses. It  is  perfectly  fluid  at  common  temperatures,  but  begins  to 
congeal  when  cooled  below  50^  The  Pinnay  oil  is  one  of  those 
commonly  used  in  Travancore,  especially  for  lamps.  It  is  manu- 
&ctured  in  large  quantities  in  that  province,  especially  in  the 
southern  district  This  tree  flowers  twice  a-year,  and  is  said  to 
attain  a  great  age. — Lindley.     Simmonds, 

(129)  Calophyllnm  spiirinm  (Ohoisy).    Do. 

Cheroo-pmnay,  Tam«    Tsiroa-paima,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree;  leaves  cimeate-obovate,  obtuse,  or 
emarginate ;  young  branches  square ;  racemes  lax,  as  long  as 
the  leaves,  axillary  near  the  ends  of  the  branches ;  sepals  2 ; 
petals  2;  drupe  oblong,  1-celled;  petals  white. —  W.&A.  Prod. 

i.  103. — C.  calaba,  Linn. — Eheede^  iv.  t  39. ^Travancore. 

Malabar. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^This  is  a  handsome-looking  tree,  somewhat 
similar  to  the  forme)*.  The  wood  is  hard  and  of  a  reddish  colour. 
Fruit  when  ripe  is  red  and  sweet.  It  is  eaten  by  the  natives,  and 
an  oil  is  expressed  from  it  used  in  lamps.  It  is  called  Pootunjee. — 
Jury  Rep.  Mad.  Exkib. 

(130)  Oalotropis  gigaatea  (R.  Br.)    N.  O.  Asclepiadaobje. 

Gigantic  Swallow-wort,  Eno.    Yercum,  Tam.     Terica,   Mal.    Nella-jUledoo, 
Tbl.    Akund,  Bsno.    Mudar,  Ark,  Hind. 

Description. — Shrub,  6-10  feet;  leaves  stem-clasping,  de- 
cussate, oblong-ovate,  wedge-shaped,  bearded  on  the  upper 
side  at  the  base,  smooth  on  the  upper  surface,  clothed  with 
woolly  down  on  the  under  side ;  segments  of  corolla  reflexed, 
with  revolute  edges ;  stfimineous  corona  5-leaved,  shorter  than 
the  gynost^um;  leaflets  keel -formed,  circinately  recurved 
at  the  base,  incurved  and  subtridentate  at  the  apex ;  umbels 
sometimes  compound,  surrounded  by  involucral  scales;  follicles 
ventiicose,  smooth;  seeds  comose;  flowers  rose-colour  and 
purple  mixed.  Fl.  All  the  year. — Dec  Prod,  viii  535. — 
Asclepias  gigantea,    WUld. — Roab.  Fl.  Ind.  ii  80. — Ericu, 


100  CALOTROPIS. 

Eheede,  ii.  t  31. —  WigJU  Icon,  t  1278. ^Peninsula  in  waste 

places.     Southern  provinces. 

a — ^Alba. — Shevet  akund,  BcTig, — Belerica,  Mai. — ^Tella 
jilledoo,  Td.  —  Vella-yercum,  Tarn.  —  Flowers  white, 
cream-coloured,  inodorous. 


Medical  Ubbs. — ^The  only  difference  in  the  two  varieties  of  this 
shrub  consists  in  the  colour  of  the  floweis.  It  is  commonly  to  he 
found  in  waste  ground,  among  rubbish,  ruins,  and  suchlike  places. 
Of  late  years  the  plant  has  attracted  much  attention  from  the  many 
and  important  uses  to  which  its  several  properties  can  be  applied. 
An  acrid  milky  juice  flows  from  every  part  of  the  shrub  when 
wounded,  and  this  the  natives  apply  to  medicinal  purposes  in  many 
different  ways,  besides  preparations  of  the  plant  itself  in  epilepsy, 
paralysis,  bites  of  poisonous  animals,  and  as  a  vermifuge.  In  almost 
all  cutaneous  affections,  especially  in  leprosy,  it  is  frequently  em- 
ployed, and  much  attention  has  lately  been  bestowed  upon  its 
virtues  in  the  cure  of  the  latter  dreadful  complaint.  The  root,  bark, 
and  inspissated  juice  are  used  as  powerful  alteratives  and  purga- 
tives. Its  activity  is  said  to  be  owing  to  a  principle  called  Muda- 
rine,  discovered  by  the  late  Dr  Duncan  of  Edinburgh,  which  he 
found  to  possess  the  singular  property  of  congealing  by  heat,  and  be- 
coming again  fluid  on  exposure  to  cold.  It  is  obtained  from  the 
tincture  of  Mudar,  the  powdered  root  being  macerated  in  cold  recti- 
fied spirit  After  recovering  the  spirit  by  distillation,  the  solution 
is  allowed  to  cool.  A  granular  resin  is  then  deposited,  which  is 
allowed  to  dry,  in  order  that  it  may  concrete.  If  water  be  then 
applied,  the  coloured  solution  from  which  the  resin  was  deposited 
dissolves,  and  the  resin  remains  This  solution  is  called  Mudarine. 
In  taste  it  is  very  bitter,  soluble  in  alcohol  and  cold  water,  but  in- 
soluble in  sulphuric  ether  or  olive-oiL  By  experiments  made  by 
Dr  G.  Playfair,  the  milky  juice  was  found  to  be  a  very  efficacious 
medicine  in  leprosy,  lues,  taenia,  herpes,  dropsy,  rheumatism,  hectic 
and  intermittent  fevers.  By  the  Hindoos  it  is  employed  in  typhus 
fever  and  syphilitic  complaints  with  such  success  as  to  have  earned 
the  title  of  vegetable  mercury.  Dr  Duncan  considered  that  it 
agreed  in  every  respect  with  ipecacuanha,  and  that  from  the  facility 
of  procuring  it,  might  eventually  supersede  the  latter  medicine. 
The  powdered  bark  is  given  in  doses  of  5-6  grains  twice  daily.  It 
will  occasionally  produce  nausea  and  vomiting,  but  such  symptoms 
are  removed  by  a  dose  of  castor-oiL  The  root  pulverised  and  made 
into  an  ointment  is  very  efficacious  in  the  treatment  of  old  ulcers,  so 
common  in  the  western  coast. 

The  milky  juice  mixed  with  common  salt  is  given  in  toothache, 
and  the  juice  of  the  young  buds  in  ear-ache.     The  leaves  warmed 


CALOTROPTS.  101 

and  moistened  with  oil  are  applied  as  a  dry  fomentation  in  abdominal 
pains,  and,  moreover,  form  a  good  rubefacient.  They  are  fatal  to 
cattle. — Ainslie,    Boyle,     Pharm,  of  India. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — Besides  the  various  uses  above  enumerated, 
the  root  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  gunpowder  charcoal  With 
the  powdered  flour  the  natives  adulterate  Safflower.  The  silky 
floss  which  surrounds  the  seeds  has  been  woven  into  shawls  and 
handkerchief,  and  even  paper,  besides  a  soft  kind  of  thread  by  the 
natives. 

But  in  addition  to  its  other  uses,  this  plant  is  valuable  from  the 
fine  strong  fibres  with  which  it  abounds.  To  procure  them,  the 
straightest  branches  are  cut  and  exposed  to  wither  for  at  least  twenty- 
four  hours ;  on  the  second  and  third  day  they  are  slightly  beaten ; 
the  skin  is  then  peeled  and  the  stringy  substance  between  the  bark 
and  the  wood  taken  out.  They  are  then  dried  in  the  sun.  This 
slow  process  is  necessarily  expensive,  but  if  the  bark  is  steeped  in 
water,  it  becomes  discoloured,  and  cutting  will  destroy  it.  Still  the 
fibre  is  strong,  and  possessed  of  many  of  the  properties  of  Europe 
flax.  It  can  be  spun  into  the  finest  thread  for  sowing  or  weaving 
cloth.  It  resists  moisture  for  a  long  time.  From  recent  experiments 
made  by  Dr  Wight,  its  tenacity,  compared  with  other  Indian  fibres, 
is  as  follows : — 


Yercnm,  CalotropiB  gigantea, 
Janapum,  or  Sunn,  Crotalaiia  juncea, 
Kattalay,  Agave  Americana, 
Cotton,  Gossypinm  herbaceum, 
Marool,  Sanseviera  Zeylanica, 
Poolay-munja^  HibiscuB  cannabinus, 
Ck>ir,  Cocoa  nucif era, 


Breaking  weigblJi. 
652  lb. 
407 
360 
346 
316 
290 
224 


This  fibre,  however,  is  too  valuable  for  ordinary  cordage,  and  might 
fetch  a  high  price  in  Europe.  It  is  said  by  good  judges  to  be  better 
for  cloth  than  cordage.  It  is  much  used  in  this  country  for  bow- 
strings, ropes,  bird-nets,  and  tiger-traps.  It  has  never  been  culti- 
vated as  a  cordage  plant.  It  is  widely  diffused  through  the 
southern  provinces  of  the  Peninsula;  while  in  the  BeUary  district  and 
to  the  north  it  is  replaced  by  the  C.  procera^  which  is  equally 
abimdant.  In  the  '  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Arts '  it  is  stated  ''  that 
Tercum,  which  much  resembles  Belgian  flax,  is  well  calculated  for 
prime  warp  yams,  and  worth  £100  per  ton."  Royle  says  that  it 
pelds  a  kmd  of  manna  ccdled  Mudar-sugar.  It  has  been  tried  to 
employ  the  viscid  juice  as  a  caoutchouc,  and  a  great  quantity  was 
collected  for  that  purpose.  To  prepare  it,  the  juice  was  evaporated 
in  a  shallow  dish,  either  in  the  sun  or  in  the  shade ;  when  dry,  it 
may  be  worked  up  in  hot  water  with  a  wooden  kneader,  as  this  pro- 
cess removes  the  acridity  of  the  gum.  It  becomes  immediately 
flexible  in  hot  water,  but  is  said  to  become  hard  in  cold  water,  and 
is  soluble  in  oil  of  turpentine,  takes  impressions,  and  will  no  doubt 


fl 


102  CALOTROPIS — CALYSACCION. 

prove  a  valuable  product,  either  alone  or  mixed  with  other  sub- 
stances. 

In  experiments  made  in  London,  Petersburg  hemp  bore  160  lb. 
— brown  hemp  of  Bombay  and  Jubbulpore  hemp,  190  lb.,  which 
latter  was  also  the  strength  of  the  Yercum.  Its  value  in  England 
might  probably  be  reckoned  at  from  £30  to  £40  the  ton. — Aindie. 
Boyle.     Report  on  Fibres.    Jury  Bep,  Mad,  Exhib. 

m 

(131)  Oalotropifl  procera  (R  Br.)    Do. 

Description. — Shrub,  6-10  feet ;  leaves  ovate  or  ovaJ,  cord- 
ate at  the  base ;  segments  of  the  corolla  spreading,  revolute  at 
the  margin;  leaflets  of  the  staminal  corona  equalling  the 
gynostegium;  umbels  peduncled;  follicles  obovoid,  downy; 
flowers  pale  purple.  Fl.  March — ApriL — B.  Br.  in  Hort  Kew, 
ii  78.— C.  Wallichii,  Wight  Contrib.  53.— C.  Hamiltonii,  do. 
Deccan.    Guzerat.    Patna     Hindostan. 

Medioal  TJsEa — ^This  species  differs  from  the  former  in  the  seg- 
ments of  the  corolla  not  being  reflexed.  It  is  a  widely  distributed 
plant,  very  abundant  in  the  Bellaiy  district,  but  quite  unknown  in 
the  southern  provinces.  In  uses,  the  two  species  are  probably 
similar  in  every  respect  Five  grains  of  the  bark  of  the  root  of  this 
species  mixed  with  very  minute  doses  of  arsenic,  is  internally 
administered  in  the  form  of  a  pill  in  leprosy  with  the  best  effect — 
(Wight)  The  bark  of  the  root  is  diaphoretic  and  expectorant  It 
is  used  m  European  practice  as  a  substitute  for  ipecacuanha,  both  as 
an  emetic  and  cure  for  dysentery.  The  fresh  juice  is  used  as  a 
rubefacient  in  rheumatism  and  chest-diseases,  and  the  leaves  as  a 
cure  for  Guinea-worm. — (PowelVs  Punj.  Products.)  In  the  Peshawur 
valley  the  juice  is  employed  in  the  preparation  of  catgut,  and  for 
raising  blisters  and  discussing  chronic  tumours. — Stewarfs  Punj. 
Plants.     Pharm.  of  India. 

(132)  Oalsrsaccion  longifolium  (WigJit).    N.  O.  CmsiAOEiB. 

Description. — Large  tree;  leaves  opposite,  oblong,  cori- 
aceous ;  flowers  polygamous,  in  clusters  on  the  thick  branches 
below  the  leaves,  small,  white,  streaked  with  red ;  fruit  oblong, 
falcate.  FL  March — April — J.  Graham  Cat.  27. — Ochro- 
carpus  longifolius,  Benth.  and  Hook. — Mammea  longifolia,  do. 

—  Wight  III.  L  130. — IcoTi.  t.  1999. Concans.     Kennary 

jungles.    W.  Mysora 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^The  flower-buds  are  coUected  and  sold  in  the 


CANARIUM.  103 

bazaars  for  djeing  silk :  they  emit  a  fragrance  not  unlike  that  of 
violets,  and  are  used  as  a  perfume.  The  fruit  is  delicious  to  the 
taste.  The  native  names  in  those  districts  where  the  tree  abounds, 
are  Woondy  and  Taringee  for  the  male  trees,  and  Poonag  for  the 
female  ones. — /.  Graham,  Cat.  Cleghom  in  Phamu  Jaunu,  x.  597. 
SeeTnann,  zii.  62. 

(133)  Oanarinm  commnne  (Linn.)    N.  O.  TEBEBiNXHACEiE. 

Java  Almond,  Eno.    Junglee-badam,  Hind. 

Description. — Tree,  50  feet;  leaves  unequally  pinnate; 
leaflets  7-10  on  long  stalks,  ovate-oblong,  acute^  or  shortly 
acuminate,  entire,  glabrous ;  panicles  terminal,  divaricated ; 
flowers  2-3  together,  almost  sessile  at  the  extremity  of  the 
ultimate  pedicels ;  drupe  covered  with  a  thin  somewhat  fleshy 
sarcocarp;  calyx  3-lobed,  externally  silky  ;  petals  3  ;  nut  very, 
hard,  3-angled ;  seed  solitary ;  flowers  white.  FL  March — 
May. — W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  175. — Colophonia  Mauritiana,  Dec. 
Bursera  paniculata,  Lam. Peninsula. 

Mbdioal  Uses. — This  is  known  as  the  Elemi  tree.  The  resinous 
exudation  iiGm  the  tree  is  imported  into  England  from  Manilla.  It 
is  of  a  yellowish-white  colour,  and  of  a  fragrant  odour.  This  resinous 
gum  has  balsamic  properties,  and  is  used  as  an  application  to  indo- 
lent ulcers,  prepared  in  the  form  of  an  ointment.  Dr  Waitz  ('Diseases 
of  Children ')  speaks  favoiuably  of  the  kernels  in  emulsion,  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  the  European  preparation  (Mistura  Amygdaloi),  principally 
because  the  almonds  imported  from  Europe  are  often  spoilt  by  long 
keeping. — Phamu  of  India. 

EooNOHio  Uses. — ^This  fine -looking  tree  is  cultivated  in  the 
Moluccas  for  the  sake  of  its  fruit,  which  in  taste  is  something  like 
an  almond.  An  oil  is  expressed  from  the  nuts  which  in  Java  is 
used  in  lamps,  and  when  fresh  is  mixed  with  food.  Bread  is  also 
made  from  the  nuts  in  the  island  of  Celebes.  If  eaten  fresh,  or 
indulged  in  too  freely,  they  are  apt  to  bring  on  diarrhoea.  Lindley 
says,  '*  The  bark  yields  an  abundance  of  limpid  oil  with  a  pungent 
turpentine  smeU,  congealing  in  a  buttery  camphoraceous  substance ; 
it  has  the  same  properties  as  balsam  of  copaiba."  The  resinous 
exudation  is  used  for  burning  as  a  light  in  Amboyna. — (Ainslie. 
Lindley,  Flor.  Med,)  Another  species,  the  G.  BenghcUense,  yields  a 
very  l£u:ge  quantity  of  pure,  clear,  amber-coloured  resin,  which  soon 
becomes  hs^d  and  brittle,  and  ia  not  unlike  copal ;  yet  the  natives 
set  little  or  no  value  upon  it.  In  the  Calcutta  Bazaar  it  sells  at  2 
to  3  rupees  a  maund  of  80  lb.  It  is  a  native  of  Silhet  and  the 
adjacent  mountainous  countries,  and  flowers  in  May  and  June. — 
Jury  Eep.  Mad.  Exhih. 


^ 


1 04  CANARIUM CAN  AVALIA. 

(134)  Canarinm  strictam  (Eoxb.)    Do. 

Black  Dammer-troe,  Eno.    Thelly,  Mal.    Congiliom-marum,  Tam. 

Dbscription. — Large  tree;  young  parts  densely  clothed  with 
rusty -coloured  pubescence ;  leaflets  9-15,  stalked,  ovate  or 
ovate-lanceolate,  acuminated,  at  length  serrulate-ciliate,  hairy. 
—Boxb.    FL  Ind,  iii   138.  —  W.ikA.  Prod.  I   195. 

Tinnevelly.     Malabar.    Trichore  forests.     Pulney  hiUs. 

* 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^This  is  known  in  Malabar  under  the  name  of 
the  black  dammer-tree,  in  contradistinction  'to  the  white  dammer- 
tree  {Vateria  Malaharica),  It  is  common  in  the  alpine  forests 
about  Gourtallum  in  the  Tinnevelly  district,  and  is  there  rented  for 
the  sake  of  its  dammer.  The  resin  is  transparent,  and  of  a  deep 
brownish-yellow  or  amber  colour  when  held  between  the  eye  and 
the  light,  but  when  adhering  to  the  tree  it  has  a  bright  shining  black 
appearance. — (Wight,  Ill.y  i  134.)  It  is  partially  soluble  in  boiling 
alcohol,  and  completely  so  in  oil  of  turpentine.  Dr  Bidie  speaks  of 
it  as  a  substitute  for  Burgundy  pitch. — Phamu  of  India, 

The  following  teport  upon  the  black  dammer  is  given  by  Mr 
Broughton:  ''This  well-known  substance  ofiEers  little  chance  of 
usefulness,  in  Europe  at  least,  when  the  many  resins  are  con- 
sidered that  are  found  in  the  market  at  a  fu  less  price.  It  is 
used  in  this  country  for  many  small  purposes,  as  in  the  manu- 
facture of  bottling-wax,  varnishes,  &c  Its  colour  when  in  solution 
is  pale,  if  compared  with  its  dark  tint  when  in  mass.  Thus,  though 
insoluble  in  spirit,  its  solution  in  turpentine  forms  a  tolerable  var- 
nish. When  submitted  to  destructive  distillation  it  yields  about 
78  per  cent  of  oil,  resembling  that  obtained  from  common  colophony ; 
but  I  fear  in  the  majority  of  its  possible  applications  it  possesses  few 
advantages  over  ordinary  resin  at  7s.  6d.  per  cwt.  Major  Beddome 
estimates  the  price  of  black  dammer  on  the  coast  of  Canara  at  8 
rupees  per  25  lb.  (or  nearly  ten  times  the  price  of  resin  in  England). 
The  number  of  substances  suitable  for  varnishes  have  lately  become 
very  numerous  in  Europe.  Common  resin  is  now  purified  by  a 
patent  process,  consisting  of  distillation  with  superheated  steam,  by 
which  it  ia  obtained  nearly  as  transparent  and  colourless  as  glass,  in 
such  amount  that  a  single  firm  turns  out  60  tons  per  week." 

(135)  Oanayalia  i^iata  (Dec)    N.  O.  LBOUMmosJs. 

,  Sword -bean,  Ekq.     Segapoo  or  VeUay  Thumbetten,  Tam.     Yerra  or  TeUay 

n^J/nUU  Tumbetten-kaya,  Tel.    SofiiEiid  or  Lai  Kudsumbal,  Himd.    Mekhun  Shini,  Bemo. 

3  ^  Descetption. — Perennial  shrub,  twining;  leaves  pinnately 
trifoliate;  leaflets  cordate-ovate,  rather  acute;  calyx  un- 
equally bilabiate,  upper  lip  largest,  lower  lip  acutely  3-toothed; 


CANNA.  105 

corolla  papilionaceous;  yexilluin  bicallons  at  the  base;  keel 
falcate  at  a  right  angle,  petals  distinct ;  racemes  axillaiy,  many- 
flowered  ;  flowers  in  pairs,  or  threes,  purplish ;  legumes  5-10 
times  longer  than  broad. —  JT.  &  A.  Prod,  i  253. —  Wight 
Icon,  t  753. — ^Doliohos  gladiatus,  Jouiq, — JRheede,  viii,  t  44, 
Cultivated  in  the  Peninsula. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — Of  this  kind  of  bean  there  are  several  varieties^ 
with  seeds  and  flowers  of  diflerent  colours.  The  variety  with  large 
white  seeds  and  flowers  is  considered  the  most  wholesome,  and  is 
extensively  used  at  the  tables  of  Europeans,  as  well  as  by  the 
native&  It  is  a  common  plant  in  hedges  and  thickets,  but  is  culti- 
vated for  the  sake  of  its  esculent  pods. — {Roxb.  Wight,)  Canc^ 
valia  obitisifolia,  Dec.,  common  on  the  sea-shore,  frequently  entwined 
with  the  Ipomcea  pes  caproRy  is  also  a  useful  plant,  helping  to  bind 
the  sand  at  the  Adyar,  the  mouth  of  the  Godavery,  and  between 
Quilon  and  Anjengo. — Mad,  Jour,  of  Sc,,  1856,  pi.  4. 

(136)  OamiA  Indica  (Linn,)    N.  O.  Marantaceub. 

Indian  Shot,  Enq.  KuU-valei-mimnie.  Tam.  Ukkil-bar-ki-Munker,  I>uk. 
Snrbo-jaya,  Beno.    Eatoo-bala,  Mal.    Krisnna-tamarah,  Tel. 

Description. — Shrub,  2-3  feet;  leaves  large,  ovate-lanceolate, 
stem-clasping  ;  inner  wing  of  the  corolla  trifid,  segments  lan- 
ceolate, straight ;  anther  single,  attached  to  the  edge  of  the 
petal-like  filament ;  style  spathulate,  growing  to  the  tube  of 
the  corolla;  capsule  bristly,  3-celled,  many-seeded;  flowers, 
bright  scarlet  or  yellow.     Fl,  All  the  year. — Boxb,  Fl,  Ind, 

L   1. — C.  orientalis,  Boxb, — Eheede,  xi  t,  43. Common 

everywhere. 

Medioal  Uses. — The  root  is  considered  acrid  and  stimulant. — 
(Fleming.)  When  cattle  have  eaten  any  poisonous  grass,  which  is 
generally  discovered  by  the  swelling  of  the  abdomen,  the  natives 
admimster  to  them  the  root  of  this  plant,  which  they  break  up 
in  small  pieces,  boil  in  rice-water  with  pepper,  and  give  them  to 
drink. 

Economic  X7se& — ^The  leaves  are  large  and  tough,  and  are  some- 
times used  for  wrapping  up  goods.  IRie  seeds  are  black,  hard,  and 
shining,  resembling  shot^  for  which  they  are  sometimes  used.  The 
natives  make  necklaoes  and  other  ornaments  of  them.  They  yield 
a  beautiful  purple  dye,  which  is  said  not  to  be  durable.  In  the 
West  Indies  the  leaves  are  used  to  thatch  houses.  Nearly  all  the 
species  contain  starch  in  the  root-stock,  which  renders  them  fit  to  be 
used  as  food  after  being  cooked.  From  the  root  of  one  kind, 
C,  edtdis,  a  nutritious  aliment  (Tone  les  moie)  is  prepared;  this  is 


106  CANNABIS. 

peculicu*ly  fitted  for  invalids,  not  being  liable  to  turn  acid.  To 
prepare  it  the  starch  is  first  separated  by  cutting  the  tubers  in 
pieces,  and  putting  them  in  water,  which  is  poured  off  after  a  time, 
when  the  starch  subsides. — Lindley,     Roxh, 

(137)  Oannabis  sativa  (Linn,)    K  O.  CANNABiNACEiE. 

Common  hemp  plant,  Eifo.    Tsjeroo  Conejava,  Mal.     Gu^ja,  Tam.     Ganjah 
Chettoo,  Tel.    Ganjar,  Bbnq. 

Desceiption. — ^Annual,  4-6  feet,  covered  all  over  with  an 
extremely  fine  rough  pubescence ;  stem  erect,  branched,  green, 
angular ;  calyx  5-part€d ;  leaves  alternate  or  opposite,  on  long 
petioles,  digitate,  with  linear  -  lanceolate,  sharply  -  serrated 
leaflets,  tapering  to  a  long,  smooth  point ;  flowers  in  spikes, 
axillary,  clustered,  small,  greenish  white;  males  lax  and 
drooping ;  females  erect,  leafy  at  the  base.    FL  All  the  year. 

—Roai).  Fl,  iTid,  iii.  772.— Meede,  x.  t  60. Hills  north 

of  India.     Cultivated  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — The  officinal  part  of  the  Indian  hemp  con- 
sists of  the  dried  flowering-tops  of  the  female  plant,  from  which  the 
resin  has  not  been  removed.  This  is  called  Gunjah,  The  resin 
itseK,  which  exudes  from  the  leaves,  stem,  and  flowers,  is  called 
Churrus.  And  what  is  known  as  Bhang  is  the  larger  leaves  and 
capsules  without  the  stalks.  The  properties  of  Indian  hemp  are 
stimulant,  sedative,  and  antispasmodic,  often  equalling  opium  in  its 
effects.  A  good  oil  is  procured  from  the  seeds  by  pressure,  which  is 
used  for  the  preparation  of  emulsions.  Churrus  has  been  employed 
by  Dr  O'Shaughnessy  in  tetanus  with  good  results. — (Pharm,  of 
India.)  The  ansesthetic  effects  of  Indian  hemp  seem  to  equal  that 
of  the  Atropa  Mandragora.  The  Greeks  and  Romans  were  ac- 
quainted with  it,  but  seem  to  have  been  ignorant  of  its  narcotic  and 
anaesthetic  properties.  Dr  Eoyle  suggests  that  the  nepenthes  of 
which  Homer  speaks  may  have  been  that  Indian  hemp,  the 
"  assuager  of  grief"  (Od.,  iv.  221),  as  having  been  given  by  Helen  to 
Telemachus  in  the  house  of  Menelaus.  Helen  is  stated  to  have 
received  the  plant  from  Egyptian  Thebes.  The  plant  has  long  been 
known  in  Africa.  "  In  Barbary,"  says  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  "  bhang 
prepared  from  Indian  hemp  is  always  taken,  if  it  can  be  procured, 
by  criminals  who  are  condemned  to  suffer  amputation ;  and  it  is 
said  to  enable  those  miserables  to  bear  the  rough  operations  of  an 
unfeeling  executioner  more  than  we  Europeans  can  the  keen  knife 
of  our  most  skiKul  surgeons."  Dr  Daniel  states  that  it  is  smoked 
in  large  quantities  by  the  natives  of  Congo,  Angola,  and  South 
AMca.  It  does  not  appear  that  the  Hindoos  ever  used  it  as  an 
anaesthetic  during  surgical  operations;  but  Hoa-tho,  a  Chinese 
physician  who   flourished  about  230   b.c.,   is   recorded  to  have 


CAiJNABIS.  107 

done  so.  ''If  the  malady  was  situated  in  parts  on  which  the 
needle,  the  moxa,  or  liquid  medicines  could  not  act,  he  gave  to  the 
patient  a  preparation  of  hemp  (Marjo),  and  at  the  end  of  some 
instants  he  became  as  insensible  as  if  he  had  been  drunk  or  deprived 
of  lifa  Then,  according  to  the  case,  he  made  openings  and  incisions, 
performed  amputations,  and  removed  the  cause  of  mischief  After 
a  certain  number  of  days  the  patient  found  himself  re-established, 
without  having  experienced  the  slightest  pain  during  the  operation." 
The  experiments  of  scientific  inquirers  in  modem  days  have  rendered 
credible  the  above  report.  It  produces  exhilaration,  inebriation  with 
phantasms,  confusion  of  intellect,  followed  by  sleep.  Mr  Donovan 
and  Dr  Chiistison  both  testify  to  its  producing  numbness,  and 
rendering  obtuse  the  sense  of  touch  and  feeling.  The  Diamha  plant 
of  tropical  Western  AMca,  called  also  Congo  tobacco,  is  smoked  by 
the  native  A&icans  to  produce  the  pleasing  excitement  of  intoxica- 
tion !  It  is  smoked  from  a  large  wooden  pipe  or  reed  called  condo, 
or  &om  a  small  calabash,  or  sometimes  fiom  common  clay  pipes. 
The  liberated  AMcans  and  Creoles  frequently  meet  at  each  other's 
houses ;  and  on  these  occasions  the  pipe  is  handed  about  from  mouth 
to  mouth,  and  soon  produces  the  desired  e£fects — agreeable  sensations, 
laughter,  &c. ;  a  continuance,  however,  causes  temporary  frenzy,  and 
intense  and  maddening  headache,  accompanied  by  stupor.  The 
plant  is  the  Cannabis  sativa,  or  common  hemp,  which  on  fertile 
soils,  at  Sierra  Leone,  grows  12  or  13  feet  high,  and  20  feet  in 
circiimference.  The  flowers,  slowly  dried  and  mixed  with  the  seeds, 
are  the  parts  preferred,  and  in  this  state  the  drug  is  called  maccnie. 
The  leaflets  are  sometimes  used ;  they  are  called  makiah.  A  small 
plant  in  flower  and  seed  will  peld  its  owner  ten  shillings'  worth  of 
maconie. — {Hooker's  Joum,  Bot,  iiL  9.)  The  hemp  is  a  plant  of 
most  powerful  properties,  as  is  evident  from  the  numerous  prepara- 
tions of  it  employed  in  India ;  but  no  stronger  evidence  is  needed 
to  prove  the  influence  of  climate  on  vegetable  productions  than  the 
fact  that  hemp  grown  in  our  cool  and  moist  climate  scarcely  at  all 
develops  these  properties. — Paxton.  O Shaughnessyy  Beng,  Disp, 
Pereira,  Elem.  Met.  Med.    West.  Rev.,  No.  29,  1859. 

EooxOMio  Uses. — ^The  earliest  notice  we  have  of  the  hemp  plant 
is  found  in  Herodotus  (Book  iv.  c.  74-75),  who  says  :  "  Hemp  grows 
in  Scythia ;  it  is  very  like  flax,  only  that  it  is  a  much  taller  and 
coarser  plant.-  Some  grows  wild  about  the  country ;  some  Is  pro- 
duced by  cultivation.  The  Thracians  make  garments  of  it  which 
closely  resemble  linen ;  so  much  so,  that  if  a  person  has  never  seen 
hemp,  he  is  sure  to  think  they  are  linen ;  and  if  he  has,  unless  he  is 
very  experienced  in  such  matters,  he  will  not  know  of  which  material 
they  are.  The  Scythians  take  some  of  this  hemp-seed,  and,  creeping 
under  felt  coverings,  throw  it  upon  th&  red-hot  stones ;  immediately 
it  smokes,  and  gives  out  such  a  vapour  as  no  Grecian  bath  can  exceL" 
— (Rawlinson* s  Trans.,  iiL  54.)  The  plant  is  here  called  Cannabis, 
the  same  word  which  we  now  use,  and  from  which  the  English  word 


108  CANNABIS. 

canvaa  is  derived.  To  the  present  day  it  grows  in  Northern  Bussia 
and  Siberia,  Tauria,  the  Caucasus,  and  Persia,  and  is  found  over  the 
whole  north  of  Europe.  We  next  learn  of  it  in  Athenseus,  who, 
quoting  fiK)m  an  ancient  historian,  Moschion,  the  description  of  a 
ship  built  by  Hiero,  Eang  of  Sjrracuse,  and  which  was  superintended 
by  the  fEonous  Archimedes,  says,  ''for  ropes  he  provided  cordage 
from  Spain,  and  hemp  and  pitdi  from  the  river  Ehone."  This  was 
Hiero  IL,  who  flourished  about  270  b.o.  We  next  hear  of  it  in 
Pliny,  who  describes  the  hemp  plant  as  being  well  known  to  the 
Romans,  who  manufactured  a  kind  of  cordage  from  it.  This 
author  has  minutely  described,  in  the  19th  book  of  his  'l^atural 
History,'  the  mode  of  cultivating  it,  and  its  subsequent  preparation 
in  order  to  obtain  the  fibre.  He  further  states  that  in  those  days  it 
had  some  repute  in  medicine,  especially  the  root  and  juice  of  the 
bark,  but  these  uses  are  now  obsolete  or  of  little  value.  It  is  now 
cultivated  everywhere  in  India,  chiefly  for  the  intoxicating  property 
which  resides  in  its  leaves,  and  which  is  made  into  the  drug  called 
Bhang.  Much  attention  has  of  late  years  been  paid  to  its  cultiva- 
tion, and  several  able  reports  upon  this  subject  have  been  drawn  up. 
According  to  Captain  Huddleston,  in  the  'Transactions  of  the 
Agri  Hort.  Soc.  of  India '  (viii.  260),  "  in  the  Himalaya  there  are 
two  kinds ;  one  is  wild,  of  little  or  no  value,  but  the  other  one  is 
cultivated  on  high  lands,  selected  for  this  purpose.  The  land  is  first 
cleared  of  the  forest-trees :  owing  to  the  accumulation  of  decomposed 
vegetable  matter,  no  manure  is  required  for  the  first  year ;  but  after 
that,  or  in  grounds  which  have  not  been  cleared  for  the  purpose, 
manure  must  be  abundantly  supplied  to  insure  a  good  hemp  crop. 
The  plant  flourishes  best  at  elevations  ranging  from  4000  to  7000 
feet  The  seeds  are  put  down  about  the  end  of  May  or  beginning  of 
June  ;  and  as  soon  as  the  young  plMits  have  risen  up,  the  ground  is 
carefully  cleared  of  weeds  and  the  plants  thinned,  with  a  distance 
between  each  of  three  or  four  inches.  They  are  then  left  to  grow, 
not  being  fit  to  cut  before  October  or  November." 

The  best  hemp  is  procured  from  the  male  plants,  and  these  latter 
are  cut  a  month  earlier  than  the  female  ones,  and  yield  a  tougher 
and  better  fibre.  When  the  stalks  are  cut  they  are  dried  in  the  sun 
for  several  days.  The  seeds  are  then  rubbed  out  between  the  hands, 
and  this  produces  what  is  called  Churrus,  which  is  scraped  off,  and 
afterwards  sold.  The  stalks  being  well  dried  are  put  up  in  bundles, 
and  steeped  for  a  fortnight  in  water,  being  kept  well  under  by  pres- 
sure, then  taken  out,  beaten  with  mallets,  and  again  dried.  The 
fibre  is  now  stripped  off  from  the  thickest  end  of  the  stalk,  and  then 
made  up  in  twists  for  sale,  and  manufactured  into  bags  and  ropes. 

It  would  appear  that  none  of  the  hemp  so  cultivated  is  exported, 
only  sufiicient  being  grown  for  consumption  among  the  inhabitants 
of  the  districts.  Dr  Eoxburgh  was  the  first  who  turned  his  atten- 
tion to  the  cultivation  of  the  plant  in  the  plains  ;  and  found  that 
to  insure  success  the  ground  selected  should  be,  if  possible,  of  a  low 


CAJS^NABIS.  109 

humid  description,  and  tliat  the  rainy  season  tvbs  the  best  in  which 
to  sow  the  seeds,  the  intense  heat  of  the  sun  being  prejudicial  to 
its  favourable  growth.     Dr  Eoyle  and  others  consider  that  with 
ordinary  care  and  judicious  treatment  the  hemp  plant  can  be  suc- 
cessfully cultivated  in  the  Indian  plains,  though  the  fibres  yielded 
may  not  be  of  such  fine  quality  as  those  grown  in  mountainous 
districts.     When  sown  for  the  sake  of  its  cordage,  the  plant  should 
be  sown  thick,  in  order  that  the  stem  may  run  up  to  a  considerable 
height  without  branching,  whereby  a  longer  fibre  is  obtained,  and  the 
evaporation  is  less  from  the  exclusion  of  air  and  heat,  rendering  the 
fibre  of  a  more  soft  and  pliable  nature.     The  natives,  on  the  contrary, 
who  cultivate  the  Cannabis  solely  for  the  Bhang,  transplant  it  like 
rice,  the  plants  being  kept  about  eight  or  ten  feet  apart.     This  has 
the  effect  of  inducing  them  to  branch,  and  the  heat  naturally  stimu- 
lating the  secretion,  the  intoxicating  properties  are  increased.     Al- 
though the  cultivation  of  the  hemp  plant  has  considerably  decreased 
in  this  country  of  late  years,  yet  it  would  appear  that  plants  requir- 
ing so  little  care  might  be  easily  reared  to  any  extent  for  the  sake 
of  their  fibres,  should  the  demand  require  it,  even  were  they  only 
for  use  in  our  own  dominion,  without  the  object  of  exportation.     It 
has  been  shown  in  the  '  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society '  that  the  cost 
of  hemp,  as  prepared  by  the  natives  in  Dheyra  Dhoon,  would  be 
about  £6  or  £7  per  ton  in  Calcutta  (preparation  and  carriage  in- 
cluded) ;  but  were  the  cidtivation  increased  and  improved,  the  extra 
remuneration  to  the  cultivators,  with   other  contingent  charges, 
would  make  the  total  cost  at  the  Presidency  about  £17  per  ton. 
With  the  introduction  of  railways  this  might  be  still  further  de- 
creased.    In  point  of  strength  and  durability,  as  epnced  by  the 
samples  produced,  there  is  no  doubt  that  good  Himalayan  hemp  is 
superior  to  Bussian  hemp.     At  any  rate,  proof  exists  that  it  can  be 
produced  of  a  superior  quality.     On  a  specimen  of  Bussian  hemp 
being  shown  to  a  native  cultivator,  he  remarked  that  were  he  to 
produce  such  an  inferior  article  it  would  never  find  a  sale. 

The  hemp  plant,  it  is  said,  has  the  singular  property  of  destroying 
caterpillars  and  other  insects  which  prey  upon  vegetables,  for  which 
reason  it  is  often  the  custom  in  Europe  to  encircle  the  beds  with 
borders  of  the  plant,  which  effectually  keeps  away  all  insects. 

It  is  grown  in  almost  all  parts  of  Europe,  especially  in  Bussia, 
Italy,  and  England.  Gunja  has  a  strong  aromatic  and  heavy  odour, 
abounds  in  resin,  and  is  sold  in  the  form  of  flowering-stalks. 
Bhang  is  in  the  form  of  dried  leaves,  without  stalk,  of  a  dull-green 
colour,  not  much  odour,  and  only  slightly  resinous  :  its  intoxicating 
properties  are  much  less.  Gunja  is  smoked  like  tobacco.  Bhang  is 
not  smoked,  but  pounded  up  with  water  into  a  pulp,  so  as  to  make 
a  drink  highly  conducive  to  health,  and  people  accustomed  to  it 
seldom  get  sick.  In  Scinde,  a  stimulating  infusion  made  from  the 
plant  is  much  drunk  among  the  upper  classes,  who  imagine  that  it 
is  an  improver  of  the  appetite.     Gunja  is  frequently  mixed  with 


1 10  CANTHIUM — CAPPARIS. 

tobacco  to  render  it  more  intoxicating.  This  is  especially  done  by 
the  Hottentots,  who  chop  the  hemp-leaves  very  fine,  and  smoke 
them  together  in  this  manner.  Sometimes  the  leaves,  powdered, 
are  mixed  with  aromatics  and  thus  taken  as  a  beverage,  producing 
much  the  same  effects  as  opium,  only  more  agreeable. — Eoyle,  Fib. 
.  Plants.     Mutter  in  Hooker^ s  Joum.  of  Botany. 

(138)  Ganthiam  parviflornm  {Lam.)    N.  O.  Cinchonaor£! 

Eanden-khiira,  Mal.    Cany-cheddie,  Taii .    Ballnsoo-kTua,  Tel. 

Desceiption. — SmaU  shrub,  usually  with  opposite  horizontal 
thorns  a  little  above  the  axils,  sometimes  unarmed;  leaves 
opposite,  ovate,  often  fascicled  on  the  young  shoots ;  racemes 
short,  axillary,  few-flowered  on  each  side;  drupe  obovate,  slight- 
ly emarginate,  compressed,  furrowed  on  each  side ;  coroUa  with 
short  tube,  segments  woolly  inside  or  sometimes  glabrous;  nut 
2-ceUed;  seeds  solitary;  flowers  small,  yeUow.  Fl.  April — 
May.— fT.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  42&.  —  Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  i.  534.— 

Webera   tetrandra,    WiUd. Southern    Mahratta    country. 

Travancore.    Coromandel. 

Medical  Uses. — ^A  decoction  of  the  leaves,  as  well  as  of  the  root, 
is  given  in  certain  stages  of  flux ;  and  the  latter  is  supposed  to  have 
anUielmintic  qualities.  The  bark  and  young  shoots  are  used  in 
dysentery.  — Ainslie. 

(139)  Oapparis  aphylla  (Roxb.)    K  0.  CAPPARiDAOEiE. 

Description. — Shrubby;  stipules  thorny,  nearly  straight; 
leaves  (on  the  young  shoots  only)  linear-subulate,  mucronate ; 
flowers  corymbose ;  corymbs  nearly  sessile,  from  the  axils  of 
the  stipules;    fruit   globular,  pointed.      FL  June — ^Aug. — 

W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  27. — Dec.  Prod.  i.  24f6. ^Waste  places 

in  the  Deccan.     Guzerat.    Banks  of  the  Jumna. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  plant,  though  used  occasionally  as  food,  is 
considered  by  the  natives  heating  and  aperient.  It  is  reckoned 
useful  in  boils,  eruptions,  and  swellings,,  cmd  as  an  antidote  to 
poisons ;  also  in  affections  of  the  joints. — PowdVs  Punj.  Prod. 

Economic  Uses. — It  has  immense  roots.  The  branches  are  com- 
monly used  for  fuel,  burning  with  a  strong  gaseous  flame  even 
when  green,  and  are  also  used  for  brick-burning.  The  wood  is  very 
durable,  bitter,  and  not  liable  to  the  attacks  of  white  ants.  On 
this  latter  account  it  is  much  used  for  rafters  in  the  Korth-West 
Provinces.     Ploughshares  are  also  made  of  it.     It  is  useful  in  turn- 


CAPSICUM.  Ill 

ing.  The  bud  is  eaten  as  a  pot-herb,  and  the  fruit  largely  consumed 
by  the  natives,  both  green  and  lipe.  In  the  former  state  it  is  gene- 
rally steeped  for  fifteen  days  in  salt  and  water,  being  put  in  the  sun 
to  ferment  till  it  becomes  acid,  pepper  and  oil  being  then  added. 
The  ripe  fruit  is  made  into  pickle  with  mustard  or  oil,  to  be  eaten 
with  bread. — Stewards  Punj,  Plants, 

The  CapparidacesB  are  chiefly  tropical,  yet  are  extensively  found, 
too,  in  temperate  climates.  Species  of  Polanisia  and  Oynandropsis 
occur  as  high  as  6000  feet  in  the  Himalaya,  but  only  during  the 
moisture  and  equable  temperature  of  the  rainy  months. — Rdyle. 

(140)  Oapsicnm  annnum  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Solanacrs. 

Spaniah  pepper,  Eira.    Gach-moiich,  Bbno.    MoUaghai^  Tah.   Merapu-kai,  Tel. 
Capoo  Mologoo,  Mal. 

Description.  —  Small  plant,  1-2  feet;  stem  herbaceous; 
calyx  6-toothed;  corolla  5-cleft;  leaves  solitaiy,  scattered, 
entire;  peduncles  extra-axillary,  1 -flowered;  fruit  oblong, 
pendulous  or  erect,  red,  yellow,  or  variegated ;  flowers  white. 

Fl.  all  the  year. — Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  i.  573. Cultivated  in  the 

Peninsula. 

Mbdioal  Usbs. — ^This  is  a  native  of  South  America.  There  are 
several  varieties  of  it,  distinguished  by  the  shape  of  the  fruit. 
Cayenne  pepper  is  the  produce  of  many  of  the  smaller  species  of 
Capsicum,  the  fruits  being  dried  and  pounded  small,  and  mixed 
with  salt.  They  are  considered  wholesome  for  persons  of  phleg- 
matic temperament,  being  reckoned  stimulating.  When  gathered. 
and  eaten  fresh,  they  are  excellent  promoters  of  digestion  in  tropical 
countries.  In  Europe  they  are  made  into  pickles,  and  otherwise 
used  for  seasoning  food.  There  are  two  distinct  principles  in  the 
pods,  one  of  which  is  an  ethereal  oil,  and  which  constitutes  the 
real  stimulating  principle.  The  bruised  berries  are  employed  as 
powerful  rubefacients,  being  reckoned  preferable  to  sinapisms  in 
sore  throats.  They  are  also  given,  with  the  best  results,  as  a  gargle. 
Mixed  with  Peruvian  bark,  tiiey  are  given  internally  in  typhus  and 
intermittent  fevers  and  dropsy.  Chillies  are  a  principal  ingredient 
in  all  curries  in  India.  By  pouring  hot  vinegar  upon  the  fruits,  all 
the  essential  qualities  are  preserved,  which  cannot  be  effected  by 
drying  them,  owing  to  their  oleaginous  properties.  This  Chilly 
vinegar  is  an  excellent  stomachic,  imparting  a  fine  flavour  to  fish 
and  meats.  A  great  quantity  is  exported  to  England,  especially 
from  the  West  Lidies,  the  price  of  Chillies  in  London  being  from 
15s.  to  25s.  the  cwt  Of  the  different  varieties  the  following  are 
the  best  known:  (7.  haccatvm  (linn.),  bird's-eye  pepper;  C,  fasti- 
giatum  (Blume),  cayenne  pepper;  C.  fruiescens  (Linn.),  Chilly 
pepper;  C.  grossum  (Willd.),  bell  pepper  (CajffHe  murich,  Hind.); 


112  CARDIOSPERMUM. 

O.  Neptzlense,  a  variety  growing  in  Nepaul,  and  to  the  taste  far  moi^ 
pungent  and  acrid  than  any  of  the  preceding  species. 

l^e  cayenne  pepper  is  prepared  in  the  following  manner  in  the 
West  Indies :  The  ripe  fruits  are  dried  in  the  sun,  and  then  in  an 
oven,  after  bread  is  baked,  in  an  earthen  or  stone  pot,  with  flour 
between  the  strata  of  pods.  When  quite  dry,  they  are  deaned  horn 
the  flour,  and  beaten  or  ground  to  fine  powder.  To  every  ounce  of 
this  a  pound  of  wheat-flour  is  added,  and  it  is  made  into  small  cakes 
with  leaven.  These  are  baked  again,  that  they  may  be  as  dry  and 
hard  as  biscuit,  and  then  are  beaten  into  powder  and  sifted.  It  is 
then  fit  for  use  as  a  pepper,  or  for  being  packed  in  a  compressed 
state,  and  so  as  to  exclude  air,  for  exportation. — Ldndley.  Com. 
Prod.  Mad,  Fres, 

Chillies  are  employed,  in  combination  with  cinchona,  in  inteimit- 
tents  and  lethargic  affections,  and  also  in  atonic  gout,  dyspepsia 
accompanied  with  flatulence,  tympanitis,  and  paralysis.  Its  most 
valuable  application,  however,  appears  to  be  in  CfynancTie  maligna 
and  Scarlatina  nuHigna,  used  either  as  a  gargle  or  administered 
internally. — Lindley,  E.  B. 

(141)  Gardiospennnm  Halicacabiuu  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Sapindacks. 

Smooth-leaved  heart  pea,  Ekg.    Palloolavam  Ulinja,  Mal.    Moodacottan,  Tam. 
T-      Budda-kanka-rakoo  or  iMellagoolisienda,  Tel.    Shibjool  or  Nuphutkee,  Bbno. 

Descbiftion. — ^Annual,  climbing ;  stem,  petioles,  and  leaves 
nearly  glabrous ;  leaves  bitemate ;  leaflets  stalked,  oblong, 
much  acuminated,  coarsely  cut  and  serrated;  petals  4, 
each  with  an  emarginate  scale  above  the  base,  the  two  lower 
ones  with  their  scales  furnished  with  a  glandular  crest  at  their 
extremity,  and  ending  in  a  yellow  inflexed  appendage  beneath 
the  apex;  fruit  a  membranous  bladdery  capsule,  3-celled, 
3-valved ;  seeds  globose,  with  'a  2-lobed  aril  at  the  base ; 
flowers  racemose;  common  peduncles  with  two  opposite 
tendrils  under  the  racemes ;  flowers  small,  white  or  pink,  on 
long  axillary  peduncles.  Fl.  nearly  all  the  year. —  W.  <£  A. 
Prod.  I  109.— Wight  Icon.  t.  508.— jRoa*.  Fl.  Ind.  ii  292. 
— BJaede,  viii.  t  28. Common  everywhere. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root,  which  is  diaphoretic  and  diuretic,  is 
given  in  decoction  as  an  aperient.  It  is  mucilaginous,  and  slightly 
nauseous  to  the  taste.  On  the  Malabar  coast  the  leaves  are  ad- 
ministered in  pulmonic  complaints,  and,  mixed  with  castor-oil,  are 
internally  employed  in  rheumatism  and  lumbago.  The  whole  plant, 
boiled  in  oil,  is  rubbed  over  the  body  in  bilious  affections.  In  the 
Moluccas  the  leaves  are  cooked  as  a  vegetable.     The  whole  plant. 


CAREY  A — CARICA.  113 

says  Bheede,  rubbed  up  with  water,  is  applied  to  rheumatism  and 
stifihess  of  the  limbs.  The  leayes,  mixed  with  jaggery  cmd  boiled 
in  oily  are  a  good  specific  in  sore  eyes. — (Ainslie.  Eheede.)  The 
whole  plant,  steeped  in  milk,  is  successfully  applied  to  reduce 
aweUings  and  hardened  tumours. — Pera,  Obs, 

(142)  Gareya  arborea  (Eoxb.)    K  O.  BARRiNOTONiACEiis. 

Peloa,  MA.L.    Kumbi,  Tel.    Poottatanni-manim,  Aye-mavoo,  Tam. 

Descbiption.— Large  tree;  leaves  oval,  serrulate,  dentate; 
flowers  several,  large,  greenish  white;  berry  ovate,  crowned 
with  the  segments  of  the  calyx,  4-celled,  many-seeded  ;  calyx 
4-parted;  petals  4.  Fl.  March — ^April. —  W.  &  A.  Prod, 
i  334— JBoa?&.  Fl  Ind.  iL  638.— Bheede,  iii.  t  3&.— Wight 
III.  ii.  99, 100. Mountains  of  Coromandel  and  Malabar. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  fruit  is  about  the  size  of  an  apple,  and  has 
a  peculiar  and  unpleasant  smell.  The  bark  of  the  tree  is  made  into 
a  coarse  kind  of  cordage,  and  used  by  matchlockmen  as  a  slow 
match  for  their  guns.  The  cabinetmakers  of  Monghyr  use  the 
wood  for  boxes.  It  takes  a  polish,  is  of  a  mahogany  colour,  well 
veined,  and  is  not  very  heavy.  It  does  not  resist  damp,  and  splits 
in  the  sun,  but  if  kept  6ij  is  pretty  durable.  The  timber  was 
formerly  used  for  making  the  drums  of  Sepoy  corps.  It  is  fre- 
quently employed  for  wooden  hoops,  being  very  flexible. — Jury 
Rep.     J.  Grah.  Cat    Martin's  E.  Indies. 

(143)  Oarica  papaya  (Linn.)    N.  O.  PAPAYACEiE. 

Papaw-tree,  Eno.    Pappoia  Umbbalay-Bianun,  Mal.    Pepeya,  Beng.  and  Hind. 
Pappidi-marum,  Tam. 

DBSCRiPnoN. — Tree,  20-30  feet,  without  branches;  leaves 
alternate,  palmate,  7-partite ;  segments  oblong,  acute,  sinuated, 
the  middle  one  3-fid ;  fruit  succulent,  oblong,  furrowed ;  calyx 
small,  5-toothed ;  corolla  tubular  in  the  male  and  5-lobed  in 
the  female,  divided  nearly  to  the  base  into  5  segments ;  male 
flowers  axillary  in  slightly-compound  racemes  or  panicles, 
white  female  ones  in  short  simple  racemes,  sometimes  on  a 
different  tree ;  corolla  longer  than  in  the  male,  yellowish.  Fl, 
Jnly.—  W.  &  A.  Prod.  I  352,— Wight  HI.  ii  t.  106,  107.— 
Lindl.  Fl.  Med.  107. — Papaya  vulgaris,  Zamu — P.  carica, 
Oosrtn. — Rheede  Mal.  i.  t.  15. ^Domesticated  in  India. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  tree  has  several  valuable  medicinal  pro- 
perties.   The  milky  juice  is  among  the  best  vermifuges  known.     A 

8 


114  CARICA. 

single  dose  is  sufficient  for  the  cure.  The  natives  in  Travancore  re- 
peatedly use  it  for  children.  In  the  West  Indies  the  powder  of  the 
seeds  is  used  for  the  same  purpose.  The  juice  of  the  pulp  of  the 
fruit  is  used  to  destroy  freckles  on  the  skin  caused  by  the  sun's  heat. 
— (Wight.  Lindley.)  Anthelmintic  properties  have  also  been  as- 
signed to  the  seeds.  They  are  also  believed  among  the  natives  to 
be  powerfully  emmenagogue. — Fharm.  of  India. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  remarkable  tree  was  introduced  from 
America,  but  is  now  found  in  most  parts  of  the  Peninsula.  The 
fruit  grows  to  a  tolerably  large  size,  and  secretes  a  milky  viscid  juice, 
which  has  the  extraordinary  property  of  hastening  the  decay  of 
muscular  fibre,  when  the  lattog  ia  exposed  to  its  influence.  A  great 
deal  has  been  written  upon  the  various  effects  which  this  secretion 
produces  upon  animal  substances,  and  there  appears  to  be  little 
doubt  that  the  juice  really  possesses  the  wonderful  virtues  attributed 
to  it.  I  have  attempted  to  collect  the  most  important  remarks  which 
have  been  written  upon  this  subject,  as  I  And  there  is  still  a  ten- 
dency among  scientiflc  men  to  doubt  the  very  peculiar  properties  of 
the  juice.  Humboldt  thus  writes  (Travels,  ii  62,  Bohn's  ed.)  con- 
cerning it :  '^  I  may  be  permitted  to  add  the  resiilt  of  some  experi- 
ments which  I  attempted  to  make  on  the  juice  of  the  Carica  papaya 
during  my  stay  in  the  valleys  of  Aragua,  though  I  was  then  almost 
destitute  of  chemical  tests.  The  juice  has  been  since  examined  by 
Vauquelin,  and  this  celebrated  chemist  has  very  clearly  recognised 
the  albumen  and  caseous  matter ;  he  compares  the  milky  sap  to  a 
substance  strongly  animalised — to  the  blood  of  animals. 

"  The  younger  the  fruit  of  the  Carica,  the  more  milk  it  yields.  It 
is  even  found  in  the  germen  scarcely  fecundated.  In  proportion  as 
the  fruit  ripens  the  imlk  becomes  less  abundant  and  more  aqueous. 
When  nitric  acid,  diluted  with  four  parts  of  water,  is  added  drop  by 
drop  to  the  milk  expressed  from  a  very  young  fruit,  a  very  extra- 
ordinary phenomenon  appears.  At  the  centre  of  each  drop  a  gela- 
tinous pellicle  is  formed,  divided  by  greyish  streaks.  These  streaks 
are  simply  the  juice  rendered  more  aqueous,  owing  to  the  contact  of 
the  acid  having  deprived  it  of  the  albumen.  At  the  same  time  the 
centre  of  the  peUicles  becomes  opaque,  and  of  the  colour  of  the  yolk 
of  an  egg ;  they  enlarge  as  if  by  the  prolongation  of  divergent  fibres. 
The  whole  liquid  assumes  at  first  the  appearance  of  an  agate  with 
milky  clouds,  and  it  seems  as  if  organic  membranes  were  forming 
under  the  eye  of  the  observer.  When  the  coagulum  extends  to  the 
whole  mass,  the  yeUow  spots  again  disappear.  By  agitation  it  be- 
comes granular,  like  soft  cheese.  The  yellow  colour  reappears  on 
adding  a  few  more  drops  of  nitric  acid.  After  a  few  hours  the  yel- 
low colour  turns  to  brown.  The  coagulum  of  the  Papaw-tree,  when 
newly  prepared,  being  thrown  into  water,  softens,  dissolves  in  part, 
and  gives  a  yellowish  tint  to  the  fluid.  The  milk,  placed  in  contact 
with  water  only,  forms  also  membranes.  In  an  instant  a  tremulous 
jelly  is  precipitated  resembling  starch.     This  phenomenon  is  parti- 


CARICA.  115 

I 

cularly  jstriking  if  the  water  employed  be  heated  to  40''  or  60®.  The 
jelly  condenses  in  proportion  as  more  water  is  poured  upon  it.  It 
preserves  a  long  time  its  whiteness,  only  growing  yellow  by  the  con- 
tact of  a  few  drops  of  nitric  acid/' 

Browne,  in  his  '  Natural  History  of  Jamaica,'  p.  360,  states  that 
**  water  impregnated  with  the  milky  juice  of  this  tree  is  thought  to 
make  all  sorts  of  meat  washed  in  it  tender ;  but  eight  or  ten  minutes' 
steeping,  it  ia  said,  will  make  it  so  soft  that  it  will  drop  in  pieces 
from  the  spit  before  it  is  well  roasted,  or  turn  soon  to  rags  in  the 
boiling."  This  circumstance  has  been  repeatedly  confirmed,  and, 
moreover,  that  old  hogs  and  old  poultry,  which  are  fed  upon  the 
leaves  and  fruit,  however  tough  the  meat  they  afford  might  other- 
wise be,  is  thus  rendered  perfectly  tender,  and  good  if  eaten  as  soon 
as  killed,  but  that  the  flesh  passes  very  soon  into  a  state  of  putridity. 
In  the  third  volume  of  the  Wemerian  Society's  Memoirs  there  is  a 
highly  interesting  paper  on  the  properties  of  the  juice  of  the  Papaw- 
tree  by  Dr  Holder,  who  witnessed  its  effects  in  the  island  of  Bar- 
badoes,  and  writes  of  them  as  known  to  all  the  inhabitants.  The 
juice  causes  a  separation  of  the  muscular  fibres.  Nay,  the  very 
vapour  of  the  tree  serves  this  purpose ;  hence  many  people  suspend 
the  joints  of  meat,  fowls,  &c.,  in  the  upper  part  of  the  tree,  in  order 
to  prepare  them  for  the  table.  It  is  not  known  whether  the  power 
of  hastening  the  decay  of  meat  be  attributable  to  the  animal  matter 
or  fibrine  contained  in  the  juice  of  the  Papaw.  The  resemblance 
between  the  juice  of  the  Papaw-tree  and  animal  matter  is  so  dose, 
that  one  would  be  tempted  to  suspect  some  imposition,  were  not 
the  evidence  that  it  is  really  the  juice  of  the  tree  quite  unquestion- 
able. 

The  tree  grows  very  quickly,  and  bears  finiit  in  three  years  from 
first  putting  down  the  seed.  The  fruit  itself  la  pleasant  to  the  taste, 
and  is  much  relished  in  this  country  both  by  natives  and  Europeans. 
In  order  to  render  meat  tender,  either  flesh  or  fowl,  the  simplest 
opezatian  is  to  hang  the  flesh  under  the  tree  for  two  or  three  hours, 
which  is  quite  sufficient  I  have  repeatedly  tried  it,  and  can  testify 
to  the  true  result.  Another  way  is  to  wrap  the  meat  in  the  leaves 
and  then  to  roast  it.  In  a  tropical  climate  like  India,  where  meat 
requires  to  be  cooked  quickly,  in  order  to  provide  against  rapid  de- 
composition (on  which  account  it  is  often  found  very  tough),  there 
shoiild  be  one  of  these  trees  in  every  garden. 

Wight  mentions  (El  ii.  36)  that  the  farmers  in  the  isle  of  Bar- 
badoes  mix  the  milky  juice  with  water,  and  give  to  horses  in  order 
(to  use  their  expression)  '^  to  break  down  the  blood ;"  and  this  ia  a 
remarkable  fact,  that  the  effects  of  this  dissolving  power  in  the  fruit 
is  not  confined  to  muscular  fibre,  but  acts  on  the  circulating  blood. 
The  negroes  in  the  West  Indies  employ  the  leaves  to  wash  linen 
instead  of  soap.  The  natives  in  India  both  pickle  and  preserve  the 
fruit  for  their  curries.  It  is  very  palatable  even  raw. — Humboldt. 
Dan,     Wight     Ldndley.     Pers,  Obs. 


1 16  CARISSA — CARTHAMUS. 


(144)  Oarissa  carandas  (Linn,)    K  0.  Apoctnaceje. 

Keelay,  Mal.    Ealapa,  Tilk.    Kunimcbee,  Bbno.    Kurunda,  Hind.    Wakay, 
Tbl. 

Description. — Shrub;  leaves  opposite,  ovate,  mucronate, 
nearly  sessile,  shining;  calyx  5-toothed;  coxymbs  tenninal 
and  axillary,  many-flowered ;  spines  always  in  pairs  at  the 
divisions  of  the  branches,  and  at  every  other  pair  of  leaves, 
strong  and  sharp,  2-forked  ;  flowers  pare  white  ;  berry  black 
when  ripe.  Fl.  Nearly  all  the  year. — BoiA,  Cor.  L  t.  77. — 
Wight  Icon,  t  426. Common  everywhere. 

EooNOMio  UsBS, — ^This  thorny  shrub  is  very  good  for  fences,  the 
number  and  strength  of  the  thorns  rendering  it  impassable.  The 
berries  scarcely  ripe  are  employed  to  make  tarts,  preserves,  -and 
pickles.  They  are  universally  eaten  by  the  natives,  and  are  pleasant- 
tasted.  The  shrub  is  found  in  jungles  and  uncultivated  places. — 
Roxh. 

Another  species,  the  C.  diffusa^  a  thorny  shrub,  bears  a  small 
black  edible  fruit.  Native  combs  are  made  from  the  wood,  which  is 
also  used  in  fences.  The  wood  of  a  very  old  tree  turns  quite  black, 
and  acquires  a  strong  fragrance.  It  is  considered  a  valuable 
medicine,  and  is  sold  at  a  high  price  under  the  name  of  Ajar  in  the 
North-West  Provinces.- — PowdVa  Punj,  Prod. 

(145)  Oarthamns  tinctorias  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Abterac^m. 

Bastard  Saffron,  or  Safflower,  Enq.    Sendoorkum,  Tam.     Koosum,  Hind.    Koo- 
sumba,  Tal.    Ki^eerah,  Bjeno. 

Description. — Annual,  1-2  feet;  stem  erect,  cylindrical, 
branching  near  the  summit ;  leaves  oval,  sessile,  much  acumi- 
nated, somewhat  spiny ;  heads  of  flowers  enclosed  in  a  roundish 
spiny  involucre  :  flowers  large,  deep  orange.  Fl.  Nov. — Dec. 
— Boodb.  FL  Ind.  iii.  409. Peninsula  (cultivated). 

EcoNOMio  UsBS. — The  dried  flowers,  which  are  very  like  Saffron 
in  appearance,  have  been  employed  to  adulterate  that  drug.  They 
contain  a  colouring  principle  called  Carthamitey  used  by  dyers,  and 
constituting  the  basis  of  rouge.  The  flowers  are  used  by  the  Chinese 
to  give  rose,  scarlet,  purple,  and  violet  colours  to  their  silks.  They 
are  thrown  into  an  infusion  of  alkali  and  left  to  macerate.  The 
colours  are  afterwards  drawn  out  by  the  addition  of  lemon-juice  in 
various  proportions,  or  of  any  other  vegetable  acid.  The  flowers  are 
imported  to  England  from  many  parts  of  Europe,  and  from  Egypt, 
for  dyeing  and  painting.  They  are  also  used  in  cakes  and  toys ;  but 
if  used  too  much  they  have  purgative  qualities.  Poultry  fatten  on 
the  seeds.    An  oil  of  a  light-yellow  colour  is  procured  from  the  seeds. 


CARTHAMUS.  117 

It  is  used  for  lamps  and  for  culinary  purposes.  The  seeds  contain 
about  28  per  cent  of  oiL  The  dried  florets  yield  a  beautiful  colour- 
ing matter  which  attaches  itself  without  a  mordant.  It  is  chiefly 
used  for  colouring  cotton,  and  produces  various  shades  of  pink,  rose, 
crimson,  scarlet,  &c.  In  Bangalore  silk  is  dyed  with  it,  but  the  dye 
is  fugitive,  and  will  not  bear  washing.  An  alkaline  extract  preci- 
pitated by  an  acid  will  give  a  fine  rose-colour  to  silks  or  cotton.  The 
flower  is  gathered  and  rubbed  down  into  powder,  and  sold  in  this 
state.  When  used  for  dyeing  it  is  put  into  a  cloth,  and  washed  in 
cold  water  for  a  long  time,  to  remove  a  yellow  colouring  matter.  It 
is  then  boiled,  and  yields  the  pink  dyeing  liquid.  The  Chinese 
Safflower  is  considered  superior  to  the  Indian  one.  In  Assam, 
Dacca,  and  Eajpootana,  it  is  cultivated  for  exportation.  About  300 
tons  are  annually  shipped  &om  Calcutta,  valued  in  England  from  £6 
to  £7,  lOs.  per  cwt.  That  from  Bombay  is  least  esteemed.  The 
mode  of  collecting  the  flowers  and  preparing  the  dye,  as  practised  in 
Europe,  where  the  plant  is  much  cultivated,  is  as  follows:  The 
moment  the  florets  which  form  the  compound  flowers  begin  to  open, 
they  are  gathered  in  succession  without  waiting  for  the  whole  to 
expand,  since,  when  allowed  to  remain  till  fully  blown,  the  beauty 
of  the  colour  is  very  much  faded.  As  the  flowers  are  collected  they 
are  dried  in  the  shade.  This  work  must  be  carefully  performed ;  for 
if  gathered  in  wet  weather,  or  badly  dried,  the  colour  will  be  much 
deteriorated.  These  flowers  contain  two  kinds  of  colouring  matter 
— the  one  yellow,  which  is  soluble  in  water ;  the  other  red,  which 
being  of  a  resinous  nature,  is  insoluble  in  water,  but  soluble  in  alka- 
line carbonates.  The  first  is  never  converted  to  any  use,  as  it  dyes 
only  duU  shades  of  colour ;  the  other  is  a  beautiful  rose-red,  capable 
of  dyeing  every  shade,  from  the  palest  rose  to  a  cherry-red.  It  is 
therefore  requisite,  before  these  flowers  can  be  made  available,  to 
separate  the  valueless  from  the  valuable  colour ;  and  since  the  former 
only  is  soluble  in  water,  this  operation  is  matter  of  little  difficulty. 

The  flowers  are  tied  in  a  sack  and  laid  in  a  trough,  through  which 
a  slender  stream  of  water  is  constantly  flowing ;  while,  still  further 
to  promote  the  solution  of  the  yellow  colouring  matter,  a  man  in  the 
trough  treads  the  sack,  and  subjects  every  part  to  the  action  of  the 
water.  When  this  flows  without  receiving  any  yellow  tinge  in  its 
passage,  the  washing  is  discontinued,  and  the  Safflower,  if  not 
wanted  for  immediate  use,  is  made  into  cakes,  which  are  known  in 
commerce  under  the  name  of  Stripped  Safflower.  It  is  principally 
used  for  dyeing  silk,  producing  poppy-red,  bright  orange,  cherry, 
rose,  or  flesh  colour,  according  to  the  alterative  employed  in  com- 
bination. These  are  alum,  potash,  tartaric  acid,  or  sulphuric  acid. 
The  fixed  oil  which  the  plant  yields  is  used  by  the  native  practi- 
tioners in  rheumatic  and  paralytic  complaints.  The  seeds  are  reck- 
oned laxative,  and  have  been  employed  in  dropsy,  and  the  dried 
flowers  in  Jamaica  are  given  in  jaundice. —  Vegetable  Substances, 
Jury  Rept     Simmands. 


118  C  ARYOTA — C  ASEAKI  A. 

(146)  Oaryota  nrens  (Linn,)    N.  0.  PALMACEiE. 

Bastard  Sago,  Enq.     Coonda-paima,  Tam.      Erimpana^  Schanda-panay  Mal. 
Teeroogoo,  Tkl. 

Desceiption. — Trunk  erect,  60-60  feet,  slightly  marked  with 
the  cicatrices  of  the  fallen  leaves ;  leaves  pinnate ;  leaflets 
sub-altemate,  sessile,  obliquely  prsemorse,  jagged  with  sharp 
points;  spathe  many-leaved ;  spadix  pendulous,  6-16  feet  long; 
branches  covered  with  innumerable  sessile  flowers,  regularly 
disposed  in  threes,  one  male  on  each  side,  and  a  single  female 
between  them ;  male  calyx  3-leaved ;  petals  3,  larger  than  the 
calyx,  greenish  outside;  female  flowers  on  the  same  spadix, 
with  the  calyx  and  corolla  as  in  the  male ;  berry  roundish, 
1-celled,  size  of  a  nutmeg,  covered  with  thin  yellow  bark ;  nut 
solitary.  Fl.  Dec. — ^March. — RooA,  Fl,  Ind.  iii.  625. — Sheede, 
i.  t  11. Malabar.    CoromandeL    Travancore. 

Economic  Uses. — Sugar  and  toddy-wine  are  both  prepared  from 
this  palm,  which  is  cultivated  by  the  natives  for  those  uses.  It 
may  be  seen  in  its  wild  state  in  the  jungles  on  the  Malabar  coast. 
Sago  is  prepared  &om  the  pith.  The  natives  value  it  much  &om 
its  yielding  such  a  quantity  of  sap.  The  best  tree  will  yield  100 
pints  of  sap  in  twenty-four  hours.  This  sago  is  made  into  bread,  and 
boiled  as  a  thick  gruel  The  seeds  are  used  by  Mahomedans  as 
beads.  A  fibre  is  prepared  from  this  palm  used  for  fishing-lines  and 
bow-strings,  which  is  the  Indian  gut  of  the  English  market.  It  is 
strong  and  durable,  and  will  resist  for  a  long  time  the  action  of 
water,  but  is  liable  to  snap  if  suddenly  bent  or  knotted.  In  Ceylon 
the  split  trunks  are  used  as  rafters,  and  are  found  very  hard  and 
durable.  The  fibre  of  the  leaf-stalks  is  made  into  ropes  in  that 
country,  and  used  for  tying  wild  elephants.  The  woolly  substance 
found  at  the  bottom  of  the  leaves  la  employed  occasionally  for  caulk- 
ing ships.  According  to  Buchanan,  the  trunks  of  this  palm  are  the 
favourite  food  of  elephants.  The  fruit,  which  is  about  the  size  of  a 
plum,  has  a  thin  yellow  rind,  very  acrid,  and  if  applied  to  the 
tongue  will  produce  a  burning  sensation,  hence  the  specific  name  of 
the  plant. — Ainslie.     Jury  Rep.     Royle, 

(147)  Oasearia  oanriala  {Wall)    N.  O.  Samtdaoejs. 

AnaviDga,  Mal. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  leaves  alternate,  bifarious,  ovate- 
oblong,  serrulate,  downy  beneath,  on  short  petioles ;  sepals  6, 
villous;  corolla  none;  peduncles  short,  axillary,  1-flowered, 
surrounded  at  their  base  with  villous  involucres;  flowers  small. 


CASSIA.  119 

crowded  into  globular  heads,  pale  green.    FL  March. — Roxb. 

FL  Ind.  ii.  420. — C.  ovata,  Roxb. Goalpara.    Banks  of  the 

Hoogly. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  tree  is  very  hitter  in  all  its  parts ;  the  leaves 
are  used  in  medicated  baths,  and  the  pulp  of  the  fruit  is  very 
diuretic. — (Lindley.)  The  C  escvlenta  (Eoxb,)y  a  native  of  the  Circar 
mountains,  has  bitter  purgative  roots,  much  used  by  the  moun- 
taineers.   The  natives  eat  the  leaves. — Eoxb. 

(148)  Oassia  absns  (Linn.)    1^.  0.  LEOUMiNosiB. 

Desceiption. — Biennial,  all  over  clammy  except  the  leaves ; 
branches  difiuse ;  leaves  long-petioled ;  leaflets  2-pairs,  obovate, 
obtuse,  glabrous  or  slightly  hairy  on  the  under  side ;  lower 
flowers  axillary,  solitary,  upper  ones  forming  a  short  raceme  ; 
peclicels  short,  with  a  bractea  at  their  base,  and  minute  brac- 
teoles  about  the  middle ;  stamens  5,  all  fertile ;  legume  nearly 
straight,  obliquely  pointed,  much  compressed,  sprinkled  with 
rigid  hairs,  few-seeded;  flowers  small,  yeUow.  FL  All  the 
year. — TT.  cfe  A.  Prod,  i  291. — Senna  absus,  Roxb,  Fl.  Ind. 
ii  340. CoromandeL    Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — ^A  native  of  Egypt  as  well  as  of  India.  The 
seeds  are  very  bitter,  somewhat  aromatic,  and  mucilaginous.  They 
are  regarded  in  Egypt  as  the  best  of  remedies  for  ophthalmia. — 
(Lindley.)  The  seeds  are  small,  black,  and  flat,  with  a  projection  at 
one  end.  An  extract  is  made  from  them  used  to  purify  the  blood. 
They  are  also  employed  in  mucous  disorders. — (PoweUsPuvj,  Prod.) 
The  mode  of  administering  the  seeds  in  cases  of  purulent  ophthalmia 
is  to  reduce  them  to  a  fine  powder,  and  introduce  a  small  portion,  a 
grain  or  more,  beneath  the  eyelids.  It  is  considered  a  dangerous 
application  in  catarrhal  ophthalmia,  as  its  application  causes  great 
pain. — Pharm.  of  India. 

(149)  Oassia  alata  (Linn,)    Do. 

Ringworm  Shrab»  Eno.    Dadoo  Murdun^  Beno.    Veleytie  Aghatia,  Hind.    Wau: 
dakom,  Beemee  Aghatie,  Tax.    Seema-avisee,  Metta-tamara,  TKL. 

Desceiption. — Shrub,  8-12  feet ;  branches  spreading,  irreg- 
idarly  angled,  glabrous;  leaflets  8-14  pairs,  obovate-oblong, 
very  obtuse,  mucronate,  glabrous  on  both  sides,  or  nearly  so, 
the  lowest  pair  close  to  the  branch,  and  at  a  distance  from  the 
next  pair;  petiole  triangular,  without  glands ;  racemes  ter- 
minal ;  legumes  long,  enlarged  on  each  side  with  a  broad 


120  CASSIA. 

crenulated  wiug,  about  5  inches  long  and  1|  broad ;  flo'wers 
large,  yellow.  Fl.  Sept.— Oct— TT.  <fc  A.  Prod,  i.  287.— Wight 
Icon,  t  253. — C.  bracteata,  Linn. — Senna  alata,  Roxb,  FL  Ind, 
i.  349. Travancore.     Cultivated  in  India. 

Medical  Uses. — The  juice  of  the  leaves  mixed  with  lime-juice  is 
used  as  a  remedy  for  ringworm  :  the  fresh  leaves  simply  brmsed  and 
rubbed  upon  the  parts  will  sometimes  be  found  to  remove  the  erup- 
tion. Eoxburgh  says  the  Hindoo  doctors  affirm  that  the  plant  is  a 
cure  in  all  poisonous  bites,  besides  cutaneous  affections.  The  plant 
is  said  to  have  been  introduced  from  the  West  Indies.  Its  large 
yellow  flowers  give  it  a  striking  appearance  when  in  blossom. — 
{Ainslie,  Roxb.)  The  leaves  i»kQn  internally  act  as  an  aperient. 
A  tincture  of  the  dried  leaves  operates  in  the  same  manner  as  senna ; 
and  an  extract  prepared  from  the  fresh  leaves  is  a  good  substitute 
for  extract  of  colocynth. — Pliarm.  of  India, 


(150)  Cassia  auricolata  {Linn,)    Do.  ^  . 

Averie,  Tam.    Turwer,  Hind.    Tanghedu,  Tkl.     J  A^*^^^^*"^ 

Descriptxon. — Shrub;  young  branches,  petioles,  and  pe- 
duncles pubescent ;  leaflets  8-12  pairs,  with  a  gland  between 
each  pair,  oval,  obtuse  or  retuse,  mucronate,  upper  side 
glabrous,  under  slightly  pubescent;  racemes  axillary,  nearly 
as  long  as  the  leaves,  many-flowered,  approximated  towards 
the  ends  of  the  branches;  pedicels  compressed;  sepals  slightly 
hairy ;  legumes  compressed,  straight ;  flowers  3-5  together, 
bright  yellow.  Fl,  Oct.— Dec—  W,  &  A,  Prod,  i.  290.— Senna 
auriculata,  Roxb,  Flor.  Ind,  ii.  349. Common  in  the  Pen- 
insula. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^The  smooth  flattish  seeds  are  pointed  at  one 
end,  and  vary  in  colour  from  brown  to  dull  oUve.  The  bark  is 
highly  astringent,  and  is  employed  in  the  place  of  oak-bark  for 
gargles,  enemas,  &c.,  and  has  been  found  a  most  efficient  substitute, 
like  as  in  other  species,  the  seeds  are  a  valued  local  application  in 
that  form  of  purulent  ophthalmia  known  as  "  country  sore  eyes." — 
Pkarm.  of  Iiidia. 

Economic  Uses. — A  spirituous  liquor  is  prepared  in  some  parts 
of  the  country  by  adding  the  bruised  bark  to  a  solution  of  molasses, 
and  allowing  the  mixture  to  ferment.  The  astringent  bark  is  much 
used  by  the  natives  for  tanning  leather,  and  to  dye  it  of  a  buff 
colour.  Workers  in  iron  employ  the  root  in  tempering  iron  with 
steeL     Tooth-brushes  are  made  from  the  branches. — Ainslie,     Roxb, 


CASSIA.  121 


(151)  Cassia  lanceolata  {Forsk.)    Do. 

Indian  or  Tinnevelly  Seima,  £no.     Sona-pat,  Beno.     Soona-MukLee,  HiirD. 
Nilaverie,  Tak.    NeU-ponna,  Kela-tanghadoo,  Tel. 

Description. — ^Annual ;  stein  erect,  smooth;  leaves  narrow, 
equally  pinnated ;  leaflets  4-8  pairs,  lanceolate,  nearly  sessile, 
slightly  mucronate,  smooth  above,  rather  downy  beneath ; 
petioles  without  glands  ;  racemes  axillary  and  terminal,  erect, 
stalks  longer  than  the  leaves ;  petals  bright  yellow ;  legumes 
pendulous,  oblong,  membranous,  about  1^  inch  long,  straight, 
tapering  abruptly  to  the  base,  roimded  at  the  apex,  deep 
brown,  many-seeded.  Fl.  Oct. — Dec. — Lindl.  Flor,  Med,  258. 
Boyle  HI  t  37.— W.  &  A.  Prod.  L  288.— Senna  officinalis, 
R^.  Fl.  Ind.  iL  346. Tinnevelly.     Guzerat. 

Medical  Uses. — Of  this  plant,  Graham  states  that  it  is  indigenous 
in  Guzerat,  and  that  by  experiments  made  upon  the  leaves  they 
were  found  to  be  equally  efficacious  with  the  best  Egyptian  or 
Italian  Senna.  They  are  far  superior  to  the  Senna  brought  to 
Bombf^  from  Mocha,  and  may  be  obtained  in  any  quantity.  Lind- 
ley  says  the  dried  leaves  form  the  finest  Senna  of  commerce.  Fine 
samples  of  the  Tinnevelly  Senna  were  sent  to  the  Madras  Exhibi- 
tion, upon  which  the  jurors  reported  very  favourably.  It  is  satis- 
factory to  remark  that  Senna  grown  in  the  southern  provinces  of 
the  Presidency  is  highly  esteemed  in  Britain,  and  preferred  by 
many  to  all  other  sprts,  as  being  both*  cheaper  and  purer.  As  a 
purgative  medicine,  Senna  is  particularly  valuable,  if  free  from 
adulteration.  Unfortunately  leaves  of  other  plants,  even  poisonous 
ones,  are  frequently  mixed  with  the  Senna-leaves,  which  is  the  cause 
of  griping  after  being  taken ;  this  is  not  the  case  when  pure  Senna- 
leaves  are  employed,  especially  if  the  infusion  be  made  with  cold 
water.  The  concentrated  infusion  of  Senna  Ib  prepared  by  druggists 
by  pouring  cold  water  on  the  leaves  and  letting  it  stand  for  24 
hours,  carefully  excluding  the  air.  Senna  contains  a  volatile  oil 
and  a  principle  called  cathartine.  Senna-leaves  are  worth  from  10 
to  15  rupees  the  cwt.  at  Bombay. — Lindley.     Simmonds. 

(152)  Cassia  occidentalis  (Linn.)    Do. 

Payaverei,  Tam.    Payavera,  Mal.    Cashanda,  Tel. 

Description. — Annual ;  erect,  branches  glabrous ;  leaflets 
3-5  pairs,  without  glands  between  them,  ovate-lanceolate,  very 
acute,  glabrous  on  both  sides;  petiole  with  a  large  sessile  gland 
near  its  tumid  base ;  flowers  longish-pedicelled,  upper  ones 
forming  a  terminal  raceme,  lower  ones  8-5  together,  on  a  very 


X22  CASSIA. 

short  axillary  peduncle ;  legumes  long  when  ripe,  when  dried 
surrounded  with  a  tumid  border  nearly  cylindrical ;  flowers 
yellow.  Fl.  All  the  year.— 1^.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  290.— Senna 
occidentalis,  Boocb.  Fl,  Ind,  ii.  343. Common  everywhere. 

Medical  Uses. — This  is  very  nearly  allied  to  (7.  sophera;  the 
best  diBtinction  is  the  position  of  the  seeds.  It  is  a  native  of  both 
Indies,  and  is  found  in  this  country  everywhere  among  rubbish. 
The  leaves,  which  are  purgative,  have  a  very  unpleasant  odour.  In 
the  West  Indies  the  root  is  considered  diuretic,  and  the  leaves 
taken  internally  and  applied  externally,  are  given  in  cases  of  itch 
and  other  cutaneous  diseases  both  to  men  and  animals.  The  negroes 
apply  the  leaves  smeared  with  grease  to  slight  sores,  as  a  plaster. 
The  root  is  said  by  Martins  to  be  beneficial  in  obstructions  of  the 
stomach,  and  in  incipient  dropsy. — Wight     Lindley. 

(153)  Oassla  sophera  (Linn.)    Do. 

Ponaveile,  Tam.    Pydee-tanghadu^  Tel.    Ponnam-taghera,  Mal.    KolkasMnda, 
Bkno. 

Description. — ^Annual ;  erect,  branched,  glabrous  ;  leaflets 
6-12  pairs,  lanceolate  or  oblong-lanceolate,  acute,  with  a  single 
gland  near  the  base  of  the  petiole ;  racemes  terminal  or  axillary, 
few-flowered ;  upper  petal  retuse;  legumes  long, linear,  turgid; 
when  immature  and  dried,  compressed,  glabrous,  many-seeded; 
suture  keeled;  seeds  horizontal  with  cellular  partitions;  flowers 
middle-sized,  yellow.    Fl.  Nov.— Feb.— JT.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  287. 

— Senna  sophera,  Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  347. — Bheede,  ii  t  52. 

Peninsula.    Bengal.    Assam. 

Medical  UsEa — ^The  smell  of  this  plant  ia  heavy  and  disagree- 
able. The  bark,  when  combined  in  the  form  of  infusion,  is  given 
in  diabetes,  and  the  powdered  seeds  mixed  with  honey  in  the  same. 
The  bruised  leaves  and  bark  of  the  root,  powdered  and  mixed  with 
honey,  are  applied  externally  in  ringworm  and  ulcers.  Wight 
remarks,  that  "  the  legumes,  when  unripe  and  dried,  appear  quite 
flat,  but  when  ripe  and  fresh  are  turgid  and  almost  cylindrical;  from 
not  attending  to  which,  this  species  has  been  split  into  many." — 
Ainslie,     Wight. 

(154)  Oassla  tora  (Linn.)    Do. 

Tagara,  Mal.     Tageray,  Tagashay,  Tah.    Tantipn,  Tel.    Chakoonda,  Bsira. 

Descbiption. — ^Annual,  with  spreading  branches ;  leaflets  3- 
pairs,  with  a  gland  between  the  1-2  lower  pairs,  but  without  any 
between  the  uppermost,  cuneate-obovate,  obtuse,  glabrous  or 


CASSYTA,  123 

pubescent  on  the  nnder  side ;  flowers  on  long  pedicels,  upper 
ones  forming  a  short  terminal  raceme,  lower  ones  1-2  together 
on  a  short  axillaiy  peduncle ;  upper  petals  obcordate ;  legumes 
very  long,  sharp-pointed,  4-sided,  many-seeded,  each  suture 
two-grooved ;  flowers  small,  yellow.  FL  Oct. — Jan. — W.  &  A. 
Prod.  L  290. — Senna  tora,  Boxb.  FL  Ind.  ii.  340,  var.  b. — 0. 
tagera^  Lam.  (not  Linn.) — Senna  toroides,  Boxb. — Rheede  Mai. 
ii  t  53. ^Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves,  which  are  mucilaginous  and  have  a 
disagreeable  odour,  are  given  in  decoction  as  aperients  to  children 
who  suffer  from  fever  while  teething.  Fried  in  castor-oil  they  are 
applied  to  ulcers :  the  seeds  ground  and  mixed  with  buttermilk  are 
used  to  allay  irritation  in  itchy  eruptions.  The  root  rubbed  with 
lim&juice  is  a  good  remedy  for  ringworm.  The  leaves  are  often  em- 
ployed for  making  warm  poultices  to  hasten  the  suppuration  of  boils. 
The  seeds  are  used  in  preparing  a  blue  dye,  generally  fixed  with  lime- 
water.  The  leaves  rubbed  are  applied  to  parts  stung  by  bees. — 
{Rheede.  Ainslie.)  A  warm  remedy  in  gout,  sciatica,  and  pains  in 
the  joints.  The  leaves  are  used  to  adulterate  Senna,  but  are  known 
by  their  wedge  -  shaped  and  ciliated  margins.  —  PoujelVa  Punj. 
Prod. 


(155)  Oassyta  illiformis  (Linn.)    K  0.  Gasstthacrs. 

Cottan,  Tax.    Kotan,  Dux.    Acatsja-buUi,  Mal.    AJush-buUee,  Bbho.    Pan- 
neb-tiga,  Tkl. 

Descbiftion. — Parasitic  leafless  plant;  spikes  lateral,  as- 
cending; calyx  3-leaved  ;  segments  very  small,  round;  petals 
3,  larger  than  the  calyx ;  flowers  small,  white,  rather  remote ; 
bracteas  3-fold,  embracing  the  fructification;  fruit  a  drupe 
with  a  1-seeded  nut,  round.  Fl.  Nov. — ^Dec. — Poaib.  FL  Ind. 
ii  314 — Calodium  Cochin-Chinese,  Lour. — Rheede,  vii.  t.  44. 
Peninsula.    Bengal.     Cochin. 

Medical  Uses. — This  leafless  thread-like  parasite  is  found  twist- 
ing round  the  branches  of  trees  in  most  parts  of  the  Peninsula.  It 
is  put  as  a  seasoning  into  buttenmlk,  and  much  used  for  this  pur- 
pose by  the  Brahmins  in  Southern  India.  The  whole  plant  pulver- 
ised and  mixed  with  dry  ginger  and  butter  is  used  in  the  cleaning  of 
inveterate  tdcers.  Mixed  with  gingely-oil  it  is  employed  in  strength- 
ening the  roots  of  the  hair.  The  juice  of  the  plant  mixed  with 
Qugar  is  occasionally  appHed  to  inflamed  eyes. — Rheede. 


124  CASTANOSPERMUM — CASUARINA* 

(156)  Oastanospermtun  Anstrale  (Cunn,)    K.  0.  Leouminos^ 

*  Moreton  Bay  Chestnut,  Enq. 

Description. — Tree,  30-40  feet ;  leaves  nnequally  pinnated, 
leaflets  elliptical,  ovate,  acuminate,  entire,  smooth;  flowers 
bright  saffron-yellow,  racemose ;  pods  large,  solitary,  and.pen- 
dulous,  produced  by  2 -years-old  wood,  obtuse,  rather  inflated, 
containing  3-5  chestnut-like  seeds.  FL  March — April — 
Hook,  Bot.  Misc.  i.  t.  51,  52. Cultivated. 

Economic  Uses. — ^Thia  elegant  tree  was  first  discovered  in  the 
forests  near  Moreton  Bay,  in  Australia^  and  was  introduced  into 
India  about  thirty  years  ago.  It  grows  rapidly  from  seed,  and  in 
its  native  woods  attains  a  height  of  100  feet.  The  shade  afforded 
by  the  foUage  is  said  to  excel  that  of  most  Australian  trees.  The 
seeds  are  edible ;  when  roasted  they  have  the  flavour  of  the  Spanish 
chestnut,  and  travellers  assert  that  Europeans  who  have  subsisted 
on  them  have  experienced  no  other  unpleasant  effect  than  a  slight 
pain  in  the  bowels,  and  that  only  when  the  seeds  are  eaten  raw. 
They  are,  however,  hard,  astringent,  and  not  better  than  acorns. 
The  wood  is  used  for  staves  for  casks.  There  are  several  large  trees 
in  the  Lalbagh  at  Bangalore. — Hook.  Bot  Misc.  CUghom  in  Joum. 
Agri.  Hort.  Soc.  x.  116. 

(157)  Oasuarina  mnricata  {Roxh.)    N.  0.  Gasuarinagea. 

Casoarina,  Tinian  Pine,  Enq.    Chowk-manim,  Tajc.    Senra-Chettoo,  Tel. 

Descbiption. — ^Tree,  60  feet  high ;  trunk  straight,  as  in  firs 
and  pines ;  bark  smooth,  brown ;  branches  scattered ;  leaves 
verticelled,  slightly  furrowed,  jointed,  joints  ending  in  a  cup, 
in  which  the  next  joint  sits;  stipules  annular;  male  aments 
cylindric,  terminating  the  leaves  ;  scales  6  to  8  in  a  verticel, 
united  at  the  base,  pointed  and  woolly;  flowers,  as  many  as 
divisions  in  the  verticel;  corolla  2  opposite,  boat-shaped, 
ciliate  scales ;  filaments  single ;  anthers  2-lobed.  Female 
flowers  on  a  different  tree ;  aments  oval,  short,  peduncled ; 
scales  6  to  8  in  a  verticel,  with  a  single  flower  between  each ; 
corolla  none;  germs  oblong;  style  dividing  into  two  long, 
recurved,  garnet-coloured  portions ;  stigmas  simple ;  strobiles 
oval,  size  of  a  nutmeg,  armed  with  the  sharp  points  of  the 
2-valved  capsule;  seeds  small,  with  a  large,  wedge-shaped, 
membranaceous  wing.    Fl.  March — May. — C.  litorea.  Humph. 


CATHARTOCARPUS.  125 

Amb.  iii  t  57. — C.  litoralis,  Salisb.  Lam.  Ill,  t  746. — Roxb. 
FL  Ind.  iii,  519. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^Native  of  the  sand-hills,  on  the  sea-side,  in  the 
province  of  Chittagong ;  and  from  thence  sent  by  Dr  Buchanan  to 
the  Botanic  Garden,  Calcutta,  whence  in  the  course  of  thirty  years, 
firom  seed,  it  has  been  introduced  all  over  Southern  India,  and  grows 
well,  'with  trunks  3^  feet  in  circumference  4  feet  above  ground. 
The  timber,  according  to  Wight,  is,  without  exception,  the  strongest 
wood  known  for  bearing  cross  strains.  Its  weight  is  a  serious  objec- 
tion to  its  use  for  many  purposes. .  A  brown  dye  has  been  extracted 
from  the  bark  by  M.  Jules  Lepine  of  Pondicherry. — {Jury,  Rep. 
Mad,  Exhib.)  It  requires  a  light  sandy  soiL  Its  timber  is  the 
beefwood  of  commerce.  Its  growth  resembles  that  of  the  larch  fir. 
The  ripe  cones  should  be  gathered  before  they  open,  and  should  be 
placed  in  a  chatty  in  a  dry  place.  After  a  few  days  the  seed  will 
be  shed,  and  should  be  sown  as  soon  as  possible.  The  young 
plants,  when  5  or  6  inches  high,  shoidd  be  planted  out  in  beds  9 
inches  apart;  and  when  2  or  3  feet  high,  which  they  ought  to 
be  in  less  than  six  months  from  the  time  of  sowing,  may  be  trans- 
planted where  required. — {Beef  8 Report  to  Bomb,  Govt.  1863.)  This 
tree  grows  equally  well  near  the  coast,  on  the  Mysore  plateau,  3000 
feet  above  the  sea,  and  on  the  KeOgherries  at  6000  feet,  and  may  be 
propagated  firom  seed  to  any  extent  It  grows  rapidly,  and,  not 
casting  much  shade,  would  not  iigure  crops  growing  near  it.  It  is 
much  grown  for  firewood,  but  is  well  adapted  for  mfbers  and  build- 
ing purposes.  It  forms  very  pretty  avenues,  especially  in  narrow 
roads. 

(158)  Oathartocarpns  fistula  (Pers,)    N.  0.  LEOUMiNOSiS. 

Padding-pipe  tree,  Eng.    Koannay,  Tam.    Choonnay,  Mal.    Rela,  Tel.  Amul- 
tas,  HiNO.    Sonaloo,  Beno. 

Desceiption. — Tree,  middling  size,  with  usually  smooth 
bark ;  leaflets  about  5  pairs,  broadly  ovate,  obtuse  or  retuse, 
glabrous :  petioles  without  glands ;  racemes  terminal,  long, 
lax,  drooping ;  flowers  on  long  pedicels ;  legumes  cylindric, 
pendulous,  glabrous,  smooth,  dark  brown,  nearly  2  feet  in 
length :  cells  numerous,  each  containing  1  smooth,  oval,  shin- 
ing seed,  immersed  in  black  pulp ;  flowers  bright  yellow,  fra- 
grant. Fl.  May — June. —  W,  <b  A.  Prod.  i.  285.— Cassia 
fistula,  Linn. — Roai),  Fl.  Ind,  ii.  383. Peninsuleu 

Mbdical  Uses. — The  mucilaginous  pulp  which  surrounds  the 
seeds  is  considered  a  valuable  laxative.  It  consists  chiefly  of  sugar 
and  gum.  It  enters  into  the  composition  of  confection  of  senna. 
The  pulp  of  Cassia  is  employed  chiefly  in  the  essence  of  coflee.     It 


126  CATUBUS — CEDRELA. 

is  gently  aperient,  and  recommended  to  persons  of  dyspeptic  habitis. 
The  flowers,  which  are  fragrant,  are  given  in  decoction  in  certain 
stomachic  affections,  and  the  roots  are  said  to  be  an  excellent  febri- 
fuge. The  bark  and  leaves  rubbed  up  and  mixed  with  oil  are  ap- 
plied to  pustules.  Dr  Irvine  states  that  he  found  the  root  act  as  a 
strong  purgative. — Ainslie,     Irving 8  Top.  of  Ajmeer, 

EooNOHio  Uses. — ^The  bark  is  used  for  tanning,  but  not  being 
very  astringent  is  of  no  great  value.  The  wood  is  close-grained, 
and  when  of  laige  size  \a  sufficient  for  the  spara  of  native  craft  and 
other  similar  uses. — (Ainslie,)  The  G.  Eoximrgkii,  a  beautiful  tree, 
resembling  the  weeping-ash,  and  found  on  the  Gingie  hills,  is  of 
rare  occurrence  in  the  wild  state.  Its  timber  is  hard,  and  hand* 
somely  marked. — Boxb. 

(159)  Caturns  spiciflorus  (Linn.)    K  0.  EuPHOBBiACEiE. 

Watta-tali,  Mal. 

Description. — Shrub ;  leaves  long-petioled,  cordate,  serrate ; 
flowers  axillary,  spiked,  pendulous,  longer  than  the  leaves ; 
calyx  3-cleft ;  styles  3 ;  capsule  tricoccous. — Eoxb.  Fl,  Ind. 
iii.  760. — Acalypha  hispida,  Burm. Travancore. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^The  leaves,  beaten  up  with  green  tobacco-leaf 
and  infusion  of  rice,  are  usefully  administered  to  inveterate  ulcers. — 
(Bheede.)  The  flowers  are  spoken  of  as  a  speciflc  in  diarrhoea,  either 
taken  in  decoction  or  conserve. — Lindley. 

(160)  Oedrela  toona  {Boxb,)    K  0.  Cedrelacejs. 

Indian  Mahogany,  White  Cedar,  Eno.     Toon-manun,  Tax.     Toona,  Hind. 
Toon,BKNQ.         j^^      rf^^       ^,1>.N>'- 

Description. — Tree,  60  feet;  leaves  abruptly  pinnate; 
leaflets  6-12  pairs,  ovate-lanceolate,  acuminated,  slightly  undu- 
lated on  the  margins,  quite  entire  or  slightly  and  distinctly 
toothed,  glabrous;  calyx  small,  6-cleft;  petals  5,  ciliated; 
panicles  drooping,  terminal;  capsule  oblong,  5-celled;  de- 
hiscent; flowers  small,  white,  fragrant.  FL  May— June. — 
W.  &  A.  Prod,  i  12^— Roxb.  FL  Ind.  i.  635,—Corom,  iii. 
t.  238. — Wight  Icon,  t  161. Peninsula.    Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  bark  is  powerfully  astringent,  and  has  been 
found  a  good  remedy  in  remittent  and  intermittent  fevers,  diairhoea, 
and  dysentery,  and,  though  not  bitter,  is  a  fair  substitute  for  Peru- 
vian bark,  particularly  when  united  with  powdered  Bonduc  nut. 
Powdered  and  applied  externally  it  has  been  beneficially  used  in 


CELASTRUS.  127 

the  treatment  of  ulceis.  Bninpliius  states  that  an  infusion  of  this 
bark  in  combination  with  the  root  of  the  Aeoms  calamus  (VuMam- 
boo)  is  given  in  Java  in  fevers  and  other  complaints.  Forster  con- 
sidered it  especially  useful  in  bilious  fevers  and  inveterate  diarrhoea 
arising  from  atony  of  the  muscular  fibre. — Ainslie, 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^The  wood  of  this  tree  is  very  like  mahogany, 
but  lighter,  and  not  so  close  in  the  grain.  It  is  much  used  for  fur- 
niture and  various  other  purposes.  It  is  usually  found  in  dry  de- 
ciduous forests  up  to  4000  feet  elevation.  It  is  called  Suli  and 
Mall  in  the  Salem  district,  Kal  Killingi  on  the  Keilgheny  slopes, 
and  Sandaru  Venibu  in  TinneveUy.  It  k  often  used  as  an  avenue 
tree,  especially  in  the  Salem  district,  as  it  grows  readily  from  seed. 
In  Assam  excellent  boats  are  made  from  it.  "NeeB  von  Esenbeck 
analysed  the  bark,  which  indicated  the  existence  of  a  resinous 
astringent  matter,  a  brown  astringent  gum,  and  a  gummy  brown 
extractive  matter  resembling  uhnine.  The  flowers  are  used  in 
Mysore  for  dyeing  cotton  a  beautiful  red. — (Eoxb,  Bedd.  Fl.  Sylv. 
t  10.)  The  wood  is  dense,  red,  hard,  close-grained,  capable  of  high 
polish,  not  subjected  to  worms,  nor  Hable  to  warp,  and  durable. — 
PowelVa  Punj,  Prod. 

(161)  Oelaatras  panicnlata  (WUld.)    K  0.  Celastraoeje. 

Staff-tree,  Eno.    Valuluvy,  Tam.    Baynngie,  Tel.    Malkunganee,  Hind. 

Description. — Climbing  shrub,  nnarmed ;  young  shoots  and 
flower-bearing  branches  pendulous;  leaves  alternate,  broadly 
oval,  or  ovate,  or  obovate,  usually  with  a  sudden  short  acu- 
mination,  sUghtly  serrated,  glabrous ;  racemes  terminal,  com- 
pound or  supra-decompound,  elongated,  much  longer  than  the 
uppermost  leaves ;  petals  5 ;  calyx  5-partite ;  lobes  rounded, 
ciliated ;  capsule  globose,  3-celled,  3-6  seeded ;  seeds  with  a 
complete  arillus ;  flowers  small,  greenish.  Fl.  March — May. — 
F.  <k  A.  Prod.  I  Ib^.—WigU  Icon,  t  150.— Rozb.  Fl  Ind.  I 

621.— 0.  nutans,  Soodb.  FL  Ind.  L  623. Neilgherries.    Hilly 

parts  of  the  Concana    Dheyra  Dhoon. 

Medical  Uses. — The  seeds  yield  an  empyreumatic  oil  (Oleum 
nigrum)  used  in  lamps.  It  is  said  to  be  of  a  stimulant  natmre,  and 
is  used  medicinally,  having  been  found  a  successful  remedy  in  beri- 
beri. The  seeds,  owing  to  a  resinous  principle,  have  a  very  hot  and 
biting  taste.  Boyle  says  the  oil  is  a  stimulant  and  useful  medicine. 
It  is  of  a  deep  scarlet  colour.  It  is  administered  in  doses  of  a  few 
drops  daily  in  emulsion. — {Royle.  Malcolmson.)  The  oil  is  princi- 
pally used  for  horses ;  also  for  rheumatism  and  paralysis.  It  acts 
as  a  powerful  diaphoretic  and  tonic.  The  oU  is  made  by  putting  the 
seeds  with  benzoin,  cloves,  nutmegs,  and  mace  into  a  perforated 


128  CELSIA — CELTIS. 

eaiihen  pot,  and  then  obtaining  by  distillation  into  another  pot  below 
a  black  empyreumatic  oiL — PoioeWa  Funj,  Prod. 

(162)  Oelsia  Coromandeliana  {VclIiI)    N.  0.  ScROPHULARiACEiB. 

Kukshima,  Beko. 

DBSCRtPTiON. — Herbaceous,  pubescent,  viscid ;  radical  leaves 
Ijnrate,  upper  ones  oblong-ovate  or  orbiculate,  toothed ;  sepals 
5,  ovate  or  oblong,  entire  or  serrated ;  racemes  sub-panicled, 
peduncles  longer  than  the  calyx ;  flowers  largish,  yellow ;  fila- 
ments bearded  with  purple  hairs.  FL  Dec— Jan. — VahL 
Symb.  iii.  79.— Bee.  Prod.  x.  246.— .Baa*.  Fl.  Ind.  iii  100.— 

Hooh.  Jour.  Bot.  L  t.  129. "Waste  places  in  the  Deccan. 

Banks  of  rivers  and  still  waters. 

Medical  Uses. — Often  found  as  a  common  weed  in  gardena  The 
inspissated  juice  of  the  leaves  has  been  prescribed  in  cases  of  acute 
and  chronic  dysentery  with  considerable  success.  Its  action  appears 
to  be  that  of  a  sedative  and  astringent. — (Pharm.  of  India.)  A 
species  of  this  order  possessing  medicinal  properties  is  the  Picrorrhiza 
kurroo  (Royle  Illtist.  t.  71).  Its  root  is  very  bitter,  and  is  employed 
by  the  natives.  Dr  Irvine  {Mat.  Med.  Patna,  38)  assigns  Kootki  as 
its  Hindustani  name,  and  mentions  its  use  as  a  tonic. 

(163)  Oeltis  orientalls  (Linn.)    N.  0.  ULMACEiE. 

Indian  Nettle-tTee,  Eno.    Mallam-toddali,  Mal.    Chakan  Tabunoa,  Beno. 

Description. — Small  tree,  15  feet;  leaves  alternate,  bifarious, 
short-petioled,  ovate-cordate,  acuminated,  minutely  serrated, 
scabrous  above,  villous  underneath;  flowers  axillary,  aggregated 
on  short  2-cleft  diverging  peduncles ;  calyx  5-parted ;  male  and 
female  flowers  generally  on  a  separate  tree ;  drupe  small,  suc- 
culent, black  when  ripe,  nut  wrinkled,  1-celled,  1-seeded; 
flowers  very  small,  green.    Fl.  Nearly  all  the  year. —  Wight 

Icon,  t  602. — Roxb.  Fl  Ind.  ii.  65. — Rheede,  iv.  t.  40. Coro- 

mandeL    Bengal    Travancore. 

Economic  Uses. — This  tree  is  common  in  most  parts  of  India,  and 
is  in  blossom  the  greater  part  of  the  year.  It  yields  a  gum  resem- 
bling that  of  the  cherry-tree.  The  inner  bark,  consisting  of  numerous 
reticulated  fibres,  forms  a  kind  of  natural  cloth  used  by  certain 
tribes  in  Assam.  The  leaves  are  used  for  polishing  horns. — Royle*8 
Fibrous  Plants  of  India,  313.     Roxb. 


CERBERA — CHAVICA.  1 29 

(164)  Cerbera  odollam  {Goertn,)    N.  O.  ApocTNACEiE. 

Odallam,  Mal.    Caat-aialie,  Tam. 

Description. — Tree,  20  feet ;  leaves  alternate,  lanceolate,  ap- 
proximate, shining ;  calyx  5-cleft,  segments  revolute ;  corymbs 
terminal;  segments  of  corolla  sub-falcate;  stigma  large  and 
conical,  2-cleft  at  the  apex,  resting  on  a  saucer-shaped  recep- 
tacle, the  circumference  fluted  with  10  grooves ;  flowers  large, 
white,  fragrant ;  fruit  a  drupe  as  large  as  a  mango.  FL  Nearly 
all  the  year. — Roxb,  Fl.  Ind.  i.  692. —  JVigJU  Icon,  ii  1 441. — C. 
manghas,  Sims,  Bot  Mag.  43, 1 1844  (not  Linn.) — Ilheede,  L  t. 
39. Salt  swamps  in  Malabar. 

EooNOMiG  Uses. — ^The  wood  is  remarkably  spongy  and  white. 
The  fleshy  drupe  is  harmless,  but  the  nut  is  narcotic  and  even 
poisonous,  and  the  bark  is  purgative.  The  trees  are  very  common 
along  the  banks  of  the  canals  in  Travancore,  and  may  easily  be  known 
by  their  large  green  fruits  like  a  mango.  The  natives  in  Travancore 
occasionally  employ  the  fruit  to  kill  dogs.  To  efifect  this  it  is  first 
toasted  and  then  covered  with  sugar  or  any  sweet  substance.  The 
result  is  to  loosen  and  destroy  all  the  teeth,  which  are  said  to  fall  out 
after  chewing  the  fleshy  part  of  the  drupe.  In  Java  the  leaves  are 
used  as  a  substitute  for  senna. — Ahislie.    Lindley.    Beng.  Disp, 

(165)  Ohavica  betle  {Miq.)    N.  0.  Piperaoeje. 

Betle-leaf  Pepper,  Enq.    Vetta,  Mai..    Vettilee,  Tail     Pan,  Beno.     Tamala- 
pakoo,  Tbl. 

Description.— Shrubby,  scandent,  rooting,  branches  striated ; 
leaves  membranaceous,  or  the  adult  ones  coriaceous,  shining 
above,  glabrous  on  both  sides ;  the  inferior  ones  ovate,  broadly 
cordate,  equal-sided ;  slightly  unequally  cordate,  or  rounded  at 
the  base,  5-6-nerved;  catkins  peduncled;  male  ones  long, 
slender,  patulous  or  deflexed ;  female  deflexed,  shorter,  long- 
peduncled. —  Wight  Icon,  t  1926. — Piper  betle,  Linn. — RosA. 
Fl.  Ind.  L  158. — Rheede,  vii.  t.  15. Cultivated. 

Medical  Uses. — The  leaves  in  conjunction  with  lime  are  masti 
cated  by  all  classes  of  natives,  and  for  this  purpose  the  plant  is  ex 
tensively  cultivated.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  regarded  as  a  valuable 
stomachic.  In  catarrhal  and  pulmonary  affection,  especially  of  chil- 
dren, the  leaves  warmed  and  smeared  with  oil  are  applied  in  layers 
over  the  chest.  They  thus  afford  great  relief  to  coughs  and  difficulty 
of  breathing.    A  similar  application  has  afforded  marked  relief  in 

9 


130  CHAVTCA. 

congestion  and  other  affections  of  the  liver.  The  leaves  simply 
warmed  and  applied  in  layers  to  the  breasts  will  arrest  the  secretion 
of  milk.  They  are  similarly  employed  as  a  resolvent  to  glandular 
swellings. — (PJiarm.  of  India.)  Dt  Elliott  of  Colombo  has  observed 
several  cases  of  cancer,  which,  from  its  peculiar  characteristics,  he  has 
designated  the  Betle-chewer^s  cancer. 

EooNOMio  TTsBS. — ^The  leaf  is  chewed  by  the  natives  mixed  with 
chunam  and  the  nut  of  the  Areca  palm.  It  has  been  found  wild  in 
the  island  of  Java,  which  is  probably  its  native  country.  Marco  Polo 
writes:  ''The  natives  of  India  in  general  are  addicted  to  the  custom  of 
having  continually  in  their  mouths  the  leaf  called  '  tem-biil ; '  which 
they  do  partly  from  habit,  and  partly  from  the  gratification  it  affords. 
Upon  chewing  it  they  spit  out  the  saliva  which  it  occasiona  Persons 
of  rank  have  the  leaf  prepared  with  camphor  and  other  aromatic 
drugs,  and  also  with  a  mixture  of  quicklime.  I  have  been  told  that 
it  is  conducive  to  health.  It  ia  capable,  however,  of  prodacing  in- 
toxicating effects,  like  some  other  species  of  Pepper,  and  should  be 
used  in  moderation."  In  Travancore  it  is  extensively  cultivated, 
but  only  sufficient  for  home  consumption.  It  is  planted  in  rows, 
requires  a  moist  situation  and  a  rather  rich  soil  The  leaves  should 
-not  be  plucked  indiscriminately  at  all  seasons,  as  this  is  apt  to  destroy 
the  plant — lAndley.    Ainslie. 

(166)  OhaTica  Boxbnrghii  {Miq,)    Do. 

Long  Pepper,  Eno.    Tipilie,  Tax.    Pipuloo,  Tel.    Pipel,  Peepht-mool,  Hind. 
Cutta  Terpali,  Mal.    Pipool,  Benq. 

Description. — Stem  somewhat  shrubby,  the  sterile  ones 
decumbent,  the  floriferous  ones  ascending,  dichotomously 
branched,  at  first  slightly  downy,  afterwards  glabrous ;  inferior 
leaves  long-petioled,  ovate,  roundish,  broadly  cordate,  acute  or 
obtuse,  7-nerved ;  upper  ones  short-petioled ;  top  ones  sessile, 
embracing  the  stems,  oblong,  unequally  cordate,  5- nerved,  all 
thick,  membranaceous ;  petioles  and  nerves  beneath,  especially 
near  the  base,  finely  downy,  afterwards  glabrous ;  male  catkins 
filiform,  cylindrical,  with  the  peduncle  as  long  as  the  leaves  ; 
female  ones  thicker,  less  than  half  that  length,  about  the  length 
of  the  peduncle. —  Wight  Icon,  t  1928. — Piper  longum,  Linn. 

— Eoxb.  Fl,  Ind.  i.   164 — Bheede,  vii.   t    14. Banks  of 

watercourses.    Circar  mountains.     South  Concans.    Bengal 

Medioal  Uses. — ^This  plant  is  extensively  cidtivated ;  the  female 
catkins  dried  form  the  long  Pepper  of  the  shops.  **  I  have  never," 
says  Wight,  *'  met  with  it  except  in  gardens,  and  then  only  as  single 
plants."    It  is  readily  propagated  by  cuttings.    The  stems  are  annual. 


CHICKRASSIA — CHLOROXYLON.  131 

bat  the  roots  live  sevend  years ;  and  when  ctdtivated,  nsnallj  yield 
thiee  or  four  crops,  after  which  they  seem  to  become  exhausted,  and 
lequire  to  be  renewed  by  fresh  planting.  The  berries  of  this  species 
of  Pepper  are  lodged  in  a  pulpy  matter  like  those  of  P.  nigrum. 
They  are  at  first  green,  becoming  red  when  ripe.  Being  hotter  when 
unripe,  they  are  then  gathered  and  dried  in  the  sun,  when  they 
change  to  a  dark-grey  colour.  The  spikes  are  imported  entire.  The 
taste  of  the  berries  is  pungent,  though  rather  faint  On  the  Coro- 
mandel  coast  the  natives  prescribe  the  berries  in  an  infusion  mixed 
with  honey  for  catarrhal  affections.  The  roots  are  given  by  natives  in 
palsy,  tetanus,  and  apoplexy.  These  and  the  thickest  parts  of  the  stem 
are  cut  into  small  pieces  and  dried,  and  much  used  for  medical  pur- 
poses. The  berries  have  nearly  the  same  chemical  composition  and 
properties  as  the  black  Pepper,  and  are  said  to  contain  piperine. — 
{Wight,  Aindie,  ZAndley.)  The  root  is  in  great  repute  among  the 
natives.  It  is  called  Peepla-mool  in  the  Taleef-Shereef,  where  it  is 
described  as  bitter,  stomachic,  and  producing  digestion.  In  Travan- 
core  an  infusion  of  the  root  is  prescribed  after  parturition,  with  the 
view  of  causing  expulsion  of  the  placenta. — Fharm.  of  India. 

(167)  Cndckrasda  tabolaris  (Ad.  Juss.)    K.  O.  Cedbklacks. 

ChtttegoDg  wood,  £no.    Aglay  Manun,  Tam.    Chikrassee,  Btvo. 

DEBCBiFnoK. — Tree;  calyx  short,  5-toothed;  petals  5,  erect; 
leaves  abruptly  pinnated ;  leaflets  5-8  pair,  nearly  opposite, 
obliquely  ovate-oblong,  unequal-sided,  obtusely  acuminated, 
quite  entire,  more  or  less  conspicuous,  hairy  in  the  axils  of 
the  nerves  beneath ;  panicles  terminal,  erect ;  capsule  ovoid, 
3-celled,  3-valved,  dehiscent,  septi&agal;  stamen-tube  sub- 
cylindrical,  rather  shorter  than  the  petals,  striated,  with  10 
short  antheriferous  teeth ;  seeds  numerous,  expanding  down- 
wards into  a  wing,  and  imbricated  in  a  double  series  across 
the  cells ;  flowers  large,  greenish  white.  Fl.  April — May. — 
W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  123. — lU.  i.  t.  76.— Swietenia  chickrassia, 
Itaxi>.  FL  Ind.  ii.  399. Chittagong.    Dindigul  hills. 

EooNOMio  XJsis. — The  wood  is  one  of  those  known  as  the  Chitta- 
gong wood,  and  is  very  close-grained,  light^coloured,  and  elegantly 
veined.  It  is  employed  much  by  cabinetmakers  for  furniture.  The 
bark  is  powerfully  astringent,  though  not  bitter. — Boxb.  Jury  Bep. 
Mad.  Exhih. 

(168)  Ohlorozylon  swietenia  (Dec.)    Do. 

Satin-wood  tree,  Eno.     Hoodooda,  Ynm-maay,  Kodawahponh,  Tax.     BUlo 
Bmuda,  TsL. 

Description. — Tree ;  leaves  abruptly  pinnate ;  leaflets  pale- 


132  CHRYSAKTHELLVM. 

coloured,  small,  numeions,  alternate  or  nearly  opposite,  un- 
equal-sided;  calyx  short,  5 -partite;  petals  5,  shortly  un- 
guiculate;  panicles  terminal,  branched;  capsule  oblong,  3- 
celled,  S-yalved,  dehiscing  from  the  apex,  septifragal ;  seeds 
about  4  in  each  cell,  extending  upwards  into  a  wing ;  flowers 
small,  greenish  white.  Fl,  March — ^ApriL — W.  &  A.  Prod.  i. 
123. — Swietenia  chloroxylon,  Boah,  Cor.  i.  t  64. — FL  Ind.  ii. 
400. Circars.    Mountainous  districts  of  the  Peninsula. 

EcoNOMio  IJbbs. — ^The  wood,  which  is  of  a  yellow  or  light-orange 
colour  like  box,  is  close-grained.  It  is  durable,  and  will  stand  im- 
mersion in  water.  It  is  used  Tor  naves  of  wheels  in  the  gun-caiv 
riage  manufactory  at  Madras.  Though  not  a  tree  of  laige  size,  planks 
of  1 2  or  1 5  inches  broad  may  be  obtained  from  it  It  is  very  suitable 
for  pictuie-frames,  and  if  well  yamiBhed  will  preserve  its  handsome 
appearance  for  a  long  time.  Satin-wood  takes  a  fine  polish,  but  is 
apt  to  split.    It  yields  a  wood  oiL — Eoxb.    Jury  Rep.  Mad.  Exhib. 

At  Paradenia,  a  bridge  of  a  single  arch  205*  feet  in  span,  chiefly 
constructed  of  Satin-wood,  crosses  the  Mahawalliganga  river.  In 
point  of  size  and  durability  it  ia  by  far  the  first  of  the  timber-trees 
of  Ceylon.  All  the  forests  round  Batticaloa  and  Trincomalee  are 
thickly  set  with  this  valuable  tree.  It  grows  to  the  height  of  100 
feet,  with  a  rugged  grey  bark.  Owing  to  the  difficulty  of  carrying 
its  heavy  beams,  the  natives  only  cut  it  near  the  banks  of  rivers, 
down  which  it  is  floated  to  the  coast,  whence  large  quantities  are 
exported  to  every  part  of  the  colony.  The  richly -coloured  and 
feathery  logs  are  used  for  cabinet-work,  the  more  ordinary  for  build- 
ing purposes,  every  house  in  the  eastern  provinces  being  floored 
and  timbered  with  Satin-wood. — {Tennenfs  Ceylon,  i.  43, 116.)  The 
true  mahogany-tree  (Sioietenia  Mahogani)  was  introduced  into  India 
in  1866,  and  thrives  exceedingly  well  in  the  lower  provinces  of 
Bengal.  It  was  considered  that  its  cidture  might  be  extended  with 
great  advantage  in  Lower  Bengal,  Assam,  and  Chittagong. 

(169)  Ohxysanthellnm  Indicnm  {Dec.)    K.  O.  CoMPOsiTiE. 

David's  Flower,  Eno. 

Description. — ^Annual,  herbaceous,  very  small,  glabrous; 
branchlets  somewhat  naked,  1 -headed  at  the  apex ;  leaves  of 
different  shapes,  radical  ones  oval,  cuneate  at  the  base,  upper 
ones  oblong-linear,  3-toothed  at  the  apex ;  achsenia  somewhat 
compressed,  very  shortly  emarginate  at  the  apex,  callous  at 
the  margin,  at  one  place  smooth  and  level,  at  another  convex 

and  striated;  flowers  bright  yellow. — Dec.  Prod.  v.  631. 

Sukanaghur. 


CICOA— dlCENDIA.  133 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  plant  is  coDsidered  by  the  natives  heating 
and  aperient)  and  useful  in  affections  of  the  brain  and  calctdus,  and 
also  to  remove  depression  of  spirits. — (PowelVs  Punj,  Prod,)  A 
plant  of  the  same  family,  the  Chrysanthemum  Boxburghii  (Desv.)^ 
is  common  in  gardens  throughout  India.  The  flowers,  when  dried, 
form  a  tolerable  substitute  for  chamomile.  The  root,  when  chewed, 
communioates  a  tingling  sensation  to  the  tongue  as  pelUtory,  and 
might  be  used  as  a  -substitute.  The  natives  in  the  Deccan  admin- 
ister the  plant,  in  coi^junction  with  black  pepper,  in  gonorrhoea. — 
DcUz.  Bomb,  Flora,    Pharm.  of  Ind, 

(170)  Oicca  DiffUcha  {lAmu)    N.  0.  Eufhorbiaoejb. 

Country  Gooseberry,  Eno.    Anmelli,  Tam.    Nelli,  Mal.    Harfarooiie,  Hnro. 
Nubaree,  Beno.    Bassa  aseriki,  Tbl. 

Desckiption. — Small  tree;  calyx  4-parted ;  leaves  pinnated, 
1-2  feet  long,  often  fliower-bearing ;  leaflets  numerous,  alter- 
nate, stalked,  nearly  orbicular,  1-3  inches  long;  petioles  round, 
smooth,  sometimes  ending  in  a  short  raceme  of  male  flowers ; 
racemes  numerous,  terminal,  axillary,  and  from  the  old  buds 
on  the  naked  branches;  flowers  numerous,  small,  reddish,  in 
globular  heads ;  drupe  3-4  lobed,  grooved,  size  of  gooseberry 
m,  Uaj.—Lindl.  FUrr,  Med.—Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  672.— Aver- 

rhoa  acida,  Linn. — JSheede,  iiL  t,  47,  48. Cultivated  in 

gardens. 

Medioal  UsEa — ^The  leaves  are  sudorific.  The  round  succulent 
fruit  is  subacid,  and  is  eaten  raw,  or  pickled  and  preserved.  The 
seeds  are  cathartic.  The  root  is  violently  purgative,  and  a  decoc- 
tion of  the  leaves  diaphoretic. — Lindley, 

(171)  Oicendia  hyssopifolia  {Adans,)    N.  O.  Gentianaoej^. 

Ohota^chiretta,  Hurn.     CheTnkurti,  Golimidi,  Nella-gullie,  Tkl.     Vallaniga, 
Tam.    Eirota,  Beno. 

Descriptiok. — Annual,  herbaceous;  stem  quadrangular, 
angles  slightly  winged;  leaves  opposite,  decussate,  linear- 
lanceolate,  tapering  at  the  base,  embracing  the  stem  with  the 
short  petioles,  3-nQrved,  paler  below ;  calyx  5-cleft ;  segments 
margined,  reflexed  at  the  point,  permanent,  closely  embracing 
the  base  of  the  mature  capsule ;  corolla  tubular,  5-cleft ;  seg- 
ments spreading,  oblique  at  the  base,  remaining  attached  to 
the  capsule  till  the  latter  bursts;  flowers  6-8  together  in 
axillary  whorls,  sessile,  white;    capsule  2-valved,  1-celled; 


134  CICER — CINCHONA. 

seeds  numerous,  small,  round,  small  white.  FL  July — Sept. 
— W.  &  A. — lAmdl.  Flor.  Med.  520. — Gentiana  hyssopifolia, 
Linn. — ^Exacum  hyssopifolium,  Wiild. — Itoxb.  M.  Ind.  iL  71. 

Moist  uncultivated  grounds.     CoromandeL     Banks  of 

the  Jumna. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  whole  plant  is  Tery  hitter.  It  is  used  as 
a  tonic  in  recovery  from  fevers,  and  is  a  suhstitute  for  gentian.  It 
is  reckoned  a  good  stomachic,  and  \a  administered  either  in  powder 
or  decoction. — Wight    Lindley. 


(172)  Oicer  arietinum  (Linn.)    NT.  0.  Leouhinosje.    % 

Comnion  Chick-pea,  Bengal  gnm,  Eno.    Kadala,  Mal.    Eadalaj,  Tax.    oane- 
J^^i^galoo,  Tbl.    Chenna,  Hikd.    boot-kaley,  Chima,  BSKO.  y 

Descbiption. — Herbaceous,  annual  plant;  calyx  6-lobed, 
scarcely  gibbous,  segment  as  long  as  the  BJ^d  of  the  coroUa; 
leaves  unequally  pinnated;  leaflets  ovate,  serrated,  equal; 
stipules  lanceolate,  somewhat  toothed ;  corolla  papilionaceous ; 
flowers  axillary,  bluish  purple ;  legumes  hairy.  Fl.  Sept. — 
Oct— TT.  &  A.  Prod,  i  286.— -Boa*.  Fl  Ind.  iii  ZU.— Wight 
Icon,  t  20. Cultivated. 

• 

Medical  Uses. — This  plant  is  employed  by  the  natives  as  a  re- 
frigerant in  fevers.  In  the  Deccan  it  is  used  by  the  Portuguese  in 
the  treatment  of  dysmenorrhoea ;  the  fresh  plant  is  put  into  hot 
water,  and  the  patient  sits  over  the  steam. — {Pfiarrru  of  Indiu.) 
The  free  use  of  the  vegetable,  owing  to  the  abundance  of  oxahc 
acid,  is  apt  to  do  harm  to  persons  liable  to  calculus,  as  it  leads  to 
the  formation  of  oxalate  of  lime  in  the  bladder.  It  is  said  to  in- 
crease the  bHiary  secretions.  When  roasted  like  coffee  it  is  reckoned 
aphrodisial,  and  is  also  used  in  flatulency,  dysuria,  and  catamenia. 
— PoweWa  Punj.  Prod.     Christison  in  Mad.  Joum  8c.  No.  13. 

Economic  Uses. — In  Mysore  the  natives  spread  a  cloth  over  the 
young  plants  to  catch  the  early  dew ;  they  then  rinse  it  out  in  a  vessel, 
when  the  extract  becomes  acid,  and  makes  a  pleasant  beverage  mixed 
with  water.  Dr  Christie  mentions  that  an  acid  (oxalic  acid)  ex- 
udes from  all  parts  of  the  plant,  which  is  collected  by  the  ryots  and 
used  in  their  cuiiies  instead  of  vinegar.  The  seeds  are  eaten  by 
the  natives  in  curries,  cakes,  &c.  They  are  very  fattening  to  cattle. 
It  is  said  that  in  Europe,  when  people  walk  through  the  fields  where 
this  plant  grows,  the  leather  of  their  shoes  becomes  spoiled  by  the 
acid. — Lindley. 

(173)  Cinchona  officinalis  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Bubiace^ 
Descbiption. — Tree;  leaves  oblong,  acuminated  at  both 


CINCHONA.  135 

ends,  glabrous,  shining,  scrobiculate  beneath  at  the  axils  of 
the  nerves ;  limb  of  the  corolla  woolly ;  capsules  ovate,  twice 
longer  than  their  breadth;  stipules  leafy,  free,  deciduous; 
flowers  terminal,  in  corymbose  panicles,  tube  red,  petals  snow- 
white  above;  bark  ashy. — Dec,  Prod,  iv.  352. Cultivated 

on  mountain-lands. 

Medioal  Uses. — Several  species  of  Cinchona  are  now  so  exten- 
sively cultivated  on  the  highlands  of  the  North-West  Provinces,  the 
lower  slopes  of  the  Himalaya,  and  especially  on  the  Keilgherry 
hiUs  and  Ceylon,  and  th^  bark  has  become  of  late  years  so  important 
in  a  commercial  point  of  view,  that  the  plants  amply  deserve  notice 
in  this  work. 

It  was  not  before  1859  that  any  successful  resiQts  attended  the 
introduction  of  the  Cinchona  into  India.  So  far  back  as  1835  the 
Indian  Government  had  been  fully  alive  to  the  great  importance  of 
its  introduction ;  biit  for  various  reasons  the  efforts  were  abortive. 
At  last  the  purchase  of  quinine  became  so  greats  and  had  amounted 
annually  to  about  £12,000,  that  it  was  determined  to  select  a  person 
to  proceed  purposely  to  the  Cinchona  countries  in  South  America  to 
bring  some  live  plants  for  cultivation  on  the  Neilgherry  hiUs.  Mr 
Clements  Markham,  being  eminently  qualified  for  the  duty,  was 
chosen.  The  experiment  succeeded  almost  beyond  expectation ;  and 
in  1860  a  great  number  of  plants  and  seeds  had  been  sent  to  the 
hiUs,  where  their  proper  cultivation  at  once  commenced,  establish- 
ments being  at  the  same  time  provided  in  Sikkim  and  Ceylon.  The 
cultiue  everywhere  prospered.  Vast  numbers  of  plants  have  been 
raised  from  seeds  and  cuttings ;  and  the  yield  of  alkahes  is  now  as 
great  as,  or  greater  than,  in  the  native  country  of  the  plant.  Early  in 
1867  there  were  nearly  two  milhon  plants  in  the  Government  plan- 
tations on  the  Neilgherries,  and  the  total  area  under  actual  cultiva- 
tion was  677  acres.  Besides  this,  private  plantations  have  been 
formed  in  most  of  the  habitable  hill  districts  of  the  Peninsula,  in- 
cluding Travancore ;  also  at  Darjeeling,  at  Kangra  in  the  Punjaub, 
and  on  the  Mahableshwar  hiUs  in  Bombay. 

The  results  of  the  cultivation  of  all  the  species  of  known  value 
up  to  1867  were  communicated  by  Mr  Markham  in  an  interesting 
summary  published  in  the  appendix  to  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  India. 
(See  Appendix  B.)  Since  that  time  the  cultivation  and  produce 
have  continued  steadily  to  increase.  In  a  communication  to  the 
author,  Mr  Markham  writes  that  a  cheap  Cinchona  febrifuge  medi- 
cine manufactured  at  the  plantations  on  the  Neilgherries  is  very 
nearly  as  efficacious  as  quinine,  and  the  natives  are  taking  to 
its  use  very  readily.  Five  hundred  and  thirteen  cases  have  been 
successfully  treated  in  the  hospitals  with  it.  Eventually  the  plan- 
tations on  the  Neilgherries  alone  will  yield  1300  lb.  of  this  pre- 
paration annually,  at  about  eight  annas  ( =  one  shilling)  per  ounce. 


136 


CINCHONA. 


The  quantity  used  in  the  cases  recently  treated  amounted  to  43 
grains  each. 

During  the  last  five  years  the  annual  average  consumption  of 
English-made  quinine  in  the  Madras  Presidency  has  been  nearly 
400  lb.,  and  there  will  be  a  yearly  increase.  The  cost  of  400  lb.  of 
quinine  has  been  Es.  16,400.  The  cost  of  the  same  quantity  of  the 
febrifuge  preparation  made  at  the  Keilgherry  plantations  by  Mr 
Broughton  would  be  less  than  Es.  4400,  thereby  effecting  a  saving 
of  Es.  12,000  a-year.  For  European  quinine  manufacture  the  bark 
of  C7.  oficinalw  is  admirably  suited,  as  it  is  so  rich  in  quinine.  In 
addition,  it  is  so  easy  to  work,  and  the  sulphate  of  quinine  crystal- 
lises with  greater  readiness  and  purity.  It  is  especially  the  bark  for 
export  to  Europe,  though  perhaps  in  total  yield  the  C,  succirubra  is 
the  richest.  After  those  two,  perhaps,  the  G.  ealisaya  is  the  most 
important  at  present  The  following  table  shows  at  a  glance  the 
different  species  cultivated  in  India,  their  commercial  names,  and 
London  market  value : — 


Species. 

Botanical  names. 

Commercial  names. 

Value  per  lb.  of  dry  bark 
in  the  London  market 

1 

C.  snccimbra 

Bed  baric 

2s.  6d.    to  8b.  9d. 

2 

C.  calisaya ) 

C.  frutex     } 

Yellow  bark 

28.  lOd.  to  78.  Od. 

C.  Vera       ) 

3 

C.  officinalis 

A.  (Jritusinga 

Original  Loxa  bark 

2s.  lOd.  to  7s.  Od. 

B.  Condaminea 

Select  crown  bark 

28.  lOd.  to  78.  Od. 

C.  CrUpa 
C.  lancifolia 

Fine  crown  bark 

2s.  lOd.  to  68.  Od. 

4 

Pitayo  bark 

is.  8d.    to  28.  lOd. 

6 

C.  nitida 

Genuine  grey  bark 

Is.  8d.    to  28.  9d. 

6 

C.  sp.  (no  name) 

Fine  ffrey  bark 
Grey  Dark 

Is.  8d.    to  28.  lOd. 

7 

C.  micrantha 

Is.  8d.    to  28.  dd. 

8 

C.  PeroBiana 

Finest  grey  bark 

Is.  8d.    to  2s.  lOd. 

9 

C.  Pahudiana 

Unknown 

Unknown 

All  the  species  are  pltmted  out  on  cleared  forest-land  or  on  grass- 
land, in  both  which  places  they  thrive.  They  invariably  grow  best 
under  full  exposure  to  light  and  air ;  therefore,  prior  to  being  planted 
on  forest-land,  it  is  necessary  to  clear  away  the  whole  of  the  original 
forest.  No  diminution  of  water  in  the  stream  takes  place  by  the 
felling  of  forest-trees ;  on  the  contrary,  recent  observations  tend  to 
prove  that  an  increase  of  water  takes  place  when  the  upper  growth 
of  trees  is  removed.  It  is  usual  to  cover  the  outer  bark  of  the  trees 
with  moss,  as  it  prevents  waste.  By  this  simple  discovery,  the  bulk 
of  the  bark  is  more  than  doubled,  making  the  direct  3rield  of  alkaloid 
per  acre  fully  thirty  times  the  quantity  that  can  be  procured  under 
any  other  treatment    Besides,  mossing  saves  any  damage  that  would 


CINNAMOMUM.  137 

otherwise  be  done  to  the  plant.  By  mossing  every  twelve  or  eighteen 
months,  the  entire  cellular  bark  of  the  stem  can  be  removed  easily  and 
without  injury. — M^Ivoi^a  Reports. 

The  seeds  begin  to  germinate  about  the  sixteenth  day  after  sow- 
ing, and  from  one  ounce  of  seeds  from  20,000  to  25,000  plants  are 
obtained.  No  species  can  be  successfully  grown  imder  the  shade  of 
other  trees.  The  G.  calUaya  may  require  a  certain  d^ree  of  shade ; 
but  this  can  only  be  secured  by  placing  the  plants  close  together,  so 
that  they  may  shade  each  other,  leaving  the  robust  ultimately  to 
destroy  the  weaker  in  the  struggle  for  light  and  space.  Neither  can 
the  different  species  be  grown  together,  as  the  luxuriant-growing 
species  injure  and  ultimately  destroy  the  weaker.  The  total  number 
of  Cinchona  plants  propagated  on  the  Neilgberries  from  May  1866 
was  nearly  1,123,645,  exclusive  of  100,757  distributed  to  the  pub- 
lic*— Ghvemment  Records,     M'lwyi's  Reports. 

The  powerful  tonic  and  astringent  properties  of  quinine  are  well 
known.  Quinia  is  procured  from  the  bark,  and  is  administered  in 
every  kind  of  fever.  The  properties  and  uses  of  all  species  are  the 
same.  The  leaves  have  also  been  found  to  contain  tonic  and  mildly 
anti-periodic  properties.  Various  trials  have  been  made  with  them ; 
and  it  has  been  ascertained  that  although  they  will  not  supply  a 
material  for  the  extraction  of  quinine,  yet  they  will  prove  very  use- 
ful, when  used  fresh  in  decoction  or  infusion,  for  the  cure  of  the 
fevers  of  the  country.  In  mild  uncomplicated  cases  it  proved  useful, 
like  many  other  astringent  tonics,  but  in  no  way  comparable  to 
quinine  as  an  anti-periodic.  But,  besides  in  fevers,  quinine  is  em- 
ployed in  croup,  hooping-cough,  ophthalmia,  erysipelas,  dysentery, 
and  diarrhoea^  and  many  other  complaints.  In  fact,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  opium,  no  single  remedy  has  a  wider  range  of  therapeutic 
uses  than  quinina — Pharm.  of  India. 

It  remains  to  add  that  the  present  species  has  variously  been 
called  G.  condamineay  G.  uritusingay  G.  academiccLj  and  G.  lancifolia; 
but  Dr  Hooker  gives  reasons  for  retaining  Linnseus's  original  name 
of  G.  officinalis,  the  first  change  of  which  (because  many  species  are 
truly  officinal,  and  may  be  substituted  the  one  for  the  other)  being, 
he  maintains,  made  on  insufficient  grounds. 

(174)  Oinnamomam  inen  (Reinw.)    N.  0.  Lauragea. 

Wild  Cbmamoii,  Eno.     Dsrchini,  flnn>.     Kit-cama,  Mal.     Caddoo-lavanga, 
Can. 

Description. — Small  tree ;  leaves  coriaceous,  oval  or  ob- 
long, nearly  equally  attenuated  at  both  ends,  usually  3-nerved, 
almost  veinless,  lateral  nerves  nearly  reaching  the  apex,  shin- 
ing and  glabrous  above,  glaucous  beneath ;  panicles  equalling 

*  For  further  information  on  Cinchona  cnltivation,  &c.,  see  Appendix  B. 


138  OISSAMPBLOS. 

or  exceeding  the  leaves,  slender,  peduncled,  lax,  branchlets 
3-flowered,  and  with  the  flowers  equalling  the  pedicel ;  lobes 
of  the  calj'x  falling  off  at  the  middle.  Fl.  Jan. — 'March. — Dec 
Prod.  XV.  s.  L  20. — C.  nitidum,  Hooh  Exot,  FL — C.  eucalyp- 
toides,  Nees  in  Wall.  PL  As.  Rar. — C.  Bauwolfii,  Mume. — 

JViffM  Icon,  t  122. — Rheede,  i  t  57. Peninsula.    Concans. 

Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  seeds,  bruised  and  mixed  with  honey  or 
sugar,  are  given  to  children  in  dysenteij  and  coughs,  and  combined 
with  other  ingredients  in  feveis.  The  leaves  have  a  pleasant  aro- 
matic smell  when  bruised.  It  is  supposed  to  have  furnished  the 
cassia  of  the  ancients.  The  natives  use  the  bark  as  a  condiment  in 
their  curries.  The  tree  is  very  common  in  the  jungles  on  the  west- 
ern coast  and  Travancore  forests. — (/.  Gra?u  Nimmo.)  The  inner 
bark  possesses,  in  the  fresh  state,  a  powerful  aromatic  odour  and 
taste,  and  by  careful  preparation  ib  capable  of  affording  cassia  lignea 
of  good  qufidity.  The  dried  buds  are  employed  by  the  natives  in 
Travancore,  with  various  combinations,  in  diarrhoea,  dysentery,  and 
coughs.  They  partake  of  the  carminative  properties  of  Cinnamon 
and  Cassia.  At  the  recommendation  of  Dr  jL  Boss,  the  Bombay 
Government  now  farms  out  these  trees  in  Korth  Canara,  by  means 
of  which  a  very  considerable  addition  has  been  made  to  the  revenue. 
It  may  be  used  as  a  substitute  for  cinnamon,  to  which  it  can  hardly 
be  reckoned  inferior. — Pliarm.  of  India. 

(175)  Oissampelos  Pareira  {Wtlld.)    N.  O.  MENisPEBMAOEiE. 

Dukh-nirbisee,  Hind. 

Dbscription. — Twining;  stem  pubescent;  leaves  cordate, 
usually  obtuse  or  acute,  rarely  emarginate,  sinus  narrow  or 
wide,  upper  side  glabrous  or  slightly  pubescent,  under  more 
or  less  pubescent,  or  even  tomentose ;  petioles  inserted  at  the 
margin ;  male  racemes  3-4,  shorter  than  the  petioles ;  sepals 
orbicular,  unguiculate;  column  of  stamens  longer  than  the 
entire  and  externally  hairy  cup-shaped  corolla ;  female  racemes 
usually  in  pairs,  sometimes  solitary  and  forked;  in  flower 
scarcely  so  long  as,  in  fruit  often  longer  than,  the  leaf;  drupes 
hairy;    flowers  very  small,  yellowish.      Fl.  April — ^Aug. — 

W.  A  A.  Prod,  i  14.— Boa*.  Fl.  Ind.  iii  842. Common  in 

hedges.    Peninsida.    Bajmahal.    NepauL 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  dried  root  is  at  first  sweetish  and  aromatic, 
and  afterwards  becomes  intensely  bitter.  It  ia  employed  as  a  mild 
tonic  and  diuretic. — Pkarm.  of  India. 


CITRULLUS — CITRUS.  130 

(176)  OitrnllnB  Colocynihis  (Schrad.)    N.  0.  Cucurbitacea. 

Ooloo«Bth  or  Bitter  Apple,  Eno.    PeTcommuttee,  Mal.    Paycoomuti,  Varriecoo- 
muttie.  Tax.    Putsa-kaya,  Tkl.    Makhal,  Bkno.    Indrawan,  Duk. 

Desgsiption.  —  Annual;  stems  scabrous;  leaves  smooth 
above,  muricate  beneath,  with  small  white  tubercles,  many- 
cleft,  obtuse-lobed ;  tendrils  short;  female  flowers  solitary; 
calyx,  tube  globose  and  hispid;  fruits  globose,  glabrous, 
streaked;  flowers  yellow.  FL  July — September.-^Cucumis 
colocynthis,  Zinn. — W.  Jk  A.  Prod.  L  342. — Eoaib.  FL  Ind. 

iii  179. —  Wight  Icon,  t  498. ^Peninsula.    Lower  India  in 

sandy  plantations. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  Colocynth  plant  is  properly  a  native  of 
Turkey,  but  has  long  been  naturalised  in  India.  The  medullaiy 
part  of  the  firuit,  freed  from  the  linds  and  seeds,  is  alone  made  use 
of  in  medicine.  It  is  very  bitter  to  the  taste.  The  seeds  are  per- 
fectly bland  and  highly  nutritious,  and  constitute  an  important 
article  of  food  in  Afdca,  especially  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  The 
extract  of  Colocynth  is  one  of  the  most  powerful  and  useful  of 
cathartics.  The  juice  of  the  fruit  when  fresh,  mixed  with  sugar,  is 
given  in  dropsy,  and  is  externally  applied  to  discoloration  of  the 
skin.  A  bitter  and  poisonous  principle  called  Colocynthine  resides 
in  the  fruit,  the  incautious  use  of  which  has  frequently  proved  fataL 
An  oil  is  extracted  from  the  seeds,  used  in  lamps.  Before  exporta- 
tion to  Europe,  the  rind  is  generally  removed  from  the  fruit.  In 
medicine  its  chief  uses  are  for  constipation  and  the  removal  of 
visceral  obstructions  at  the  commencement  of  fevers  and  other  in- 
flammatory complaints. — Ainalie,    lAndUy^  Flor,  Med, 

Sheep,  goats,  jackals,  and  rats  eat  Colocynth  apples  readily,  and 
with  no  bad  effects.  They  are  often  used  as  food  for  horses  in 
Scinde,  cut  in  pieces,  boiled,  and  exposed  to  the  cold  winter  nights. 
They  are  made  into  preserves  with  sugar,  having  previously  been 
pierced  all  over  with  knives,  and  then  boiled  in  six  or  seven  waters, 
until  all  the  bitterness  disappears.  The  low  Gypsy  castes  eat  the 
kernel  of  the  seed,  freed  from  the  seed-skin  by  a  slight  roasting. — 
Stocks  in  Lond.  Joum,  Bat,  iiL  76. 


(177)  Oitms  aurantiiim  (Linn,)    K  0.  Aurantiaces. 

7^        Sweet  Orange,  Eiro.    Kitcblee,  Tax.    Eichilie,  Tbl.    Naringee,  HniD.    KumUi- 
neboo,  BiNO. 

Descbiption. — Tree,  20-25  feet;  spines  axillary,  solitary; 
young  shoots  glabrous;  leaves  oval,  elongated,  acute,  some- 
times slightly  toothed;   petioles  more  or  less  dilated  and 


140  CITRUS. 

winged ;  flowers  white,  large  ;  fruit  orange-coloured»  roundish 
or  ovoid,  usually  depressed,  rarely  terminated  by  a  small 
knob ;  rind  with  convex  vesicles  of  oil ;  pulp  sweet    fl,  Feb. 

—  F.  <fe  ^.  Prod,  i  91.—Roxb,  FL  Ind.  iiL  392. Circars. 

Aurungabad.    Cultivated. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^It  has  been  remarked  that  the  Orange  is  a  rare 
instance  of  a  plant  having  at  once  beautiful  foliage,  fragrant  flowers, 
and  nourishii^  fruit.  India  and  China  are  the  native  countries  of 
the  Sweet  Orange.  Dr  Boyle  found  two  plants  having  the  character 
of  the  lemon  and  citron,  growing  wild  in  the  forest  at  the  base  of 
the  Himalaya.  He  has  fdso  stated  that  a  kind  of  lime  grows  in 
the  jungles  at  Rungpore.  The  Orange  is  indigenous  in  Silhet  and 
on  the  dopes  of  the  Neilgherry  mountains. 

There  are  several  varieties  cultivated  in  India.  Those  of  Sautgor, 
near  Yellore,  are  much  esteemed.  The  Mandarin  Orange  has  a  large 
loose  skin,  and  is  found  in  the  Northern  Circars,  where  it  is  called 
Curnbla  nablcu  The  large  China  Orange  {Burra  chin)  is  a  fine 
smooth-skinned  and  sweet  kind.  Another  species  has  the  skin  very 
rough,  and  is  called  the  Caffiie  Orange,  a  sweet  and  pleasant-tasted 
fruit  The  common  Orange  of  the  country,  called  Koda  in  Hindoo- 
stanee  and  Kitchlee  in  Tamil,  is  of  an  indifierent  flavour.  The 
Hindoo  Yytians  think  that  Oranges  are  great  purifiers  of  the  blood 
and  improve  the  appetite.  The  rind  is  well  known  as  a  useful 
carminative,  and  a  valuable  addition  to  bitter  infusions  in  cases  of 
dyspepsia.  Oranges  are  used  to  form  various  perfumes  and  pomades, 
and  the  flowers  distilled  produce  orange-water,  used  in  cooking, 
medicine,  and  as  a  perfume ;  but  the  chief  use  of  the  Sweet  Orange 
is  for  the  dessert.  Every  part  of  the  ripe  fruit  is  used  either  in 
diet  or  medicine.  It  is  invaluable  in  scurvy.  The  rind  pulverised 
and  added  to  magnesia  and  rhubarb  aflbrds  a  grateful  tonic  to  the 
stomach  in  gout  and  dyspepsia.  The  roasted  pulp  is  an  excellent 
appHcationto  foetid  ulcers. — (AirutUe,  Royle.)  Dr  Royle  remarks : 
''  So  great  a  diversity  of  opinion  being  entertained  regarding  the 
diflerent  plants  of  the  genus  GiiruSy  whether  they  should  constitute 
species  or  varieties,  it  becomes  diflicult  to  say  what  are  such  if  only 
seen  in  a  state  of  cultivation ;  but  as  some  are  still  found  wild,  an 
opinion  may  be  formed  at  least  respecting  those.  In  the  valleys 
within  the  Himalaya  I  have  seen  two  plants  growing  apparently 
wild— one  called  Bijoiiree,  the  other  Beharee  nimhoo — the  first 
having  the  characteristics  of  the  citron,  and  the  other,  called  also 
Peharee  ka  gtizee,  those  of  the  lemon.  Both,  when  trsuisferred  to 
gardens,  retain  their  peculiar  characters.  Mr  Saunders,  who  accom- 
panied Captain  Turner  in  his  travels  in  Thibet,  states  that  he  found 
the  wild  Oranges  delicious,  and  that  many  orange-trees  and  lime- 
trees  were  found  at  the  foot  of  the  hills  approaching  Buxendwar. — 
(Tumei/^s  Thibet^  p.  20,  387.)     Citrua  decumamts^  the  shaddock  or 


CITRUS.  141 

pmnplemoofio,  does  not  appear  indigenous  to  India,  as  its  name, 
Batavi  nimhoo,  or  Batavian  lime,  denotes,  as  remarked  by  Dr  Box- 
buigh,  it  being  an  exotic ;  and  as  it  retains  its  characteristics  even 
where  it  does  not  succeed  as  a  fruit,  it  may  also  be  reckoned  as  a 
distinct  species.  I  feel  therefore  inclined  to  consider  as  distinct 
species  the  orange,  lemon,  lime,  citron,  and  shaddock,  without  being 
able  to  say  whether  the  sweet  kinds  should  be  considered  varie- 
ties of  the  acid  or  ranked  as  distinct  species." — (Boyle  Him.  Bot) 
The  most  full  information  on  this  difficult  genus  is  contained  in 
Eisso's  work  on  'The  Natural  History  of  Orauge-Trees,'  lately 
translated  by  Lady  Eeid. 

(178)  Oitma  bergamia  (Risso).    Do. 

Bergunotte  or  Add  lime,  Eno.     Eroomitchee-nairaciim,  Mal.    Elemitchnm, 
Tam.    Nemnia  Pundoo,  TbIm    Neemboo,  Hind.    Neboo,  Bcno. 

Description. — Shrub  or  small  tree ;  leaves  oblong,  more  or 
less  elongated,  acute  or  obtuse,  under  side  somewhat  pale ; 
petioles  more  or  less  winged  or  margined;  flowers  usually 
small,  white  ;  fruit  pale  yellow,  pyriform  or  depressed ;  rind 
with  vesicles  of  fragrant  oil;  pulp  more  or  less  acid.  Fl. 
April — May. — W.  &  A.  Prod,  i,  98. — Citrus  acida,  Boocb.  H 
Ind.  iii  390. Peninsula.    Bengal 

Medical  TJsbs. — ^Lime-juice  is  much  used  in  medicine  by  native 
practitioners.  They  consider  it  to  possess  virtues  in  checking 
bilious  vomiting,  and  to  be  refrigerant  and  antiseptic.  It  probably 
possesses  aU  the  virtues  attributed  to  the  lemon.  An  essence  much 
used  by  perfumers  is  prepared  from  the  flowers  and  fruit — Ainalie, 

(179)  Oitnu  limonnm  {Risao).    Do. 

Lemon,  Eno.    Eoma  Neboo,  Beng. 

Description. — Small  tree ;  young  branches  flexible ;  leaves 
oval -oblong,  usually  toothed;  petioles  simply  margined; 
flowers  white  tinged  with  red,  fragrant.      FL  March — May. — 

W.&A.  Prod.  I  98.— C.  medica,  Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii  392. 

Foot  of  the  Himalaya. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  useful  parts  of  the  Lemon  are  the  juice  and 
the  rind  of  the  fruit,  and  the  volatile  oil  of  the  outer  rind.  The 
juice  of  Lemons  is  analogous  to  that  of  the  orange,  from  which  it 
only  diflers  in  containing  more  citric  acid  and  less  syrup.  The 
quantity  of  the  former  is  indeed  so  great  that  the  acid  has  been 
named  from  the  fruit,  acid  of  Lemons,  and  is  always  prepared  from 


^ 


142  ciTBua. 

it  The  simple  expressed  juice  will  not  keep,  on  account  of  the 
syrup,  extractive,  mucilage,  and  water,  which  cause  it  to  ferment. 
The  yellow  peel  is  an  elegant  aromatic,  and  is  frequently  employed 
in  stomachic  tinctures  and  infusions,  and  yields  by  expression  or 
distillation  water,  and  essential  oil,  wMch  is  much  used  in  perfumery. 
Fresh  Lemon-juice  is  specific  in  the  prevention  and  cure  of  scurvy, 
and  is  also  a  powerful  and  agreeable  antiseptic  Citric  acid  is  often 
used  with  great  success  for  allaying  vomiting ;  with  this  intention 
it  is  mixed  with  carbonate  of  potass,  from  which  it  expels  the  car- 
bonic acid  with  effervescence.  Lemon-juice,  as  well  as  lime-juice,  is 
also  an  ingredient  in  many  pleasant  refrigerant  drinks,  which  are  of 
greit  use  in  allaying  febrile  heat  and  thirst.  Lemon-juice,  like 
other  vegetable  acids,  is  given  to  correct  acidity  in  the  stomach. 
By  elevating  the  power  of  that  organ  it  not  only  prevents  the  for- 
mation of  an  excess  of  acid,  but  is  useful  in  the  same  way  in  bilious 
and  remittent  fevers,  especially  when  combined  with  port-wine  and 
cinchona  bark.  It  is  often  employed  internally  to  excite  the  nervous 
system  after  narcotic  poisoning,  but  should  not  be  used  till  all  the 
poisonous  substance  has  been  removed  from  the  stomach,  otherwise 
its  effects  may  prove  the  reverse.  Slices  of  Lemon  are  applied  with 
good  effect  to  scorbutic  and  other  sores. — Don.    Lindley, 

(180)  Oitrns  medica  (Ldnn.)    Do. 

Citron,  Bira.    Beg-poora,  Beno.    Leemoo,  BncD. 

Dbscriptiok. — Shrub ;  young  branches  rigid ;  leaves  oblong, 

pointed ;  petioles  simple ;  flowers  white,  tinged  with  red ;  fruit 
obovoid,  deeply  furrowed  and  wrinkled,  terminated  by  a  knob ; 
pulp  very  slightly  acid.  Fl.  April — June. — W.  &  A.  Prod.  L 
98.— Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  392. Foot  of  the  Himalaya.  Cul- 
tivated in  the  Peninsula. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^The  Citron  is  supposed  to  be  the  same  as  the 
Median  apple  which  was  introduced  into  Greece  and  Italy  from 
Persia  and  the  warmer  regions  of  Asia  at  an  early  period.  It  was 
cultivated  in  Judea,  and  the  fruit  may  be  seen  as  a  device  on  Samari- 
tan coins.  To  the  present  day  the  Jews  make  a  conserve  of  the 
fruit,  which  is  invariably  used  by  them  in  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles. 
The  ancients  attached  medical  virtues  to  the  fruit,  for  Theophraatus 
in  hiB  history  of  plants  says  that  it  was  an  expellent  of  poisons, 
"  The  Median  territory,  and  likewise  Persia,  have  many  other  produc- 
tions, and  also  the  Persian  or  Median  apple.  Kow,  that  tree  has  a 
leaf  very  like  and  almost  exactly  the  same  as  that  of  the  bay-tree, 
the  arbutus,  or  the  nut :  and  it  has  thorns  like  the  prickly  pear  or 
black-thorn,  smooth,  but  very  sharp  and  strong ;  and  the  fruit  is  not 
good  to  eat,  but  is  very  fragrant,  and  so  too  are  the  leaves  of  the  tree. 
And  if  any  one  puts  one  of  the  fruit  among  his  clothes,  it  keeps  tliem 


(S>     %it    e,:^^^^    ic^    ^    l)^:rrJ!  .i/i^*^ >^^^M^     r^^mz. 


CLEISTANTHU8.  143 

from  the  motli.  And  it  is  useful  when  any  one  has  taken  poison  inju- 
rious to  life ;  for  when  given  in  wine  it  produces  a  strong  effect  on  ^e 
bowels,  and  draws  out  the  poison.  It  is  serviceable  also  in  the  way 
of  making  thQ  breath  sweet :  for  if  any  one  boils  the  inner  part  of 
the  fruit  in  broth  or  in  anything  else,  it  makes  his  breath  smell 
sweet"  Virgily  who  has  imitated  this  passage  in  his  second  Georgic, 
mentions  also  that  the  fruit  was  used  in  asthma : — 

**  Media  fert  trifites  snccos,  tardumqne  saporem 
Felicis  mail :  quo  non  pnesentiiis  ullum, 
Pocala  si  quando  8flBV»  infecere  novercsB, 
Hiscuemntque  herbas  et  non  innozia  verba, 
Auxilinm  venit,  ac  membris  a^t  atra  venena, 
Ipsa  ingens  arbos,  faciemque  umillima  laoro ; 
Et,  si  non  alinm  late  jactaret  odorem, 
Laurus  erat :  folia  hand  ullis  labentia  ventis : 
Flos  ad  prima  tenaz  ;  animas  et  olentia  Medi 
Ora  fovent  illo,  et  senibus  medicantnr  anhelis.*' 

^Georg.,  iL  126-185. 

There  are  three  principal  varieties  now  cultivated  in  Europa  The 
fruit  itself  is  seldom  eaten,  but  is  generally  preserved  and  made  into 
confections.  The  outer  rind  pelds  a  volatile  olL  In  China  there  is 
a  large  variety  known  as  the  fingered  Citron,  so  called  from  its  lobes 
separating  into  fingers  of  different  shapes  and  sizes.  The  rind  is  very 
fragrant,  j&om  the  quantity  of  aromatic  oil  which  exists  in  it.  On 
this  account  the  Chinese  place  it  on  dishes  in  their  apartments  to 
perfume  the  air. — G,  Don. 

(181)  deistanthns  XMttnlnB  (Mtiller).    N.  0.  Euphobbiaobjb. 

Description. — ^Large  tree;  stipules  small;  leaves  shortly 
petioled,  ovate  or  oblong-ovate,  acute  or  obtuse  at  the  base, 
cuspidate,  acuminate  at  the  apex,  entire,  glabrous;  flowers 
more  or  less  sessile,  axillary,  sub-glomerate,  and  arranged  in 
short  axillary  interrupted  spikes;  calycine  segments  oblong- 
ovate  ;  petals  shortly  nnguiculate,  hairy  at  the  back ;  bracts 
ciliated ;  ovary  hairy  ;  capsules  tuberculated.  Fl,  March — 
July. — Dec.  "Prod.  xv.  «.  2,  5.05. — Cluytia  patula,  i2(Kv&. — 
Bridelia  patula.  Hook,  at  Am.  Bot  Beech,  212. — ^Amanoa  In- 
dica,  Wight  Icon,  t  1911. — Roxb,  Cor,  t  170. Circar  moun- 
tains.   Courtallam. 

Economic  Uses. — The  timber  of  this  tree,  which  is  of  a  reddish 
colour,  is  hard  and  durable. — (Roxb,)  It  has  been  recommended  for 
railway-sleepers,  as  well  as  other  useful  purposes. 


144  CLEBODENDRON — CLEYERA. 

(182)  Olerodendron  infortanatnnt  (Linn.)   N.  0.  Yerbenaceje. 

Peragu^  Mal.    Bockada,  Tel.    Bhant,  BxNO. 

Description. — Under  shrub,  2-3  feet ;  branchlets  quadran- 
gular ;  leaves  long-petioled,  rounded  or  ovate-cordate,  the  upper 
ones  ovate,  entire  or  dentate,  strigose  and  hairy  on  both  sides ; 
panicle  terminal,  large,  spreading,  naked ;  flowers  white,  tinged 
with  rose  inside,  the  calyx  increasing  and  turning  red  after  the 
flower  withers ;  drupe  black  within  the  increased  calyx.  Fl. 
Feb.— March.— ZiT^n.  Fl.  Z&yl  232.— Dec.  Prod.  xi.  667.— Vol- 
kameria  infortunata,  Roxb. — C.  viscosum,  Vent — Wight  Icon. 

t.  1471,— £oe.  Beg.  t.  629.— -BAeetfo,  ii  t.  25. Peninsula. 

Belgaum.    Bengal 

Medical  Uses. — A  cheap  and  efficient  substitute  for  chiretta,  as 
a  tonic  and  anti-periodic.  The  fresh  juice  of  the  leaves  \a  employed 
by  the  natives  as  a  vermifuge,  and  also  as  a  bitter  tonic  and  febri- 
fuge in  malarious  fevers,  especially  in  those  of  children. — PJiarm.  of 
India. 

(183)  Olerodendron  serratnm  (Blums).    Do. 

Tsjera-teka,  Mal.    Ohini-dekkn,  Tam. 

Desckiption. — Shrub ;  young  shoots  four-sided ;  leaves  op- 
posite, 5-10  inches  long,  and  broad  in  proportion,  serrated ; 
panicles  terminal ;  flowers  pale  blue,  with  lower  lip  indigo- 
coloured.    M.  May — Jmie.^— Wight  Icon.  1 1472. — ^Volkameria 

serrata,  Linn. — Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii  62. — Bheede,  iv.  t.  29. 

Courtallum.    Bombay.    Cultivated  in  Travancore. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^In  the  Northern  Circars  the  root  is  known  by 
the  name  of  OuntanBharir^'te,  and  is  laigely  exported  for  medical 
purposes.  It  is  used  by  the  natives  in  febrile  and  catarrhal  affec- 
tions.— (PJiarm.  of  India.)  The  leaves  boiled  with  oil  and  butter 
are  made  into  an  ointment  useful  as  an  application  in  cephalalgia  and 
ophthalmia.  The  seeds  bndsed  and  boiled  in  butter-milk  are  slightly 
aperient,  and  are  occasionally  administered  in  cases  of  dropsy. — 
Ainalie.    Bheede.    J.  Orah. 

(184)  Oleyera  gymnanthera  (W.  4'  ^')   ^*  0.  TERNSTRiSMiACEiB. 

Desceiption.  —  Tree;  leaves  cuneate-obovate,  obtuse  or 
shortly  and  obtusely  pointed,  coriaceous,  entire ;  peduncles 
twice  as  long  as  the  petioles,  2-edged;  anthers  dotted  with 


CLITOREA — COCCULUS.  145 

little  points  on  the  connectivum,  without  bristles ;  sepals  five, 
with  two  persistent  bracteoles  at  their  base ;  petals  five,  dis- 
tinct, alternating  with  the  sepals ;  stamens  distinct,  adhering 
to  the  base  of  the  petals ;  fruit  baccate,  2-3  celled,  seeds  two 
in  each  cell;  flowers  yellowish.    Fl,  May — July. —  W.  &  A. 

Prod,  i  87.      WighCs  Neilgherry  Plants,  i.  19. Ootaca- 

mund. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — This  large  tree  is  common  about  Ootacamund. 
The  timber  is  of  a  reddish  colour,  and  considered  by  the  natives  to 
be  strong  and  durable. — Wight 

(185)  Glitorea  Tematea  (Ldnn.)    K  O.  LsouMiNosiE. 

Shlongo  EuspL  Shnnkoo-poshpa,  Mal.  Earka  Kartnn,  Tam.  Nnlla-ghentana, 
Tbl.    Khagin,  Hind.    Upaxa-jita,  Benq. 

Desckiption. — Climbing  herbaceous  plant;  calyx  5-cleft; 
leaves  unequally  pinnated ;  leaflets  2-3  pairs,  oval  or  ovate ; 
stem  pubescent,  peduncles  short,  axillary,  solitary,  1-flowered ; 
bracteoles  large,  roundish;  flowers  resupinate;  legumes  slightly 
pubescent,  1-celled,  many-seeded ;  flowers  white  or  blue.  FL 
All  the  year.— F.  <fc  A.  Prod.  i.  205.— Powb.  Fl,  Ind.  iii.  321. 
— Eheede,  viii  t  38. Common  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  powdered  seeds  are  a  useful  purgative.*  The 
root  is  used  in  croup  :  it  sickens  and  occasions  vomiting.  It  is  also 
given  as  a  laxative  to  children,  and  is  also  diuretic.  Of  tike  two  varie- 
ties, that  with  the  white  flowers  is  said  to  be  the  best.  Dr  O'Shaugh- 
nessy  states  that  he  repeatedly  tried  the  root  in  order  to  ascertain  the 
truth  of  its  alleged  emetic  effects,  but  the  restdts  were  not  satisfactory, 
and  he  could  not  recommend  its  use. — Eoxb.     Beng.  Diap, 

(186)  Ooccnlns  tUIosiis  {Dec,)    N.  0.  Menispermace^. 

Dier,  Faridbnti,  Hind.    Doosra-tiga,  Tkl.    Hnyer,  Beno. 

Description. — ^Twining  shrub ;  leaves  on  old  branches,  cor- 
date-orbicular or  hastate,  3-lobed,  obtuse  or  retuse,  mucronulate; 
on  young  shoots  oblong,  cordate  or  acute  at  the  base,  more  or 
less  downy;  petals  about  equal  to  the  filaments;  racemes 
axillary,  not  half  the  length  of  the  leaves,  of  male  flowers 
branched  and  corymbose,  of  female  simple  and  1-3  flowered ; 

*  In  combination  with  cream  of  tartar,  this  forms  a  safe  and  efficient  laxative. 
The  alcoholic  extract  is  also  a  asefid  preparation.  The  cost  is  trifling,  as  the 
seeds  are  easily  procurable. 

10 


146  COCHLOSPERMUM — COCOS. 

nuts  of  the  drape  reniform,  compressed;  flowers  small,  greenish. 
Fl.  Oct. — ^Dec. — W.  <b  A.  Prod.  i.  13. — Menispermum  villo- 

sum,  Lam,  (not  Roxb,) — M.  hirsutum,  Linn, Peninsula. 

Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — A  decoction  of  the  fresh  root  mixed  with  pepper 
and  goat's  milk  is  given  in  rheumatism — dose,  half  a  pint  every  morning. 
It  is  said  to  be  laxative  and  sudorific.  When  under  this  treatment, 
the  natives  make  a  curry  of  the  leaves,  which  they  recommend  to 
their  patients.  The  leaves,  when  agitated  in  water,  render  it  mucila- 
ginous ;  this  sweetened  with  sugar,  and  drank  when  fresh  made  to 
the  extent  of  haK  a  pint  twice  aday,  is  given  for  the  cure  of  gonorrhoea. 
If  suffered  to  stand  for  a  few  minutes,  the  mucilaginous  parts  separate, 
contract,  and  float  in  the  centre,  leaving  the  water  clear  like  Madeira 
wine,  and  almost  tasteless. — Eoxb,    Ainslie, 

(187)  Oochlospermiim  gosBypinm  (Dec)    K  O.Ternstroemuceje. 

Tanakoo-manun,  Tam.    TBchema-pungee  Marum,  Mal.    Conda  gonga-Chettu, 

TJ£L. 

Description. — Tree,  50  feet ;  leaves  palmately  5-lobed,  lobes 
acuminated,  quite  entire,  upper  side  becoming  glabrous ;  under 
tomentose ;  sepals  5,  oval-oblong,  unequal,  at  length  reflexed, 
the  2  exterior  ones  smaller ;  petals  5,  emarginate,  unequal- 
sided;  capsules  shortly  obovate;  seeds  numerous,  somewhat 
reniform;  flowers  large,  yellow,  panicled;  peduncles  somewhat 
jointed  at  the  base.     Fl,  March — April.     W,  &  A,  Prod,  L  87. 

— Bombax  gossipinum,  Linn, — Boodb,  Fl,   Ind,  iii.  169. 

Ti*avancore.    CoromandeL    Hurdwar. 

Economic  Uses. — The  seeds  are  surrounded  with  a  soft  silky 
cotton,  apparently  of  little  value,  except  for  stufling  pillows.  The 
tree  yields  a  gum  called  Outeera,  used  as  a  substitute  for  Tragacanth 
in  the  North-West  Provinces.  This  gummy  substance  exudes  fix)m 
every  part  of  the  tree,  if  broken.  It  is  not  uncommon  in  S.  India, 
and  IB  conspicuous  when  in  blossom,  from  its  large  yellow  flowers. 
- — Royle. 

(188)  Oocos  nncifera  (Linn,)    K  O.  PALiCACEiB. 

Cocoanut-palm,  Esq,    Taynga,  Tail    Tenga,  Mal.    Narikadam,  Tenkaia,  Tel. 
Naril,  Hind.    Narikel,  Benq. 

Description. — Spathe  axillary,  cylindric,  oblong,  terete, 
bursting  longitudinally ;  spadix  erect,  or  nearly  so,  winding ; 
male  flowers  numerous,  approximate,  sessile,  above  the  female; 
calyx  3-sepalled;  leaflets  minute,  broadly  cordate,  fleshy;  petals 


COCOS.  .    147 

3 ;  female  flowers  usually  one  (occasionally  wanting)  near  the 
base  of  each  ramification  of  the  spadix ;  corolla  6-petalled. — 
Roxh,  Fl,  Ind.  iii.  614. — BJieede,  i.  i,  1-4. Shores  of  equi- 
noctial Asia  and  its  islands. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  freshly-prepared  oil  is  of  a  pale-yeUowish 
colour,  and  ahnost  inodorous,  but  after  a  few  days  acquires  a  pecu- 
liar rancid  odour  and  taste.  It  is  much  used  for  liniments  and 
other  external  applications.  It  is  often  employed  as  a  local  appli- 
cation in  baldness,  and  in  loss  of  hair  after  fevers  and  debilitating 
diseases.  It  has  been  used  as  a  substitate  for  cod-liver  oil  with 
good  effect ;  but  in  such  cases  it  was  not  the  commercial  oil  in  its 
crude  state,  but  the  oleine  obtained  by  pressure,  refined  by  being 
treated  wilJi  alkalies,  and  then  repeatedly  washed  with  distilled 
water.  Its  prolonged  use,  however,  is  attended  with  disadvantage, 
inasmuch  as  it  is  apt  to  disturb  the  digestive  oigans,  and  induce 
diarrhoea.  The  expressed  juice  or  milk  of  the  &esh  kernel  has  been 
successfully  employed  in  debility,  incipient  phthisis,  and  cachexia. 
In  large  doses  it  proves  aperient,  and  in  some  cases  actively  pur- 
gative, on  which  account  it  has  been  suggested  as  a  substitute  for 
castor-oiL — Pharm,  of  India. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  principal  distribution  of  the  Cocoa-palm 
lies  within  the  intertropicjEd  regions  of  the  Old  and  Kew  Worlds, 
requiring  a  mean  temperature  of  72^.  It  is  cultivated  in  great 
abundance  in  the  Malabar  and  Goromandel  coasts,  Ceylon,  the 
Laccadives,  and  everywhere  in  the  islands  of  the  Eastern  Archi- 
pelago. It  thrives  b^t  in  low  sandy  situations,  within  the  influence 
of  the  sea-breeze ;  and  although  it  grows  far  inland  on  the  continent^ 
yet  whenever  found  in  places  distant  from  the  sea,  the  vigour  of  the 
palm  is  less  than  if  cultivated  in  those  maritime  situations  which 
nature  has  evidently  determined  should  be  its  best  and  proper 
locality.  Few  if  any  products  of  the  vegetable  kingdom  are  so 
valuable  to  man  in  tiiose  countries  where  it  is  indigenous  as  the 
Cocoanut-palm,  for  there  is  scarcely  a  part  of  the  plant  which  can- 
not be  applied  more  or  less  to  some  use  by  the  inhabitants  of  tropical 
climates.  Of  these  uses,  the  chief  are  the  oil  from  the  nuts,  the 
nuts  themselves,  the  fibres,  the  leaves,  the  stem,  and  the  toddy ;  but 
before  detailing  these  separately,  it  may  be  as  well  to  give  a  short 
account  of  the  palm  itself,  its  history,  cultivation,  &c.  Many 
botanists  have  enumerated  the  manifold  uses  of  the  Cocoa-palm,  and 
among  them  especially  Koempfer  and  Loureiro  have  collected  much 
valuable  information.  One  of  the  earliest  accounts  is  that  by  Marco 
Polo,  whose  description  of  the  "  Indian  nuts,"  as  he  terms  them,  is 
remarkably  accurate.  When  speaking  of  an  island  in  the  Indian 
Archipelago,  he  says  :  "  The  Indian  nuts  also  grow  here,  of  the  size 
of  a  man's  head,  containing  an  edible  substance  that  is  sweet  and 
pleasant  to  the  taste,  and  white  as  milk.     The  cavity  of  this  pulp  is 


148  cocos. 

filled  with  a  liquor  clear  as  water,  cool,  and  better  fiayoured  and 
more  delicate  than  wine  or  any  other  kind  of  drink  whatever."     Sir 
John  Mandeville  also  mentions  the  ''great  nut  of  India;"  and 
another  ancient  writer  has  said  in  a  paper  read  before  the  Boyal 
Society  in  1688  :  ''  The  Cocoanut-palm  is  alone  suf&cient  to  buUd, 
rig,  and  fireight  a  ship  with  bread,  wine,  water,  oil,  vinegar,  sugar, 
and  other  commodities.     I  have  sailed,"  he  adds,  "  in  vessels  where 
the  bottom  and  the  whol^  cargo  hath  been  from  the  munificence  of 
this  palm-tree."     Though  there  are  several  varieties  enumerated  by 
Rumphius,  yet  they  have  all  been  resolved  into  three  species,  of 
which  one  only  is  indigenous  in  the  East,  the  other  two  being 
natives  of  BrazU.     Fortunately  so  prolific  a  plant  requires  little  care 
in  its  cultivation,  and  being  essentially  maritime,  thrives  best  in 
those  situations  where  other  trees  would  perish  or  decay.   In  Ceylon, 
where  greater  care  than  elsewhere  is  bestowed  upon  its  cultivation, 
it  is   considered  best  that  they  should  not  be  planted  too  close 
together.     The  soO  should  first  be  carefully  cleared  from  weeds. 
The  nut  should  not  be  carelessly  placed  in  the  earth,  but  in  a 
position  favourable  for  germination,  attention  to  which  is  somewhat 
important  to  the  future  perfection  of  the  tree.     The  nut  should  be 
quite  ripe  before  being  deposited  in  the  ground,  and  the  hole  may 
be  dug  with  the  slightest  labour,  it  being  sufficient  to  cover  only 
two-thirds  of  the  nut.     In  three  or  four  months  the  nut  begins  to 
germinate.     The  usual  time  for  planting  on  the  western  coast  is 
before  the  rains;  and,  unless  the  nut  is  transplanted,  no  further 
watering  is  required  in  the  hot  season,  the  internal  moisture  of  the 
nut  being  sufficient  for  the  nourishment  of  the  young  plant  for 
nearly  a  year.     After  that  time  the  palm  requires  watering  twice 
a^ay  until  the  fourth  or  fifth  year,  the  roots  being  carefully  heaped 
with  earth  to  avoid  too  much  exposure  to  the  air.     Beyond  this 
no  further  care  is  requisite.     From  the  fifth  to  the  eighth  year  it 
begins  to  bear,  according  to  the  situation  and  soil,  and  continues 
bearing  from  seventy  to  eighty  years.     The  tree  is  in  its  highest 
vigour  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  years  of  age,  and  will  attain  the 
age  of  a  hundred  years.     In  the  third  year  of  its  growth  the  fronds 
begin  to  fall,  one.  new  frond  appearing  at  the  end  of  every  month. 
These  fronds  fall  more  frequently  in  hot  than  in  rainy  weather.     Of 
these  there  are  about  28,  more  or  less,  in  a  full-grown  tree.     On  a 
single  tree  there  are  about  12  branches  or  spadices  of  nuts,  one 
bearing  the  dry  nuts  called  Baruta  or  Cotta-tenga  in  Malayalum, 
another  spadix  the  ripe  ones,  called  Maninga-tenga.     Most  of  the 
young  fruits  faU  off,  only  a  few  coming  to  perfection ;  but  as  from 
10  to  15  nuts  on  an  average  are  produced  on  one  branch,  a  single 
tree  may  produce  from  80  to  100  nuts  every  year.     Of  trees  re- 
quiring so  little  attention,  it  may  easily  be  imagined  how  much 
value  is  attached  to  their  possession.     In  Travancore  and  on  the 
Malabar  coast,  the  natives  draw  their  chief  subsistence  frx)m  the 
produce  of  this  useful  palm.     The  price  of  a  full-grown  tree  varies 


COCOS.  149 

fix)m  ^  rapee  to  6  rupees,  accoiding  to  circuinstances.  A  yearly 
tax  to  the  Sircar  is  averci^ged  at  a  few  annas,  so  that  the  profit 
derived  from  a  large  plantation  is  very  considerable.  It  will  now 
be  necessary  to  enumerate  the  various  uses  to  which  the  several 
parts  of  the  tree  may  be  applied,  and  first  among  them  may  be 
mentioned, 

The  Oil. — ^This  is  procured  by  first  extracting  the  kernel  from  its 
outer  integument  or  shell,  and  boiling  it  in  water.  It  is  then 
pounded  and  subjected  to  strong  pressure.  This  being  boiled  over 
a  slow  fire,  the  oil  floats  on  the  surface.  This  is  skimmed  off  as  it 
rises,  and  again  boiled  by  itself.  Fourteen  or  fifteen  nuts  will  yield 
about  two  quarts  of  oiL  A  somewhat  different  practice  obtains  on 
the  Malabar  coast.  The  kernel  is  divided  into  half-pieces,  which 
are  laid  on  shelves,  and  underneath  is  placed  a  charcoal  fire  in  order 
to  dry  them.  After  two  or  three  days  they  are  placed  on  nmts,  and 
kept  in  the  sun  to  dry,  after  which  they  are  put  in  a  press.  When  the 
oil  is  well  extracted  by  this  method,  a  hundred  nuts  will  yield  about 
two  gallons  and  a  half  of  oiL  This  is  the  method  usually  resorted 
to  when  the  oil  is  required  for  exportation ;  the  former,  when  merely 
used  for  culinary  purposes.  Of  late  years  the  application  of  steam, 
especially  to  a  press,  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  the  oil,  has  been 
attended  with  the  greatest  advantages.  Cocoanut-oil  in  India  is 
used  chiefly  for  culinary  purposes,  burning  in  lamps,  &c.,  and  in 
Europe  for  the  manufacture  of  soap  and  candles.  The  oil  becomes 
solid  about  70^  It  is  said  that  its  consumption  in  Europe  is  likely 
to  decrease,  owing  partly  to  the  new  means  of  purifying  tallow, 
whereby  candles  equally  good  as  those  made  from  Cocoanut-oil  are 
produced.  Great  quantities  of  oil  are  shipped  a^nually  from  Ceylon 
and  the  western  coast,  and  in  extraordinary  seasons  have  realised 
in  England  X70  a-ton,  or  upwards :  the  average  price  is  from  £35  to 
£40  arton.  That  which  is  shipped  from  Cochin  bears  generally  a 
higher  price  than  that  from  Ceylon. 

The  Copra,  which  is  the  dried  kernels,  as  also  the  PoonaCf  is 
occasionally  sent  to  Europe  by  itself  from  Ceylon  and  Cochin.  The 
Poonac  is  the  refuse  of  the  kernel  after  the  oil  has  been  expressed. 
It  is  very  fattening  to  fowls  and  cattle,  and  forms  the  best  manure 
to  young  Cocoanut-trees,  as  it  returns  to  the  soil  many  of  the  com- 
ponent parts  which  the  tree  has  previously  extracted  for  the  forma- 
tion of  the  fruits.  Eor  this  reason  it  has  been  found  worth  while 
to  transmit  the  Poonac  to  those  localities  where  the  Cocoanut-tree 
grows  far  inland,  away  from  the  saline  soil  of  the  coast.  The  Cocoa- 
palm  abstracts  from  the  soil  chiefly  silex  and  soda ;  and  where  these 
two  salts  are  not  in  abundance,  the  trees  do  not  thrive.  Common 
salt  applied  to  the  roots  will  be  found  very  beneficial  as  a  manure 
to  the  young  trees  when  cultivated  at  any  distance  from  the  sea. 

Coir  is  the  fibrous  rind  of  the  nuts,  with  which  the  latter  are 
thickly  covered.  There  are  several  ways  of  stripping  the  fibres  from 
the  husk.     One  is  by  placing  a  stake  or  iron  spike  in  the  ground, 


150  cocos. 

and  by  striking  the  nut  on  the  point,  the  fibres  are  easily  separated. 
The  husks  are  first  separated  from  the  nuts,  and  then  placed  in  salt 
or  brackish  water  for  about  12  or  18  months  ;  they  are  then  scraped 
and  cleaned  for  use.  There  exists,  however,  no  such  necessity  for 
steeping  the  husk  so  long  in  water,  it  haying  been  found  that  a 
shorter  time  is  sufficient  for  the  purpose.  In  the  Jury  Eeport  of 
the  Madras  Exhibition,  we  find :  "  It  has  lately  been  proved 
that  the  fibre  from  the  husk  of  the  ripe  fruit  is  greatly  improved  in 
quality  and  appearance  by  beating,  washing,  and  soaking,  and  that 
the  old  method  of  steeping  in  salt  water  for  18  months  or  2  years  is 
quite  unnecessary,  and  that  it  produces  a  harsher  and  dirtier  coir. 
The  tannin  which  this  substance,  contains  prevents  the  fibre  from 
rotting ;  but  most  of  the  coir  of  commerce  is  a  dirty,  harsh  produce, 
very  different  from  many  of  the  clean  and  dyed  samples  e^ibited, 
which  are  suited  to  a  superior  class  of  manufEictures,  as  fine  mats 
and  furniture-brashes.''  Coir  is  applied  to  many  uses — for  stuffing 
couches  and  pillows,  for  cordage,  saddles,  &c.  Large  quantities  are 
annually  shipped  to  Europe,  where  it  is  manufactured  into  brushes, 
mats,  and  carpets,  and  even  hats  and  bonnets ;  the  latter  attracted 
much  attention  at  the  Great  Exhibition  in  London.  The  fibre  is 
rather  difficult  to  twist;  still  it  is  made  into  ropes  for  ordinary  pur- 
poses in  shipping.  The  character  of  Coir,  says  Koyle,  has  long  been 
established  in  the  East,  and  is  now  well  known  in  Europe  as  one  of 
the  best  materials  for  cables,  on  account  of  its  strength,  lightness, 
and  elasticity.  These  cables  are  further  valuable,  being  durable, 
particularly  when  wetted  with  salt  water. 

Numerous  instances  have  been  related  of  ships  furnished  with 
cables  of  this  light,  buoyant,  and  elastic  material,  riding  out  a  storm 
in  security,  while  stronger-made  though  less  elastic  ropes  of  other 
vessels  have  snapped  in  two,  and  even  when  chain  cables  have  given 
way.  Indeed,  until  chain  cables  were  so  largely  introduced,  all  the 
ships  navigating  the  Indian  seas  were  furnished  with  Coir  cables. 
Coir  cordage,  in  Dr  Wight's  experiments,  broke  at  224  lb.  weight 

The  mode  of  extracting  the  toddy  is  the  same  as  that  used  in 
other  palms  (see  Borasgus),  Spirit  distilled  &om  the  toddy  is  called 
arrack.  Good  vinegar  is  also  made  from  it,  particularly  at  Mahk 
One  hundred  gallons  of  toddy  yield  25  of  arrack.  To  procure  the 
sugar  or  jaggery,  the  fresh  toddy  is  boiled  down  over  a  slow  fire, 
when  the  syrup  is  further  evaporated  to  the  brown  coarse  sugar. 
This  jaggery  is  mixed  with  chunam  for  making  a  strong  cement, 
enablmg  it  to  resist  great  heat  and  to  take  a  fine  polish.  The  toddy 
is  called  Tenna-kulloo,  and  NanUie  in  Dukhanie.  If  taken  before 
sunrise  it  is  very  refreshing  and  dehcious.  The  native  doctors 
recommend  it  in  consimiption ;  and  it  is  said  that  if  regularly 
taken,  it  is  good  for  delicate  persons  suffering  from  habitual  consti- 
pation. 

The  water  of  the  nuts  is  used  by  the  bricklayers  in  preparing  a 
fine  whitewash,  also  in  making  the  best  and  purest  castor-oil,  a 


COFFEA.  151 

certain  portion  of  it  being  mixed  with  the  water  in  which  the  seeds 
are  boiled.  The  shell,  when  burnt,  yields  a  black  paint,  which,  in 
fine  powder  and  mixed  with  chnnam,  is  used  for  colouring  walls  of 
houses.  The  soft  downy  substance  found  at  the  bottom  of  the 
fix>nds  is  a  good  styptic  for  wounds,  leech-bites,  <&c.  It  is  called  in 
Tamil  Tennamamittoo  punjee,  and.  in  Malay  alum  Tennam-pooppa. 
The  web-like  substance  which  surrounds  the  Cocoa-palm  at  those 
parts  where  the  branches  expand  is  called  Panaday  in  Tamils  Kon- 
jatty  in  Mdlayalumy  and  it  is  used  by  the  toddy-drawers  to  strain 
the  toddy  through.  In  Ceylon  it  is  manufEu^tured  into  a  coarse 
kind  of  cloth  for  bags  and  coverings,  and  firom  these  bags,  again,  a 
coarse  kind  of  paper  is  made.  The  Cocoanut  cabbage  is  the  terminal 
bud  found  at  the  summit  of  the  tree ;  but  to  procure  it  the  tree  must 
be  destroyed.  It  makes  an  excellent  pickle,  and  may  also  be  used 
as  a  vegetable. 

In  addition  to  the  above  uses,  the  leaves  are  employed  for  thatch- 
ing houses,  especially  in  Malabar,  and  the  stems  for  rafters  of  houses, 
bridges,  beams,  snudl  boats,  and,  where  the  wood  is  thick,  is  even 
used  for  picture-frames  and  articles  of  furniture.  It  is  known  in 
Europe  as  the  porcupine- wood,  and  has  a  pretty  mottled  appearance. 
The  nuts,  dried  and  polished,  are  made  into  drinking  cups,  spoons, 
baskets,  and  a  variety  of  fanciful  ornaments.  The  midribs  of  the 
leaves  are  used  for  paddles. 

The  natives  chew  the  roots  as  they  do  the  arecaruut  with  the 
betle-leaf.  Abundance  of  potash  is  yielded  by  the  ashes  of  the 
leaves.  Cocoanuts  are  occasionally  fixed  on  stakes  in  the  public 
roads  in  India  for  the  purpose  of  giving  light,  for  which  they  are 
well  adapted  from  their  fibrous  covering  without  and  oily  substance 
within.  Marine  soap,  or  Cocoanut-oil  soap,  so  useful  for  washing 
linen  iu  salt  water,  is  made  of  soda,  Cocoanut-lard,  and  water.  So 
great  and  so  varied  are  the  uses  of  the  Cocoa-palm, — ^fully  calculated 
to  realise  the  old  saying,  ''  Be  kind  to  your  trees  and  they  will  be 
kind  to  you."* — EoyWs  Fib,  Plants.   Simmonds.   Lindley,   Ainslie. 

(189)  Coffea  Arabica  (Linru)    "N,  0.  Cinchonacr£. 

Coffee,  Eno.    Capi^-cdttay,  Tam.    Bun,  kahwa,  Arab.    Eawa,  Mal.    Kawa» 
Coffee,  Hnn). 

Description. — Large  erect  bush,  quite  smooth  in  every 
part;  leaves  oblong-lanceolate,  acuminate,  shining  on  the 
upper  side,  wavy,  deep  green  above,  paler  below;  stipules 
subulate,  undivided;  peduncles  axillary,  short,  clustered; 
corolla  white,  tubular,  sweet-scented,  with  a  spreading  5-clefb 
limb ;  anthers  protruded ;  berries  oval,  deep  purple,  succulent, 
2-seeded.    Bot.  Mag.  t  1303.— Dec.  Prod,  iv.  499.— JT.  &  A. 

*  For  farther  uses  of  the  Cocoa-palm  see  Appendix  C. 


152  COPFEA. 

Prod,   i.   435.  —  Wight   Icon,  t  53. Low  mountains  of 

Arabia.    Neilgherries.     Shevaroy  hills. 

Medical  Uses. — ^Tbe  albumen  of  the  seeds  constitutes  the  aro- 
matic Coffee  of  commerce,  which,  when  dried  and  roasted,  is  an 
agreeable  tonic  and  stimulant.  It  has  the  power  of  removing 
drowsiness  and  of  retarding  the  access  of  sleep  for  some  hours,  and 
is  prescribed  medicinally  in  various  derangements  of  the  viscera  and 
in  nervous  headaches.  In  smaU  doses,  a  strong  decoction  of  Coffee 
is  capable  of  arresting  diarrhoea.  It  is  often  given  to  disguise  the 
taste  of  nauseous  medicines,  particularly  quinine,  senna,  and  Epsom 
salts.  A  strong  decoction  of  Coffee  (an  ounce  to  a  cup)  has  been 
found  of  great  service  in  allaying  the  severity  of  a  paroxysm  of 
spasmodic  asthma.  In  poisoning  by  opium  or  other  narcotic 
poisons,  a  strong  infusion  of  Coffee,  without  mUk  or  sugar,  is  an 
effectual  stimulant.  It  is  also  advantageously  given  in  the  de- 
pression after  drunkenness. — Lindley,  FL  Med,     Waring,  Ther, 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  cultivation  of  this  staple  is  now  extend- 
ing in  a  surprising  manner,  and  becoming  of  much  importance.  It 
has  been  pursued  with  great  success  by  private  individuals,  many 
Europeans  having  settled  in  Wynaad  and  Travancore,  and  other 
mountainous  tracts  on  the  western  coast,  for  the  purpose  of  its 
cultivation.  The  value  of  commercial  Coffee  depends  upon  the 
texture  and  form  of  the  berry,  the  colour  and  flavour.  A  French 
chemist  has  ascertained  that  Coffee-grounds  make  an  excellent 
manure,  owing  to  the  nitrogen  and  phosphoric  acid  they  contain. 

Bruce,  in  his  '  Travels  in  Abyssinia,'  states  that  the  Coffee-plant 
is  a  native  of  Egypt.  It  is  found  in  a  wild  state  in  the  north  of 
Kafliai,  a  district  in  the  province  of  Navea ;  and  it  is  not  improbable 
that  the  plant  takes  its  name  from  that  place.  The  first  writer  who 
makes  any  reference  to  it  is  Rauwolf,  who  wrote  a  treatise  on  the 
plant,  of  whose  stimulating  properties  he  speaks  in  the  highest 
terms.  Towards  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century  the  plant  was 
introduced  into  Arabia,  and  from  thence  it  was  taken,  in  1690,  to 
Batavia,  by  Van  Hoom,  then  governor  of  Java.  He  cultivated  it 
with  much  success  at  the  latter  place,  and  sent  several  plants  to 
Amsterdam.  In  1720  the  plant  was  introduced  into  Martinique, 
and  subsequently  into  the  island  of  Bourbon  and  the  Isle  of  France. 
•  According  to  tradition,  the  Coffee -plant  was  introduced  into 
Mysore  by  a  Mohammedan  pilgrim,  named  Baba  Booden,  who  came 
and  took  up  his  abode  on  the  uninhabited  hills  in  the  Kuggur 
division,  named  after  him,  and  where  he  established  a  college, 
which  still  exists,  endowed  by  Grovernment.  It  is  said  that  he 
brought  seven  Coffee-berries  from  Mocha,  which  he  planted  near  to 
his  hermitage,  about  which  there  are  now  to  be  seen  some  very  old 
Coffee-trees.  The  Coffee-plant  has  been  known  there  from  time 
immemorial ;  but  the  earliest  official  account  of  it  is  in  1822,  when 
the  revenue  was  under  contract. 


COLDEN  lA — COLEUS.  1 53 

It  was  estimated  that  in  1861  there  were  of  Coffee-planters  in 
Wynaad  alone,  and  excluBive  of  Mysore,  Coorg,  &c.,  75  separate 
properties,  with  a  total  acreage  of  24,149,  of  which  considerably 
more  than  one-third  is  in  bearing.  The  quantity  exported  in  ten 
years  had  risen  from  35,000  to  165,000  cwts.,  a  far  greater  propor- 
tion than  that  from  Ceylon  in  the  same  time. 

The  genus  Coffea  includes  fuUy  fifty  species,  and,  as  at  present 
constituted,  occupies  a  very  wide  range.  Africa,  Asia,  and  America 
both  North  and  South,  claim  indigenous  species,  but  all  confined  to 
the  warmer  regions,  either  actually  within  the  tropics  or  within 
a  few  degrees  of  either  side.  In  Mexico,  Brazil,  and  Peru,  they 
abound  There  are  several  from  Africa,  while  India  and  her  islands 
claim  one-fourth  of  the  whole  number. — WighVs  Neilg.  Plants,  i  83. 

(190)  Ooldenia  procumbens  (Linn.)    K  0.  EHRETiACKas. 

Sera-padi,  Tam.    Tripungki,  Hind.    Hamsa-padn,  Txl. 

Description. — Stems  procumbent,  hirsute ;  leaves  short, 
petioled,  obovate,  unequally  produced  at  the  base  above  the 
petiole,  folded,  coarsely  toothed,  with  adpressed  villous  hairs 
above,  hirsute  beneath ;  flowers  axillary,  solitary,  sessile,  small, 
white;  nuts  wrinkled,  rough.  Fl,  Sept — Dec. — Linn,  Spec. 
182. — Dec,  Prod,  ix.  558. Common  in  rice-fields. 

Medical  Uses. — The  dried  plants,  mixed  with  Fenugreek  seeds 
and  rubbed  to  a  fine  powder,  are  used  to  promote  the  suppuration 
of  boils. — Ainslie, 

(191)  Coleus  aromaticus  (BentL)    K  0.  Lahiaoe^. 

Coantry  Borage,  Eho.    Pathoor-clioor,  Beng. 

Description.  —  Shrub,  2-3  feet ;  branches  tomentosely 
pubescent,  or  hispid ;  leaves  petiolate,  broad,  ovate,  crenated, 
rounded  at  the  base,  or  cuneate,  very  thick,  hispid  on  both 
surfaces,  or  clothed  with  white  villi,  very  fragrant,  floral  leaves 
hardly  equal  in  length  to  the  calyx ;  racemes  simple ;  whorls 
20-30  flowered  or  more;  calyx  tomentose;  tube  of  corolla 
about  twice  as  long  as  the  calyx,  defracted  at  the  middle; 
throat  dilated ;  lower  lip  a  little  dilated,  boat-shaped ;  flowers 
smallish,  pale  blue,  very  aromatic.    FL  April. — Dec.  Prod.  xii. 

72.  —  Plectranthus  aromaticus,  Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii   22. 

Common  in  gardens. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  plant,  a  native  of  the  Moluccas,  has  a 
pleasant  aromatic  odour  and  pungent  taste^  and  according  to  Loureiro 


154  COLOCASIA. 

is  employed  in  Cocbin  China  in  asthma^  chronic  coughs,  epilepsy, 
and  other  convulsive  affections. — (Lour,  Flor,  Coch.  452.)  It  is  a 
powerful  aromatic  carminative  given  to  children  in  colic.  It  has, 
however,  an  intoxicating  effect,  a  property  remarked  by  Long  in  the 
Joum.  of  the  Agric.  Hort  Soc.  of  India,  who  also  states  that  in 
Bengal  the  natives  use  it  in  colic  and  dyspepsia. — {Long,  ut  supra^ 
X.  23.  Wighfs  Illustr,  ii.)  Every  part  of  the  plant  is  delight- 
fully &agrant  The  leaves  are  frequently  eaten,  and  mixed  with 
various  articles  of  food,  drink,  or  medicine. — Eoxb.  Phamu  of 
India, 

Another  species,  the  C,  barhaius,  a  native  of  the  Peninsula,  Gu- 
zerat,  and  Nepaul,  is  coilimonly  cultivated  in  gardens  of  the  natives 
at  Bombay  for  the  roots,  which  are  pickled. — /.  Graham, 

(192)  Oolocasia  antiauonun  (Schott)    K.  0.  ARACEiB. 

Cocco,  Eno.    Chama,  Tel.    Knchoo,  Beno.    Shoma  Kilangu,  Tam. 

Description. — Stemless;  leaves  peltate,  ovate,  repand,  semi- 
bifid  at  the  base;  scape  shorter  than  the  petioles;  spathe 
much  longer  than  the  spadix,  cylindric,  erect;  club  sub- 
cylindrical,  length  of  the  antheriferous  part  of  the  receptacle ; 
anthers  many-celled.    Fl.  Sept. — Nov. — Boxb.  Fl.  Ind,  iii  494. 

—  Wight  Icon,  t,  786. — Arum  oolocasia,  lAnn, Cultivated 

in  the  Peninsula.    Tanjore  in  wet  marshy  grounds. 

Medical  Uses. — The  pressed  juice  of  the  petioles  is  highly 
styptic,  and  is  even  said  to  arrest  arterial  hcemorrhage,  the  wound 
after  application  healing  by  first  intention.  The  C,  inacrorhizd.  also 
possesses  much  acridity  in  the  fresh  state,  and  is  employed  by  the 
natives  as  an  external  stimulant  and  rubefacient.  The  acrid  prin- 
ciple is,  however,  very  volatile,  and  by  the  application  of  heat,  or 
simple  drying,  the  roots  become  innocuous. — Pharm,  of  India, 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^There  are  two  varieties  cultivated  in  lower 
BengaL  They  are  planted  about  the  beginning  of  the  rainy  season. 
Of  the  Kala-kuchoOy  the  leaves  and  petioles  are  eaten  by  the  natives. 
Some  varieties  are  seldom  if  ever  eaten. 

The  G,  Indica  is  cultivated  in  Bengal  for  its  esculent  stems  and 
small  pendulous  tubers.  There  is  one  variety  with  dark-coloured 
petioles,  but  they  seldom  produce  ripe  seeds.  The  C,  nymph<Bfolia 
is  common  in  Malabar,  where  it  forms  part  of  the  food  of  the  inhabit- 
ants.— {Roxb,) 

When  the  crop  of  C,  dntiquorurn^  says  Dr  Seemann  {Flora 
Vitiensis),  is  gathered  in,  the  tops  of  the  tubers  are  cut  off  and  at 
once  replanted.  The  yoimg  leaves  may  be  eaten  like  spinach ;  but, 
like  the  root,  they  require  to  be  well  cooked  in  order  to  destroy  the 
acridity  peculiar  to  Aroideous  plants.     A  considerable  number  of 


CONOCARFUS.  loS 

■  •  •  •         . 

varieties  are  known,  some  better  adapted  for  puddings,  some  for 
bread,  or  simply  for  boiling  or  baking.  The  outer  marks  of  dis- 
tinction chiefly  rest  upon  the  different  tinge  observable  in  the  corm, 
leaf,  stalks,  and  ribs  of  the  leaves — white,  yellowish,  purple. 

(193)  Gonocarpns  acmninatns  (Eozb,)    'N.  0.  CoMBBGTACEiE. 

Pachi-man,  Tel. 

Description.  —  Large  tree;  limb  of  calyx  5-cleft;  petals 
none ;  leaves  without  glands,  nearly  opposite,  oval  or  oblong- 
lanceolate,  entire,  acute ;  when  young,  pubescent,  adult  ones 
glabrous ;  peduncles  simple,  with  one  head  of  flowers ;  flowers 
small,  pale-greenish.    FL  Jan. — Feb. —  W.  &  A,  Prod.  L  316. 

— Boocb,  FL  Ind.  ii  443. — Anogeissus  acuminatus,  Wall. 

Circar  mountains. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  timber  of  this  tree  is  very  hard  and  dur* 
able,  almost  equalling  teak,  especially  if  kept  dried,  but  decays  if 
exposed  to  water.  It  is  good  for  house-building,  though  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  procure  straight  logs  of  it. — Roxb. 

(194)  Oonocarpos  latifolius  (Roxb,)    Do. 

Yella-maddi,  Siri-maun,  Tel.    Vallay-naga,  Veckelii,  Tah. 

Description. — Tree;  leaves  alternate  or  nearly  opposite, 
quite  entire;  limbs  of  calyx  5-cleft;  petals  none;  leaves  with- 
out glands,  elliptical  or  obovate,  obtuse,  emarginate,  glabrous ; 
peduncles  branched,  bearing  several  heads  of  flowers  some- 
times thickly  aggregated ;  fruit  coriaceous,  somewhat  scaly, 
globular;  seed  solitary;  flowers  small,  greenish  pale.  Fl.  Jan. 
— Feb.— TT.  cfe  A.  Prod,  i.  S16,— Wight  Icon.  t.  994— ^a*. 

Fl.  Ind.  ii  442. — Anogeissus  latifolius,  WaU. ^Valleys  of  the 

Concan  rivers.    Deccan  hills.    Dheyra  Dhoon. 

Economic  Usbs. — This  is  a  large  tree  found  on  the  Circar  motm- 
tains,  and  other  parts  of  the  Peninsula.  The  timber  ia  good,  and  if 
kept  dry  is  said  to  be  very  durable.  It  is  especially  esteemed  for 
many  economical  purposes.  Towards  the  centre  it  is  of  a  chocolate 
colour.  For  house  and  ship  building  the  natives  reckon  it  superior 
to  every  other  sort,  except  teak  and  perhaps  one  or  two  more. — 
(Roxb.) 

The  ashes  of  this  tree  are  said  to  be  in  demand  as  an  article  of 
food  among  certain  wild  tribes,  inhabitants  of  the  forests  about  the 
Neilgherries.  The  demand  for  it  has  been  attributed  to  the  large 
proportion  of  pure  carbonate  of  potash  which  it  yields  j  the  diet  of 


156  CORCHORUa 

the  same  people  including  a  large  quantity  of  tamarinds.  The  leaves 
are  used  for  dying  leather.  The  gum  from  the  tree  is  extensively 
.employed  in  printing  on  cloth. — PoweWs  Punj,  Prod. 

(195)  Corclionui  capsnlaris  {Linn.)    K  0.  Tiluoeub. 

CapsulAT  Corchoros,  Eno.    Ghiualita  pat,  Beno. 

Description. — ^Annual,  5-10  feet;  calyx  deeply  5-clefb; 
petals  6 ;  leaves  alternate,  oblong-acuminate,  serrated,  two 
lower  serratures  terminating  in  narrow  filaments ;  peduncles 
short ;  flowers  whitish-yellow  in  clusters  opposite  the  leaves ; 
capsules  globose,  truncated,  wrinkled  and  muricated,  5-celled ; 
seeds  few  in  each  cell,  without  transverse  partitions ;  in  ad- 
dition to  the  5  partite  cells  there  are  other  5  alternating, 
smaller  and  empty.  FL  June — July. —  W,  &  A,  Prod,  i  73. 
— Wight  Icon,  t  311. — Roxb.  Flor.  Ind.  ii  581. — Peninsula. 
Bengal.     Cultivated. 

Economic  Uses. — ^Extensively  cultivated  for  the  sake  of  its  fibres; 
especially  in  BengaL  The  present  species  may  be  distinguished 
from  all  others  by  the  capsules  being  globular  instead  of  cylindricaL 
The  cultivation  and  manufacture  has  been  described  in  the  excellent 
work  of  Dr  Eoyle  on  the  Fibrous  Plants  of  India.  According  to 
his  statement,  the  seeds  are  sown  in  April  or  May,  when  there  is 
a  probability  of  a  small  quantity  of  rain.  In  July  or  August  the 
flowers  have  passed.  When  the  plants  are  ripe,  they  being  then 
from  3  to  12  feet  in  height,  they  are  cut  down  close  to  the  roots,  when 
the  tops  are  clipped  off,  and  fifty  or  a  himdred  are  tied  together. 
Several  of  these  bundles  are  placed  in  shallow  water,  with  pressure 
above  to  cause  them  to  sink.  In  this  position  they  remain  eight  or 
ten  days.  When  the  bark  separates,  and  the  stdk  and  fibres  be- 
come softened,  they  are  taken  up  and  untied ;  they  are  then  broken 
off  two  feet  from  the  bottom,  the  bark  is  held  in  both  hands,  and 
the  stalks  are  taken  off.  The  fibres  are  then  exposed  to  the  sun  to 
be  dried,  and  after  being  cleaned  are  considered  fit  for  the  market. 
These  fibres  are  soft  and  silky,  and  may  be  used  as  a  substitute  for 
flax ;  hnk^jHaia^  the  plant  is  one  of  rapid  growth  and  easy  cul- 
ture, the  fibres  are  mmy  perishable,  and  iiiAi^^Mig  tu  llilu  (5lll5Um»- 
«kMM9<^MMh«^lose  much  of  their  value.  The  attention  of  practi- 
cal men  has  been  turned  to  remedy' so  serious  a  defect  in  one  of  the 
most  useful  products  of  BengaL  Could  the  fibres  be  prepared  with- 
out the  lengthened  immersion  in  water,  whereby  they  are  sub- 
sequently liable  to  tot  and  decay,  the  difficulty  might  be  partially 
if  not  wholly  overcome.  So  careful  is  the  manufacturer  obliged  to 
be,  that  during  the  time  the  plants  are  in  the  water,  he  is  forced  to 
examine  them  daily  in  order  to  guard  against  undue  decomposition; 


CORCHORUS — CORDIA.  157 

and  even  after  they  are  removed  from  the  water,  the  lower  part  of 
the  stem  nearest  the  root,  which  the  hand  has  previously  held,  are 
80  contaminated  that  they  are  cut  off  as  useless.  These  fragments, 
however,  in  themselves  have  their  use :  they  are  shipped  ofif  to 
America  from  Calcutta  for  the  use  of  paper-making,  preparing  bags, 
and  suchlike  purposes,  and  even  made  into  whisky.  The  great 
care  of  watching  the  immersed  Jute  until  it  almost  putrefies,  is  to 
preserve  the  fine  silky  character  ^6  UlUch  valued  in  fiDres  intenHed 
for  export  For  consumption  in  this  country  such  care  is  not  taken, 
therefore  the  article  is  stronger  and  more  durable.  The  trade  is 
very  considerable.  Besides  the  gunny-bags  made  from  the  fibrous 
part  or  bark,  the  stems  of  the  plant  themselves  are  used  for  char- 
coal, for  gunpowder,  fences,  basket-work,  fuel. — Boyle, 

(196)  Oorchorns  olitoxias  (Linn.)    Do. 

Jew's  Mallow,  Eng.    Singin  janascha,  Hnvn.    Blunjee  Pat,  Beko. 

Description. — Annual,  5-6  feet,  erect;  leaves  alternate, 
ovate-acuminated,  serrated,  the  two  lower  serratures  termin- 
ated by  a  slender  filament;  peduncles  1-2  flowered;  calyx 
5-sepalled ;  petals  5 ;  capsules  nearly  cylindrical,  10-ribbed, 
5-celled,  5-valved ;  seeds  numerous,  with  nearly  perfect  trans- 
verse septa ;  flowers  small,  yellow.  Fl.  July — ^August. —  W.  & 
A,  Prod,  i  73. — Roxb.  Fl,  Ind.  ii.  581. — 0.  decem-angularis, 
Roacb. Peninsula.    Bengal.     Cultivated. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — Eauwolf  says  this  plant  is  sown  in  great 
quantities  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Aleppo  as  a  pot-herb,  the  Jews 
boiling  the  leaves  to  eat  with  their  meat  The  leaves  and  tender 
shoots  are  also  eaten  by  the  natives.  It  is  cultivated  in  Bengal  for 
the  fibres  of  its  bark,  which,  like  those  of  C,  eapsiUaris,  are  employed 
for  making  a  coarse  kind  of  cloth,  known  as  gunny,  as  well  as  cor- 
dage for  agricultural  purposes,  boats,  and  even  paper.  Eoxburgh 
says  there  is  a  wild  variety  called  Bun  pat  or  Wild  pat  An  account 
of  the  manufacture  of  paper  from  this  plant  at  Dinajepore,  may  be 
found  in  Dr  Buchanan's  survey  of  the  lower  provinces  of  the  Bengal 
Presidency.  This  plant  requires  much  longer  steeping  in  water  than 
hemp,  a  fortnight  or  three  weeks  being  scarcely  sufficient  for  its 
maceration.  The  fibre  is  long  and  fine,  and  might  well  be  substituted 
for  flax. — Boxb.    Boyle, 

(197)  Oordia  angastifoUa  (Boxh.)    K.  0.  Corduceje. 

Nanow-leayed  Sepistas,  £no.  Goond,  Hiin).  Narrooyalli,  Tah.  Nnkkeni, 
Tbl. 

Description. — ^Tree,  12-15  feet;  leaves  nearly  opposite,  Ian- 


158  CORDIA. 

ceolate,  obtuse  or  emarginate,  scabrous ;  calyx  campanulate^ 
obscurely  4-toothed ;  corolla-tube  longer  than  the  calyx ;  limb 
4-partite,  with  revolute  edges ;  panicles  terminal,  corymbose ; 
stamens  4 ;  flowers  small,  white ;  dinipe  round,  smooth,  yello\^; 
nut  surrounded  with  mucilaginous  pulp.  FL  May. — Roab.  FL 
Ind.  ed.  Car.  ii  338. Mysora    Bombay.    Deccan. 

EeoNOMio  Uses. — ^Thia  tree  was  originally  brought  to  notice  by 
Dr  Buchanan,  who  found  it  in  Mysore.  A  fibre  is  prepared  &om  the 
bark  which  is  made  into  ropes,  and  these  are  used  in  Malabar  for 
dragging  timber  from  the  forests.  It  is  very  strong,  and,  by  experi- 
ments roade  at  Cannanore,  supported  a  weight  of  more  than  600  lb. 
The  fruit  is  eatable.  Dr  Gibson  mentions  that  the  wood  is  very 
tough,  and  useful  for  poles  of  carriages,  and  suchlike  purposes.  A 
species  of  Cordia  (C.  Madeodiiy  Hooker)  grows  in  the  Grodavery 
forests,  called  Botka  in  Telugu.  It  is  a  very  beautiful  wood,  and 
would  answer  as  a  substitute  for  maple,  for  picture-frames  and  so  on. 
It  is  abundant  in  the  forests  near  Mahadeopur,  but  does  not  extend 
to  the  Circars.  It  is  also  indigenous  to  the  Jubbulpoor  forests,  where 
it  is  called  Deyngan,  It  is  supposed  to  be  the  tree  described  by 
Griffiths  as  Heniigymnia  Madeodii, — Beddom^s  Cat.  of  Trees  in 
Godavery  Forests. 

"^       .  V  ^/    -^^v,^(i9g^  Q^^^  latifolia  (Roxb.)    Do. 

Broad-leayed  Sepujtan,  Eno.    Boto  buhooari,  Bkno.    Bhoknr,  Baralesoora,  Hind. 

Description. — ^Tree,  12-25  feet;  leaves  roundish,  cordate, 
entire,  repand,  3-nerved,  smooth  above,  scabrous  beneath ;  calyx 
villous,  campanulate,  with  an  unequally-toothed  mouth;  corolla 
short,  campanulate;  segments  five;  panicles  terminal  and 
lateral ;  flowers  numerous,  small,  white;  drupe  pale-straw  colour, 
covered  with  whitish  bloom ;  nut  surrounded  with  soft  clammy 
pulp.  Fl.  March — ^April. — JRoxb.  FL  Ind.  i  531. — Guzerat 
Silhet. 

Medical  Uses. — ^Young  fruits  are  pickled,  and  also  eaten  as  vege- 
tables. There  are  two  kinds  of  Sebesten  fruit  noticed  by  writers  on 
Indian  Materia  Medica ;  the  first  with  the  pulp  separable  from  the 
nut,  the  other  a  smaller  fruit  with  the  pulp  adhering  to  the  nut.  The 
latter  is  the  sweetest  of  the  two.  The  tree  under  notice  bears  the 
large  kind  of  fruit,  which  is  about  the  size  of  a  prune,  the  C  myxa 
producing  the  small  ones.  Lindley  says  that  under  the  name  of 
Sebesten  plums,  Sebestan,  or  Sepistans,  two  sorts  of  Indian  fruit 
have  been  employed  as  pectoral  medicines,  for  which  their  mucila- 
ginous qualities,  combined  with  some  astringency,  recommend  them. 


CORDIA — CORYPHA.  159 

They  are  beKeved  to  liave  been  the  Persea  of  Dioscorides. — Ldndley, 
Fl,  Med.    Boxb.     Colebr.  in  As.  Res. 

(199)  Cordia  myxa  (Linn.)    Do. 

Sepiatan-plum,  Eno.    Vidi-mamin,  Ma.l.    Vidi-maram,  Tam.    Luaora^  Hind. 
Buhoooii,  Bjeno.    Nakern,  Tel. 

Description. — Tree,  middling  size;  leaves  oval,  ovate,  or 
obovate,  repand,  smooth  above,  rather  scabrous  beneath  ;  calyx 
tubular,  widening  towards  the  mouth,  torn  as  it  were  in  3-5 
divisions;  divisions  of  corolla  revolute;  drupes  globular,  smooth, 
yellow ;  panicles  terminal  and  lateral ;  nut  4-celled,  tetragonal, 
cordate  at  both  ends,  surrounded  with  transparent  viscid  pulp ; 
flowers  small,  white.  FL  Feb. — March. — Rooib.  FL  Ind.  ed. 
Car.  ii.  332. —  WigfU  Icon,  t  1378. — C.  officinalis,  or  Sebestana 
domestica,  Lam. — JRheede,  iv.  L  37. ^Both  Peninsulas.  Ben- 
gal   N.  Circars. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  fruit  was  formerly  known  among  medical 
writers  as  the  Sebesten,  and  was  occasionally  sent  to  Europe  as  an 
article  of  Materia  Medica.  Horsfield  mentions  that  the  mucilage  of 
the  fruit  is  of  a  demulcent  nature,  useful  in  diseases  of  the  chest  and 
urethra,  and  also  employed  in  Java  as  an  astringent  gargla  The 
seeds  are  a  good  remedy  in  ringworm,  being  powdered  and  mixed 
with  oil,  and  so  applied.  The  smell  of  the  nuts  when  cut  is  heavy 
and  disagreeable :  the  taste  of  the  kernels  is  like  that  of  fresh  filberts. 
The  wood  is  soft,  and  is  said  to  have  furnished  the  timber  from  which 
the  Egyptian  mummy-cases  were  made.  It  is  one  of  those  used  for 
procuring  fire  by  friction.  Graham  states  that  in  Otaheite  the  leaves 
are  used  in  dyeing.  The  bark  is  much  used  as  a  mild  tonic  in  Java. 
— Lindley.     Ainslie. 

(200)  Oorypha  ombracnlifera  (Linn.)    K  0.  PALMACEiE. 

Talipot  or  Fan  Palm,  Eira.    Coddapana,  Mal.    Condapana,  Tam.    Talee,  Brno. 

Description. — Trunk  60-70  feet ;  leaves  sublunate,  palmate- 
pinnatifid,  plaited ;  segments  40-50  pair ;  petioles  armed ;  in- 
florescence pyramidjJ,  equalling  the  trunk  of  the  tree ;  calyx 
3-toothed ;  petals  3 ;  ovary  3-celled,  1-seeded. — JRoaib.  Fl.  Ind. 

ii.  177. — Hheede,  iii  1 1-12  ind. Ceylon.    Malabar.    Malay 

coast. 

EcoKOMio  Uses. — ^This  is  the  well-known  Fan-palm  of  Ceylon. 
Its  large  broad  fronds  are  used  for  thatching,  and  also  for  writing  on 
with  an  iron  style.     Such  records  are  said  to  resist  the  ravages  of 


160  COSCINIUM. 

time.    The  seeds  are  used  as  beads  by  certain  sects  of  Hindoos.    The 
^         /      \   ^^^  ^^  ^  ^^^  strong,  and  is  commonly  used  for  umbrellas  by  all 
Ai   SAiMiJ  cl^^^^    jtQ2lgiia,jmi4^]iiilg  li]^Q  ^  lady's  fan,  and  is  remarkably  light, 
y^   A  kind  of^our  or  sago  is  prepared  from  the  pith  of  the  trunk.    Little 
bowls  and  other  ornaments  are  made  from  the  nuts,  and  when  polished 
and  coloured  red,  are  easily  passed  off  for  genuine  coraL — (Roxib. 
Knox's  Ceylon,)    The  most  majestic  and  wonderful  of  the  palm  tribe, 
says  Sir  E.  Tennent  {Ceyl<m^  i.  109),  is  the  Talipot,  the  stem  of 
which  sometimes  attains  the  height  of  100  feet;  and  each  of  its  enor- 
mous fan-like  leaves,  when  laid  upon  the  ground,  will  form  a  semi- 
circle of  16  feet  in  diameter,  and  cover  an  area  of  200  superficial  feet. 
The  tree  flowers  but  once  and  dies,  and  the  natives  ^goJ^J^filMSe    Sou^ 
that  the  bursting  of  the  spadix  is  accompanied  by  a  land  explosion.      ^j 

VJt-xl)  jitili^i  Of  them  they  form  coverings  lor  tne'irTousM^and  ponaoie 
tents  of  a  rude  but  effective  character.  But  the  most  interesting  use 
to  which  they  are  applied  is  a  substitute  for  paper,  both  for  books 
and  ordinary  purposes.  In  the  preparation  of  Olaa,  which  is  the 
term  applied  to  them  when  so  employed,  the  leaves  are  taken  whilst 
tender,  and  after  separating  the  central  ribs,  they  are  cut  into  strips 
and  boiled  in  spring-water.  They  are  dried  first  in  the  shade  and 
afterwards  in  the  sun,  then  made  into  rolls  and  kept  in  store,  or  sent 
to  the  market  for  sale.  Before  they  are  fit  for  writing  on  they  are 
subjected  to  a  second  process.  A  smooth  plank  of  Areca  palm  is  tied 
horizontally  between  two  trees;  each  Ola  is  then  damped,  and  a 
weight  being  attached  to  one  end  of  it,  it  is  drawn  backwcffds  and 
forwards  across  the  edge  of  the  wood  till  the  surface  becomes  per- 
fectly smooth  and  polished,  and  during  the  process,  as  the  moisture 
dries  up,  it  is  necessary  to  renew  it  till  the  effect  is  complete.  The 
smoothing  of  a  single  Ola  will  occupy  from  15  to  20  minutes.  An- 
other palm  is  the  G.  Talieray  growing  in  Bengal,  the  leaves  of  which 
are  used  for  writing  on  with  an  iron  style,  as  well  as  for  thatching 
T00&,  being  strong  and  durable.  Hats  and  umbrellas  are  also  made 
from  them. — Roaib, 

(201)  *  Oofldninm  fenestratmn  (Colebr.)    K  0.  Menispebvacejb. 

Tree  Taimeric,  Eno.    Mara  Munjel,  Tam.    Jar-ki-lmldie,  DuK.    Mani-posimpoo, 
Tel. 

Description. — Climbing  plant  with  thick  ligneous  stem  and 
branches ;  leaves  alternate,  petioled,  cordate,  entire,  5-7  nerved, 
smooth  and  shining  above,  very  hoary  below,  acuminate  or 
obtuse,  3-9  inches  long,  2-6  broad;  petioles  downy,  shorter 
than  the  leaves ;  flowers  in  small  globular  heads,  numerous, 
sub-sessile,  villous,  of  an  obscure  green ;  female  umbels  several 

*  Sir  W.  Hooker  in  Pharmaceutical  Journal,  xii.  185  (with  fig.) 


COSTUS — COVELLIA.  161 

from  the  same  bud,  rising  from  the  branches,  on  thick  downy 
peduncles;  the  latter  longer  and  thicker  in  fruit;  calyx  6- 
leaved ;  3  exterior  sepals  oval,  downy  outside ;  3  interior  ones 
longer;  petals  6,  filaments  very  downy;  style  recurved ;  berries 
round,  villous,  size  of  a  large  filbert ;  seed  1 ;  flowers  greenish. 
Fl,  Nov. — Dec. — Rosb,  Fl,  Ind.  iii.  809- — Menispermum  fene- 
stratum,  GcRrtn. Aurungole  Pass.     Courtallum.     Ceylon. 

Medical  Uses. — This  plant,  which  has  long  been  known  in 
Ceylon,  is  considered  in  that  country  to  be  a  valuable  stomachic. 
The  wood  is  of  a  deep  yellow  colour,  and  bitter  to  the  taste.  The 
root  in  infusion  is  used  medicinally.  This  is  sliced,  and  steeped  in 
water  for  several  hours,  and  then  drunk.  This  is  the  plant  alluded 
to  by  Ainslie  {Materia  Indica,  it  183),  where  he  says  that  the  root, 
which  is  an  inch  in  circumference,  is  commonly  met  with  in  the 
bazaars,  being  brought  from  the  mountains  for  sale.  It  is  employed 
in  preparing  certain  cooling  liniments  for  the  head,  as  weU  as  in  the 
preparation  of  a  yeUow  dye.  But  its  chief  value  consists  in  its  tonic 
properties,  for  which  the  wood  and  bark  are  employed. — lAndley, 
Ainslie, 

(202)  OoBtUB  speciosns  {Sm,)    N.  0.  Zinoiberaoe^ 

Tsjana-kTia,  Mal.    Bomma  Eacbica,  Tel.    Eeoo,  Hind,  and  Beng. 

Description. — Height  3-4  feet,  spirally  ascending;  leaves 
sub-sessile,  spirally  arranged,  oblong,  cuspidate,  villous  under- 
neath ;  flowers  large,  pure  white.  Fl.  July — Sept. — Roxb,  FL 
Ind.  ed.  Car.  i.  57. —  Wight  Icon,  t  2014. — C.  Arabicus,  Linn. 

— ^Amomum  hirsutum,  Lam. — Bheede,  xi.  t  8. CoromandeL 

Goncans.     Bengal 

EcoNOMio  Uses.~^A  very  elegant  plant,  found  chiefly  near  the 
banks  of  rivers  and  other  moist  and  shady  places.  A  kind  of  pre- 
serve is  made  from  the  roots,  which  the  natives  deem  very  whole- 
some.    They  are  insipid. — Eoxb, 

(203)  OoveUia  glomerata  (Miq.)    N.  0.  Moraoks. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  trunk  crooked,  thick,  bark  of  a 
rusty-greenish  colour,  rough ;  leaves  alternate,  petioled,  oblong 
or  broad  lanceolate,  tapering  equally  to  each  end,  entire,  very 
slightly  3-nerved,  smooth  on  both  sides ;  racemes  compound 
or  panicled,  issuing  immediately  from  the  trunk  or  large 
branches ;  fruit  pedicelled,  nearly  as- large  as  the  common  fig, 

11 


162  CRAT^VA — CRINUM. 

clothed  with  soft  down.    Dak.  Boynb.  Fl,  243. — Miq.  in  Ann. 

Sc.  Nat  iii.  S.  i.  35. — Ficus  glomerata,  Roxb. ^Western 

coast. 

Medical  Uses. — The  bark  is  applied  as  an  astringent  to  ulcers, 
and  to  remove  the  poison  of  wounds  made  by  a  tiger  or  cat  The 
root  is  used  in  dysentery.  The  fruit  is  edible,  but  inspid,  and  is 
usually  found  full  of  insects. — PowdVa  Punj\  Prod. 

(204)  OratoYa  nnrvala  (Ham.)    N.  0.  CAPPARiDACEiE. 

Neer-vala,  Mal.    MavUingham^  Tam.    Maredoo,  Tjel.    Tapia,  Birmi,  HiKD. 

Description. — Tree,  15-20  feet;  leaves  trifoliolate ;  leaflets 
ovate-lanceolate,  acuminated,  lateral  ones  unequal  at  the  base ; 
limb  of  the  petals  ovate-roundish ;  torus  hemispherical,  very 
ovoid ;  calyx  4-8epalled ;  petals  4,  unguiculate ;  beny  stipi- 
late,  pnlpy  inside ;  flowers  greenish  white,  with  red  stamens : 
racemes  terminal    Fl.  Feb. — March. —  W.  Jk  A.  Prod.  i.  23. 

— C.   inermis,  Linn,  —  Kheedcj   Mal.  ii   t.  42. Malabar. 

Mysore. 

Medical  Uses. — ^In  the  Society  Islands,  of  which  this  tree  is 
a  native  as  well  as  of  Malabar,  it  is  planted  in  burial-grounds,  be- 
ing esteemed  sacred  to  idols.  The  leaves  are  somewhat  aromatic, 
slightly  bitter,  and  considered  stomachic.  The  root  is  said  to  possess 
alterative  qualities.  The  juice  of  the  bark  is  given  in  convulsions  and 
flatulency,  and,  boUed  in  oil,  is  externally  applied  in  rheumatism. — 
AmsUe. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  wood  of  C.  Roxburghii  is  soft  and  easily 
cut,  but  tolerably  tough,  and  is  used  for  carving  models,  making 
writing -boards,  and  combs.  At  Jhelum  the  fruit  is  mixed  with 
water  to  form  a  strong  cement,  and  the  rind  as  a  mordant  in  dyeing. 
— {Stewards  Punj.  Plants.)  It  grows  well  on  the  slopes  of  the  Eastern 
Ghauts  and  those  towards  Salem,  as  also  in  the  ulterior  generally. 

(205)  Orinnm  Afdaticnm  (Willd.)    N.  0.  AjiARTLLmACEJE. 

Belntta  pola-taU,  Mal.  Vesbi  Moonghee,  Tak.  Kesara-chetta,  T£L.  Vesha- 
mnngaloo-pakoo,  Tel.    Sookh-dursim,  Bbno. 

Descriptign. — Stemless;  leaves  radical,  linear,  concave, 
3-4  feet  long,  obtuse,  pointed,  margins  smooth ;  umbels  6-16 
flowered ;  flowers  sub-sessile ;  roots  bulbous,  with  a  terminal 
fusiform  portion,  issuing  from  the  crown,  from  which  numer- 
ous fibrous  roots  proceed;  flowers  large,  white,  fragrant  at 
night ;  corolla  tube  cylindrical,  usually  pale  green,  segments 


CROTALAMA.  163 

linear-lanceolate,  margins  broad,  with  a  recurved  process  at 
the  apex  of  each.    FL  Oct. — ^Dec. — Booiib,  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  129. — C. 

defixnm,  Bot  Mag.  2208. — Bheede^  MaL  xL  t  38. Both 

Concans. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves,  bruised  and  mixed  with  castor-oil, 
are  useful  in  whitlows  and  local  inflammations  of  the  kind.  In  Upper 
India  the  juice  of  the  leaves  is  given  in  ear-ache.  In  Java  the  plant 
is  reckoned  a  good  emetic,  and  it  is  also  considered  of  efficacy  in 
curing  wounds  made  by  poisoned  arrows.  The  root,  sliced  and 
chewed,  is  emetic.  The  G,  toxicarium  is  a  variety  indigenous  to 
both  Concans,  and  of  which  Dr  0*Shaughnessy  found  by  experi- 
ments the  leaves  to  be  equal  as  an  emetic  to  the  best  ipecacuanha ; 
but  recommended  its  only  being  resorted  to  when  the  latter  cannot 
be  procured.  The  plant  is  found  on  the  banks  of  rivers  and  in 
marshy  places,  and  flowers  nearly  all  the  year. — Boxb.  J,  Qrah, 
Ainslie,     O'SIiaitghnessj/. 

(206)  Orotalaria  jnncea  {Linn.)    N,  0.  LEOUMmoSiB. 

Sun-hemp  plant,  Enq.    Wuckoo  or  Jannpa  nar,  TaH.    Shanamoo,  Til.    Sunn, 
Beno. 

Desceiption. — Small  plant,  4-8  feet,  erect,  branched,  more 
or  less  clothed  with  shining  silky  pubescence  or  hairs ;  branches 
terete,  striated;  stipulea  and  bracts  setaceous;  leaves  from 
narrow  linear  to  ovate-lanceolate,  acute ;  calyx  deeply  5-cleft, 
densely  covered  with  rusty  tomentum,  the  3  lower  segments 
usually  cohering  at  the  apex ;  racemes  elongated,  terminating 
every  branch ;  flowers  distant ;  legumes  sessile,  oblong,  broader 
upwards,  about  twice  the  length  of  the  calyx,  tomentose  and 
many-seeded;  flowers  yellow.  Fl.  Nov. — Jan.— JT.  &  A. 
Prod.  i.  185.— Bosi.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  259.— Cor.  ii  t.  193.— C. 
Benghalensis,  Lam. — C.  tenuifolia,  Rood). — C.  fenestrata,  Sims. 
Bot.  Mag. Peninsula.    Malabar.    Bengal 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  plant  is  extensively  cultivated  for  the 
sake  of  its  fibres  in  many  parts  of  India,  especially  in  Mysore  and 
the  Deccan.  These  are  known  by  different  names,  according  to  the 
localities  where  they  are  prepared.  In  some  places  the  fibre  is 
known  as  the  Madras  hemp  or  Indian  hemp,  but  this  latter  appella- 
tion is  incorrect.  It  is  the  Wy>ckoo-7iar  of  Travancore,  the  Sunn  of 
Bengal,  and  so  on.  The  mode  of  preparation  differs  from  that  of 
other  fibres  in  one  particular  especially,  the  plant  being  pulled  up 
by  the  roots,  and  not  cut  After  the  seeds  are  beaten  out,  the  stems 
are  immersed  in  running  water  for  five  days  or  more,  and  the  fibres 


164  CROTON. 

are  then  separated  by  the  fingers,  which,  process  makes  it  somewhat 
expensive  to  prepare.  Dr  Gibson  asserts  that  the  crops  repay  the 
labour  bestowed  on  them,  as  the  plant  is  suited  for  almost  any  soil. 
"When  properly  prepared,  the  fibres  are  strong  and  much  valued  in 
the  home  markets.  In  this  country  they  are  used  for  fishing-nets, 
cordage,  canvas,  paper,  gunny-bags,  &c,  &c, — ^the  latter  name  being 
derived  from  the  word  Chni,  the  native  name  for  the  fibre  on  the 
Coromandel  coast  In  the  'Eeport  on  the  Fibres  of  S.  India'  it  is 
stated  that  the  fibre  makes  excellent  twine  for  nets,  ropes,  and  vari- 
ous other  similar  articles.  The  fibres  are  much  stronger  if  left  in 
salt  water.  They  will  take  tar  easily,  and  with  careful  preparation 
the  plant  yields  foss  and  hemp  of  excellent  quality.  It  is  greatly 
cultivated  in  Mysore,  and  also  in  Rajahmundry.  In  the  latter  dis- 
trict it  is  a  dry  crop,  planted  in  November  and  cut  in  March.  The 
yellow  flowers  resemble  those  of  Spanish  broom.  It  requires  manure, 
but  not  too  much  moisture.  Samples  of  the  Sunn  fibre  were  sent 
to  the  Great  Exhibition,  and  also  to  the  Madras  Exhibition  of  1855. 
On  those  forwarded  to  England  ^£r  Dickson  reported  that  these 
fibres  will  at  all  times  command  a  market  (when  properly  prepared) 
at  £i5  to  £50  a-ton,  for  twine  or  common  purposes ;  and  when  pre- 
pared in  England  with  the  patent  liquid,  they  become  so  soft,  fine, 
and  white,  as  to  bear  comparison  with  flax,  and  to  be  superior  to 
Eussian  flax  for  fine  spinning.  In  the  latter  state  it  is  valued  at 
£80  a-ton.  In  several  parts  of  India  the  price  varies  from  R.  1  to 
Es.  2-8  per  maund ;  in  Calcutta,  about  Es.  5  per  maund — and  the 
prices  both  in  the  latter  place  and  Bombay  are  gradually  increasing. 
By  experiments  made  on  the  strength  of  the  fibre,  it  broke  at  407 
lb.  in  one  instance.  Large  quantities  are  shipped  for  the  English 
market.  What  is  known  as  Jubbulpore  hemp  is  the  produce  of  (7. 
tenui/olia,  which,  according  to  Wight,  is  a  mere  variety  of  O.  juncea. 
Eoyle,  however,  and  other  botanists,  think  that  it  is  a  distinct  plant. 
It  is  said  to  yield  a  very  strong  fibre,  but  probably  not  very  different 
from  the  Sunn. — Boyle,  Jury  Reports.  Report  on  Fibres  of  S. 
Iiuiia, 

(207)  Oroton  tiglium  {Linn,)    N.  0.  Euphorbiacej:. 

Croton-oil  plant,  Eno.    Cadel-avanacu,  Neervaula,  Mal.    Nenralum,  Tam.    Nay- 
palum,  Tel.    Jumalghota,  Hind,  and  Due.    Jypal,  Beno. 

Deschiption. — Small  tree  with  a  few  spreading  branches ; 
leaves  alternate,  ovate-oblong,  smooth,  acuminate,  3-5  nerved 
at  the  base,  covered  when  young  with  minute  stellate  hairs ; 
petioles  channelled ;  calyx  5-cleft ;  petals  5,  lanceolate,  woolly ; 
racemes  erect,  terminal ;  upper  flowers  male,  lower  ones  female; 
seeds  convex  on  one  side,  bluntly  angular  09  the  other,  en- 
veloped in  a  thin  shell ;  flowers  small,  downy,  greenish  yellow. 


CROZOPHORA,  165 

Fl  April — June. —  Wight  Icon,  t  1914. — Roodb.  Fl  Ind.  iii. 
682. — Bheede,  ii  t  33. CoromandeL    Travancore. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^The  seeds  yield  the  well-known  Croton-oiL  They 
aie  the  size  of  a  sloe,  and  are  considered  one  of  the  most  drastic  pur- 
gatives known.  Teu  or  twenty  seeds  have  been  known  to  kill  a  horse 
by  producing  the  most  violent  diarrhoea.  The  usual  way  to  get  the 
olL  is  first  to  roast  the  seeds  and  then  compress  them.  The  colour 
is  brownish,  or  brownish  yellow,  soluble  in  fixed  and  volatile  oils. 
So  powerful  is  its  action  that  a  single  drop  of  the  oil  applied  to  the 
tongue  is  considered  sufficient  to  insure  the  full  results,  especially  in 
incipient  apoplexy,  paralysis  of  the  throat,  or  difficulty  of  breathing 
arising  £K>m  these  causes,  even  should  the  patient  be  insensible  at 
the  time.  But  this  must  be  of  the  pure  oil,  for  it  is  often  adulterated 
with  olive,  castor,  or  purging  nut  oU.  It  is  also  employed  in  visceral 
obstruction,  and  occasionally  in  dropsy.  The  seeds  mixed  with  honey 
and  water  are  often  applied  to  obstinate  buboes  in  native  practice. 
The  expressed  oil  of  the  seed  is  a  good  remedy,  externally  applied,  in 
rheumatism  and  indolent  tumours.  Kheede  says  that  the  leaves 
rubbed  and  soaked  in  water  are  also  purgative,  and  when  dried  and 
powdered  are  a  good  application  to  snake-bites.  If  the  leaves  are 
chewed  they  inflame  the  mouth  and  lips,  and  cause  them  to  swell, 
leaving  a  burning  sensation.  The  mode  of  preparing  the  oil  in 
Ceylon  is  by  pulverising  the  seeds ;  the  powder  is  then  put  into  bags, 
placed  between  sheets  of  iron,  left  to  stand  for  a  fortnight  and  then 
filtered.  Alcohol  is  then  added  to  twice  the  weight  of  the  residue. 
Much  caution  is  requisite  to  avoid  injury  from  the  fumes  which  arise 
during  the  process.  The  wood,  which  is  bitter-tasted,  is  gently  emetic 
and  powerfully  sudorific. — (Ainslie.  Roxh.  Lindley,)  The  seeds 
of  the  G,  polyandrum  are  reckoned  a  useful  purgative.  The  natives 
mix  them  with  water,  administering  two  or  three  at  a  time,  according 
to  circumstances. — Roxh.    Zdndley, 

(208)  Orozopliora  plicata  (Ad.  Juss.)    K  0.  Do. 

SoubalU,  Hind.    Lingameriam  chetta,  Tel.    Khoodi-okra,  Beno. 

Description. — Small  annual,  hoary;  sterns  and  branches 
round,  dichotomous ;  leaves  alternate,  waved,  toothed,  broadly 
cordate,  tapering  to  a  stalk;  flowers  small,  greenish  white; 
male  ones  above  the  females ;  capsules  scabrous.    FL  Nov. — 

Jan. — Roaib.  Fl.  Ind.  iiL  681. — Croton  plicatum,  VaJU. 

Common  in  the  Peninsula.    Behar. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  is  commonly  found  in  rice-fields,  flowering 
during  the  cold  weather.  It  is  said  to  have  virtues  in  leprous  afiec- 
tions,  the  dry  plant  being  made  into  a  decoction  to  which  is  added  a 
little  mustaid.     A  doth  moistened  with  the  juice  of  the  green  cap- 


166  CRYPTOSTEGIA — CUCUMIS. 

sules  becomes  blue  after  exposure  to  the  air.     This  colouring  matter 
might  possibly  be  turned  to  good  account. — Boxb.    Ainslie, 

(209)  Oryptostegia  grandiflora  {R,  Br,)    N.  0.  Asclepiacea 

Palay,  M/ll. 

Descbiption.  —  Twining  shrub;  leaves  opposite,  elliptic, 
bluntly  acuminated,  shining  above,  minutely  reticulated  with 
brown  beneath ;  calyx  5-parted,  segments  lanceolate  with  un- 
dulated margins ;  corolla  funnel-shaped,  tube  furnished  with 
five  enclosed  narrow  bipartite  scales  inside,  covering  the  anthers, 
being  opposite  them;  stamens  enclosed;  stigmas  globosely 
conical;  corymbs  trichotomous,  terminal;  flowers  large,  red- 
dish purple ;  follicles  divaricate,  acutely  triquetrous.  Fl.  All 
the  year. —  Wight  Icon,  t  832. — Nerium  grandiflorum,  JBac6. 
Fl,  Ind.  ii  10. Malabar.     Coromandel. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  plant  yields  a  fine  strong  fibre  resembling 
fiax,  and  which  may  be  spun  into  the  finest  yam.  A  good  specimen 
was  exhibited  at  the  Madras  Exhibition.  The  milky  juice  has  long 
been  known  to  contain  caoutchouc,  which  is  often  prepared  for  rubbing 
out  pen'cil-marks,  but  it  has  not  yet  been  collected  for  the  purposes 
of  commerca  Samples  of  a  fair  quality  were  sent  to  the  Madras  Ex- 
hibition.— Jury  Rep,  Mad,  Exhih. 

(210)  Oucnmis  utilissimus  {Roxh,)    K.  0.  Cucurbitage^ 

Field  Cucumber,  £no.    Kakrie,  Hind.    Eankoor  kurktee,  Beno.    Doskai,  Tel. 

Description. — ^Trailing ;  stems  scabrous ;  leaves  broad-cor- 
date, more  or  less  5-lobed ;  lobes  rounded  and  toothed ;  male 
flowers  crowded,  females  solitary ;  fruit  short,  oval,  when  young 
pubescent,  when  old  glabrous,  variegated ;  flowers  yellow.  Fl. 
Nearly  all  the  year.—  W.  &  A.  Prod,  i.  342.— 5oa;6.  Fl,  Ind. 
iii.  721. Cultivated. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  fruit  is  pickled  when  half  grown,  and  when 
ripe  and  hung  up  it  will  keep  good  for  several  months.  The  seeds 
contain  much  farinaceous  matter  mixed  with  a  large  proportion  of 
mild  oil.  The  meal  is  an  article  of  diet  with  the  natives,  and  the  oil 
is  used  for  lamps.  Eoxburgh  has  the  following  remarks  upon  this 
plant :  "  This  appears  to  me  to  be  by  far  the  most  useful  species  of 
Cucumie  that  I  know  :  when  little  more  than  half  grown,  the  fruits 
are  oblong  and  a  little  downy — in  this  state  they  are  pickled ;  when 
ripe,  they  are  about  as  large  as  an  ostrich's  egg,  smooth  and  yellow. 
When  cut  they  have  much  the  flavour  of  the  Melon,  and  will  keep  for 


CDMINUM.  167 

several  monthB,  if  carefully  gathered  withoat  being  bruised,  and  bung 
up.  They  are  also  in  this  state  eaten  raw,  and  much  used  in  curries 
by  the  natives.  The  seeds,  like  those  of  other  Cucurbitaceous  fruits, 
are  nutritious ;  the  natives  dry  and  grind  them  into  a  meal,  which 
they  employ  as  an  article  of  diet ;  they  also  express  a  bland  oil  from 
them,  which  they  use  in  food  and  bum  in  their  lamps.  Experience 
as  well  as  analogy  proves  these  seeds  to  be  highly  nourishing,  and 
well  deserving  of  a  more  extensive  culture  than  is  bestowed  on  them 
at  present.  The  powder  of  the  toasted  seeds  mixed  with  sugar  is 
said  to  be  a  powerful  diuretic,  and  serviceable  in  promoting  the 
passage  of  sand  or  gravel.  As  far  as  my  observation  and  informa- 
tion go,  this  agriculture  is  chiefly  confined  to  the  Guntoor  Circar, 
where  the  seeds  form  a  considerable  branch  of  commerce.  They  are 
mixed  with  those  of  Holcus  sorghum^  or  some  others  of  the  large  cul- 
miferous  tribe,  and  sown  together :  these  plants  run  on  the  surface 
of  the  earth  and  help  to  shade  them  from  the  sun,  so  that  they 
mutually  help  each  other.  The  fruit,  as  I  observed  above,  keeps 
well  for  several  months  if  carefully  gathered  and  suspended.  This 
circumstance  renders  it  an  excellent  article  to  carry  to  sea  during  long 
voyages." — (Bozb,)  The  G.  pseudocoloq/nthis  found  on  the  slopes 
of  the  Western  Himalaya  is  a  good  cathartic.  It  is  called  the 
Himalayan  Colocynth. — (Royle,)  The  C.  momordica  is  an  article  of 
diet,  and  a  good  substitute  for  the  common  Cucumber,  which  is  also 
cultivated  to  a  great  extent  in  lndisi.—=-(Roxb.)  Two  other  plants  of 
this  natural  order  may  be  mentioned  here — the  Cticurbita  pepo,  the 
well-known  Pumpkin,  which  is  reputed  to  possess  anthelmintic  pro- 
perties in  its  seeds  useful  in  cases  of  Taenia.  The  fruit  is  very 
common  in  India,  in  which  case  the  remedy,  if  really  effectual,  might 
be  readily  available.  The  other  is  the  C,  maxima^  which  would 
appear  to  possess  similar  properties,  and  to  have  been  successfully 
applied  in  cases  on  record. — Pharm.  of  India. 

(211)  Onminum  Oyxninnm  {Linn.)    K  0.  TJmbbllifer£. 

Cummin,  Eno. 

Description. — Herbaceous;  leaves  multifid,  lobes  linear- 
setaceous,  acute ;  calycine  teeth  5,  unequal,  persistent ;  petals 
with  the  point  inflexed ;  umbel  with  3-5  rays,  involucre  longer 
than  the  usually  pubescent  fruit;  seeds  slightly  concave  in 
front,  convex  on  the  back ;  flowers  white. —  W.  &  A.  Prod,  i 
m.—Dec  Prod.  iv.  201.— Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  92. Cultivated 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  seeds  are  met  with  in  the  bazaars  throughout 
India,  being  much  in  use  as  a  condiment.  Their  warm  bitterish  taste 
and  aromatic  odour  reside  in  a  volatile  oiL  Both  seeds  and  oil  pos- 
sess carminative  properties  analogous  to  Coriander  and  Dill,  and  on 
this  account  a^e  much  valued  by  the  natives. — Pharm  of  India. 


168  CURCULIGO — CURCUMA. 

(212)  Onrcnligo  orchioides  (Goertn.)    K.  0.  Hypoxidaceje. 

Nelapanna,  Mal.     Nelapannay,  Tam.     Nala-tatta-gudda.  Tel.     Niahmooslie^ 
Hind.    Tomoolie,  Telnoor  Moodol,  Bsno. 

Description. — Stemless ;  root  tuberous,  with  many  spread- 
ing fibres;  leaves  narrow-lanceolar,  nerved,  slender;  petioles 
channelled,  sheathing  below ;  racemes  solitary,  axillary :  flowers 
hermaphrodite,  yellow.  Fl.  All  the  year. — Roxb.  Fhr,  Ind,  ii 
144. — Cor,  i.  t  13. — Rheede,  xii.  t  59. Peninsula  every- 
where.   Travancore. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  is  slightly  bitter  and  aromatic,  and 
muciLaginouB  to  the  taste,  and  is  considered  a  demulcent.  It  is  used 
in  gonorrhoea,  and  also  has  tonic  qualities.  There  are  several  species, 
or  rather  varieties,  the  G,  Malabarica  and  C.  hrevi folia,  but  the  same 
virtues  attach  to  all.  It  grows  in  moist  shady  places.  The  apices 
of  the  leaves  are  viviparous,  and  will  produce  young  plants,  if  allowed 
to  rest  on  the  ground  for  any  length  of  time. — Roxb.    Aimlie. 

(213)  Ourcnma  angnstifolia  (Roxb,)    K  O.  Zingiberaceje. 

V    East  Indian  Airowroot,  Enq.    Eooa,  Eooghei,  Mal.    Eooa,  Tam.    Tikhur,  HDfD. 

Descriptign. — Bulbs  oblong,  with  pale  oblong  pendulous 
tubers ;  leaves  petioled,  narrow  lanceolate,  most  acute,  striated 
with  fine  parallel  veins ;  flowers  longer  than  the  bracts;  petioles 
6-10  inches  long,  lower  half  sheathing;  spike  radical,  4-6  inches 
long,  crowned  with  an  ovate  purple  tuft;  flowers  bright  yellow, 
expanding  at  sunrise  and  fading  at  sunset.  Fl,  July. — JRowb. 
FL  Ind,  ed.  Car.  i.  31. Nagpore.    Travancore. 

Economic  Uses. — ^An  excellent  kind  of  Arrowroot  is  prepared  from 
the  tubers  of  this  species,  especially  in  Travancore,  where  the  plant 
grows  in  great  abundance.  This  is  a  favourite  article  of  diet  among 
the  natives.  The  flour,  when  finely  powdered  and  boiled  in  milk,  is 
an  excellent  diet  for  sick  people  or  children.  It  is  also  much  used 
for  cakes,  puddings,  &c.,  though  considered  by  some  to  produce  con- 
stipa'tion.  In  a  commercial  point  of  view  the  East  Indian  Arrowroot 
is  below  the  West  Indian  starch,  though  similar  in  its  quahties  and 
uses.  The. exports  of  Arrowroot  from  Travancore  average  about  250 
candies  annually.  In  1870-71  were  exported  from  Bombay  3  cwt., 
and  from  Madras  in  1869-70  3729  cwt,  valued  at  14,152  rupees. 
The  mode  of  preparation  is  as  follows :  The  tubers  are  first  scraped 
on  a  rough  stick,  generally  part  of  the  stem  of  the  common  rattan,  or 
any  plant  with  rough  prickles  to  serve  the  same  purpose.  Thus  pul- 
verised, the  flour  is  thrown  into  a  chatty  of  water,  where  it  is  kept 


CURCUMA.  169 

for  about  two  hours :  all  impurities  being  carefully  removed  from  the 
surface.  It  is  then  taken  out  and  again  put  into  fresh  water,  and  so 
on  for  the  space  of  four  or  five  days.  The  flour  is  ascertained  to  have 
lost  its  bitter  taste  when  a  yellowish  tinge  is  communicated  to  the 
water,  the  whole  being  stirred  up,  again  strained  through  a  piece  of 
coarse  cloth  and  put  in  the  sun  to  dry.  It  is  then  ready  for  use. — 
(Roxb.  Pers,  Ohs.)  The  root  of  the  C,  Amada  or  Mango  ginger  is 
used  as  a  carminative  and  stomachic,  and  a  kind  of  Arrowroot  is 
prepared  from  the  tubers  of  the  G,  leucorrhiza, — Boxb. 

t^  €,y^  ^    1  C  )  (214)  Curcujna  aromatica  (SaluK)    Do.   A^>,  /.  i  3 

^^  Wild  Turmeric,  Eno.    Jonglee-hiildee,  Hind.    Bun-huldee,  Benq.  nA 

Description. — Bulbs  small,  and,  with  the  long  palmate 
tubers,  inwardly  yeUow;  leaves  2-4  feet  in  length,  broad 
lanceolate,  sessile  on  their  sheaths,  sericeous  underneath ;  the 
whole  plant  of  a  uniform  green;  spikes  6-12  inches  long; 
flowers  largish,  pale  rose-coloured,  with  a  yellow  tinge  along 
the  middle  of  the  lip.  FL  March — May. — Eoxb.  FL  Ind.  ed. 
Car:  L  23. —  Wight  Icon,  t  2005. — Curcuma  zedoaria,  Eoxb. 
Malabar.    BengaL 

Medical  Uses. — An  ornamental  and  beautiful  plant  when  in 
flower.  It  abounds  in  the  Travancore  forests.  The  natives  use  the 
root  as  a  perfume  and  also  medicinally,  both  when  fresh  and  dried. 
They  have  an  agreeable  fragrant  smell,  are  of  a  pale-yellow  colour 
and  aromatic  taste.  Boxburgh  asserted  that  the  roots  of  this  species 
are  not  only  the  longer  kinds  of  Zedoary  sold  in  the  shops,  but 
identical  with  the  shorter  kind,  the  tubers  having  merely  been  cut 
previous  to  drying.  The  root  possesses  aromatic  and  tonic  proper- 
ties, and  is  less  heating  than  ginger. — Pereira.     Roxb, 

(215)  Onrcnma  longa  (Roxb,)    Do. 

,  Long-rooted  Turmeric,  Eno.     Mangella-kua,  Mal.    Munjel,  Tam.     Pasoopoo, 

Tel.    Huldee,  Pitnui,  Hind.    Hurida,  Huludee,  Beng. 

Description.  —  Leaves  broad  lanceolate,  long  -  petioled  ; 
bulbs  small,  and  with  the  palmate  tubers  inwardly  of  a  deep 
orange-colour;  flowers  large,  whitish,  with  a  faint  tinge  of 
yellow,  the  tufi:  greenish  white.  Fl.  July — Sept. — Roxb.  FL 
Ind,  ed.  Car.  i.  32. — Rheede,  xL  i,  11. 

Medioal  Uses. — Cultivated  in  most  parts  of  India.  According 
to  Eumphius,  the  Javanese  make  an  ointment  with  the  pounded 
loots  and  rub  it  over  their  bodies  as  a  preservation  against  cutaneous 


170  CURCUMA. 

diseases.  The  root  is  considered  a  cordial  and  stomacliic,  and  is 
prescribed  by  native  doctors  in  diarrhoea.  It  is  also  an  ingredient  in 
curries.  There  is  a  wild  sort  which  grows  in  Mysore.  The  natives 
consider  Turmeric  in  powder  an  exceUent  application  for  cleaning 
foul  ulcers.  The  root  in  its  fresh  state  has  rather  an  unpleasant 
smell,  wluch  goes  off  when  it  becomes  dried ;  the  colour  is  that  of 
saffron,  and  the  taste  bitter.  Mixed  with  juice  of  the  Kelli-kai 
{Emhlica  officinalis),  it  is  given  in  diabetes  and  jaundice.  The  juice 
of  the  fresh  root  is  anthelmintic,  and  the  burnt  root  mixed  with 
margosa  oil  applied  to  soreness  in  the  nasal  organs.  The  root  is 
applied  by  the  Hindoos  to  recent  wounds,  bruises,  and  leech-bites. 
Eoxburgh  states  that  it  is  frequently  planted,  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Calcutta,  on  land  where  sugar-cane  grew  the  preceding  year,  the 
soil  being  well  ploughed  and  clieaned  from  weeds.  It  is  raised  in 
April  and  May.  The  cuttings  or  sets — viz.,  small  portions  of  the 
fresh  root — are  planted  on  the  tops  of  ridges  prepared  for  the  pur- 
pose, about  18  inches  or  2  feet  apart.  One  acre  thus  sown  will 
yield  about  2000  lb.  weight  of  the  fresh  roots. — {Aindie.  Roxh.) 
Lindley  says  that  the  juice  is  a  test  for  free  alkalies.  Turmeric  is 
regarded  in  the  East  Indies  as  an  important  bitter,  aromatic  stimu- 
lant and  tonic,  and  is  employed  in  debilitated  states  of  the  stomach, 
intermittent  fevers,  and  dropsy.  The  starch  of  the  young  tubers 
forms  one  of  the  East  Indian  arrowroots. — (Boyle.)  It  is  to  be  ob- 
served that  the  same  tubers  which  yield  starch  when  young  yield 
Turmeric  when  old,  the  colour  and  aroma  which  gives  its  character 
to  the  latter  appearing  to  be  deposited  in  the  cells  at  a  later  period 
of  growth. — (Lindley.)  Turmeric  paper  is  unsized  paper  steeped 
in  tincture  of  Turmeric  and  dried  by  exposure  to  the  air.  It  is  em- 
ployed as  a  test  for  alks^es,  which  render  it  reddish  or  brownish. 


(216)  Ourcuma  zedoaria  (Roacoe).    Do. 

LongZedoary,  Eno.  Katon-inschi-kua,  Mal.  Pulang  Eillungu,  Capoor-kiclilie, 
Taic  Kiichoora,  Kichlie-gudda,  Tel.  Kuchoora,  Kakhura,  Hind.  Shutee,  Beno. 
Eutchoor,  Due. 

Description. — Height  3-4  feet ;  bulbs  and  palmate  tubers 
pale  straw-coloured  throughout ;  leaves  broad  lanceolate,  with 
a  dark-purple  sheath  down  the  middle ;  scape  5-6  inches  long, 
distinct  from  the  leafy  stems  ;  spike  4-5  inches  long ;  flowers 
deep  yellow  and  bright  crimson  tuft.  FL  April. —  Wight 
Icon.  t.  2005. — Curcuma  zerumbet,  Roxh.  FL  Ind.  i.  ei.  Car. 

20. -^Corom.  iii   t  201. — Bheede,  xi.   t   7. Chittagong. 

Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — ^According  to  Eoxburgh  this  plant  yields  the 
long  Zedoary  of  the  shops,  though  Pereira  states  that  the  plant 


CUSCUTA — CYCAS.  l7l 

has  not  been  well  ascertained.'  The  root  is  used  medicinally  by 
the  natives.  It  is  cut  into  small  round  pieces,  about  the  third  of 
an  inch  thick  and  two  in  circumference.  The  best  comes  from 
Ceylon,  where  it  is  considered  tonic  and  carminative.  According  to 
Eheede  it  has  virtues  in  nephritic  complaints.  The  pulverised 
root  is  one  of  the  ingredients  in  the  red  powder  (Abeer)  which  the 
Hindoos  use  duiing  the  Hooly  festival — Boxb,     Pereira. 

(217)  (hiscnta  refleza  (Roxh.)    X.  0.  CoNvoLVULAOiLfi. 

Description. — Stem  funicular;  flowers  loosely  racemose, 
each  flower  pedicelled;  sepals  acutish,  ovate-oblong;  corolla 
tubular,  lobes  minute,  acute,  externally  reflexed;  anthers 
sub-sessile  at  the  throat  of  the  corolla  ;  scales  inserted  at  the 
base,  fimbriated ;  styles  short ;  capsule  baccate ;  flowers  small, 
white.  M.  Feb. — March. — Boxi.  Fl.  Irid.  i.  p.  446. — Dec,  Prod. 
ix.  p.  454 — C.  yerrucosa,  Sweet  Brit  Fl.  Oard.  1 6. — Roocb.  Cor. 

t   104.  — jffboA  Exot.  Flor.  t.  150. Peninsula.      Silhet. 

Guzerat. 

Mbdioal  Uses. — ^This  plant  is  used  by  the  natives  to  purify  the 
blood,  and  is  especially  useful  in  bilious  disorders.  It  is  also  used 
externally  in  cutaneous  disorders.  It  is  occasionally  used  in  dyeing. 
— Potoell,  Punj.  Prod. 

(218)  Oycas  circinalis  {Linn.)    K  0.  CTCADACEiB. 

Wara-gudu,  Tel    Todda-pana,  Mal. 

Description. — Trunk  cylindrical,  unbranched,  surmounted 
with  a  terminal  bud,  consisting  in  the  male  of  a  cone  com- 
posed of  peltate  scales;  leaves  pinnated,  thorny,  springing 
from  the  apex  of  the  trunk.    Fl.  May. — Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iil 

744 — Eheede  Mal.  iii  t.   13-21. Malabar.     S.  Concans. 

Forests  near  Trichore. 

Medical  Uses. — The  scales  of  the  cone  are  a  most  useful  nar- 
cotic medicine,  and  are  commonly  sold  in  the  bazaars. — (Sujypl.  to 
Phann.  of  India.)  A  gummy  substance  which  exudes  from  the 
stem  produces  rapid  suppuration  in  malignant  ulcers. — (lAndley.) 
The  fruit-bearing  cone  reduced  to  a  poultice  is  applied  to  the  loins 
for  the  removal  of  nephritic  pains. — Rheede. 

Economic  Uses. — This  is  a  singular^looking  plant,  very  abundant 
in  the  forests  of  Malabar  and  Cochin.  It  is  very  fertile,  and  easily 
propagated  both  from  nuts  and  branches.  Its  vitality  is  said  by 
Eheede  to  be  remarkable,  insomuch  that  the  tree,  having  been  taken 


172  CYNODON — CYNOMETRA. 

up  and  put  down  again  a  second  time  after  one  or  two  years,  it 
will  grow.  A  kind  of  sago  is  prepared  from  the  nuts.  In  order  to 
collect  it  the  latter  are  dried  in  the  sun  for  about  a  month,  beaten 
in  a  mortar,  and  the  kernel  made  into  flour.  It  is  much  used  by 
the  poorer  classes  of  natives  and  forest  tribes.  It,  however,  will  not 
keep  long. — Simmonds, 

(219)  Oynodon  dactylon  (Pers.)    K  0.  GRAMiNACEiE. 

Huriallee  Grass,  Eno.    Amgam-pilloo,  Tam.    Gericha,  Tel.    Doorba,  Brno. 

Desckiption. — Culms  creeping,  with  flower-bearing  branch- 
lets,  erect,  6-12  inches  high,  smooth;  leaves  small;  spikes 
3-5,  terminal,  sessile,  secund,  1-2  inches  long ;  rachis  waved ; 
flowers  alternate,  single,  disposed  in  two  rows  on  the  under 
side;  calyx  much  smaller  than  the  corolla;  exterior  valves 
boat-shaped,  keel  slightly  ciliate.  FL  All  the  year. — Panicum 
dactylon,  Linn, — RosA.  Fl,  Ind.  ed.  Car.  i  292. — ^Agrostis 
linearis,  Retz, — Both  Peninsulas.    Bengal 

Economic  Uses. — One  of  the  commonest  of  Indian  grasses,  grow- 
ing everywhere  in  great  abundance.  It  forms  the  greater  part  of 
the  food  of  cattle  in  this  country.  Respecting  this  grass  Sir  W. 
Jones  observes  (As.  Res.  iv.  242)  that  "it  is  the  sweetest  and  most 
nutritious  pasture  for  cattle."  Its  usefulness,  added  to  its  beauty, 
induced  the  Hindoos  to  celebrate  it  in  their  writings.  The  natives, 
too,  eat  the  young  leaves,  and  make  a  cooling  drink  from  the  roots. 
— (Roxb.)  On  account  of  its  rooting  stolons  and  close  growth, 
when  watered  it  is  well  adapted  for  turfing.  From  universal  testi- 
mony it  is  the  best  of  all  our  grasses  for  fattening  and  mUk-produo- 
ing  powers. — Stewards  Punj.  Plants, 

(220)  Oynometra  ramiflora  {Linn.)    K.  0.  LEOuHiNosiB. 

Iripa,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree,  60  feet ;  leaves  composed  of  2-6  oppo- 
site leaflets ;  calyx  tube  very  short,  4-partite,  segment  re- 
flexed  ;  petals  5,  oblong-lanceolate ;  stamens  distinct,  inserted 
with  the  petals  into  a  ring  lining  the  calyx  tube ;  peduncle 
solitary,  few-flowered,  springing  from  the  branches  among  the 
leaves;  flowers  white. —  W.  &  A.  Prod,  i  293. — Rheede  Mal. 
iv.  t  31. Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — The  root  is  purgative.  A  lotion  is  made  from 
the  leaves  boiled  in  cows'  milk,  which,  mixed  with  honey,  is  applied 


CYPBRUS.  173 

externally  in  scabies,  leprosy,  and  other  cutaneous  diseases.  An 
oil  is  also  prepared  ^m  the  seeds  used  for  the  same  purposes. — 
Rheede, 

(221)  OyperuB  bnlbosns  (Vahh)    N.  0.  Cyperace^. 

Sheelandie,  Tam.    Pura-gaddi,  Tel. 

Description. — Culms  2-4  inches  high,  senii-terete,  3-cor- 
nered ;  root  bulbous,  tunicate,  with  bulbiferous  fibres ;  spike- 
lets  linear-lanceolate,  acuminate,  10-16  flowered,  alternate  in 
the  apex  of  the  culm,  lower  two  double ;  scales  ovate-lanceo- 
late, acuminate;  style  trifid;  seed  oblong,  3-comered,  invo- 
lucre with  alternate  leaflet ;  two  lower  ones  longer  than  the 
spikes;  leaves  filiform,  all  radical,  far-sheathing. — Roxb.  FL 
Ind,  ed.  Car,  i.  196. —  Wight  Contrib.  p.  88. — C.  jemenicus, 
Roxb, CorbmandeL 

Economic  Uses. — This  kind  of  sedge  is  found  in  sandy  situations 
near  the  sea  on  the  Coromandel  coast,  where  it  is  known  as  the 
Sheelandie  arisee.  Roots  are  used  as  flour  in  times  of  scarcity,  and 
eaten  roasted  or  boiled :  they  have  the  taste  of  potatoes.  Puri 
gaddi  \a  the  Telinga  name  of  the  plant,  and  Puri  dumpa  that  of  the 
root.  The  mode  of  preparing  the  flour  is  thus  given  by  Eoxburgh. 
The  little  bulbs  are  gently  roasted  or  boiled,  then  rubbed  between 
the  hands  in  the  folds  of  a  cloth  to  take  off  the  sheaths ;  this  is  all 
the  preparation  the  natives  adopt  to  make  them  a  pleasant  whole- 
some part  of  their  diet,  which  they  have  frequent  recourse  to,  par- 
ticularly in  times  of  scarcity.  Some  dry  them  in  the  sun,  grind 
them  into  meal,  and  make  bread  of  them ;  while  others  stew  them 
in  curries  and  other  dishes.  They  are  palatable,  tasting  like  a 
roasted  potato. — Roxh 

(222)  Cypenui  hezastacliTns  {Rottl)    Do. 

Eoray,  Tam.    Shaka-toongs,  Tel.    Koia,  Mal.    Moothoo,  Beno. 

Description. — Culms  erect,  1-2  feet,  triangular  with  rounded 
angles;   leaves  radical,  sheathing,  shorter  than  the  culms 
root  tuberous,  tubers  irregular,  size  of  filberts,  rusty-coloured 
umbels  terminal,  compound;    involucre  3-leaved,  imequal 
spikes  linear,  sub-sessile.    FL  June — Aug. — Roxb,  Fl,  Ind,  ed. 

Car.  i.  201. —  Wight  Contrib,  p.  81 — C.  rotundus,  Linn. . 

Peninsula.    Bengal 

Medtoal  Uses. — ^The  tubers  are  sold  in  the  bazaars,  and  used  by 
perfumers  on  account  of  their  fragrance.     In  medicine  they  are  used 


174  CYPERUS. 

as  tonic  and  stimulant,  and  have  l)een  employed  in  the  treatment  of 
cholera.  In  the  fresh  state,  given  in  infusion  as  a  demulcent  in 
fevers,  and  also  used  in  cases  of  dysentery  and  diarrhoea.  It  is  per- 
haps the  most  common  species  in  India  of  this  extensive  genus.  It 
is  found  chiefly  in  sandy  soils,  but  will  grow  almost  anywhere. 
Hogs  are  very  fond  of  the  roots,  and  cattle  eat  the  greens.  It  be- 
comes a  troublesome  weed  in  the  gardens,  being  difficult  to  extirpate. 
— (Eoxb.  Ainslie,)  The  roots  are  sweet,  and  slightly  aromatic; 
the  taste  is  bitter,  resinous,  and  balsamic.  Stimulant,  diaphoretic, 
and  diuretic  properties  are  assigned  them;  and  they  are  further 
described  as  astringent  and  vermifuge. — {Bengal  Disp.  p.  627. 
Pharm,  of  India.)  The  species  C.  pertenuis  partakes  of  the  same 
aromatic  properties,  and  is  also  considered  diaphoretic.  Its  delicate 
foim,  small  and  compound  umbels,  short  slender  leaves,  readily  dis- 
tinguish this  from  the  other  Indian  species.  The  roots,  as  weU  as 
being  medicinal,  are  used  for  perfuming  the  hair. — Boxb, 


175 


(223)  Deemia  extensa  (R,  Br.)    N.  0.  Asclepiaoks. 

Vaylie-partie,  Ootainunnie,  Tam.     Jutuga,  Tel.    Sagowania,  HmD.    Oobnin, 
DuK.    Cbagul-bantee,  Beng. 

Description. — Twining,  shrubby ;  leaves  roundish-cordate, 
acuminated,  acute,  auricled  at  the  base,  downy,  glaucous 
beneath;  stamineous  corona  double;  outer  one  10-parted, 
inner  one  -6-leaved ;  peduncles  and  pedicels  elongated,  fili- 
form ;  margins  of  corolla  ciliated ;  flowers  in  umbels,  pale 
green,  purplish  inside;  follicles  ramentaceous.  FL  July — 
Dec. — Wight's  Contrib.  p.  59. — Icon.  t.  596. — Cynanchum  ex- 
tensum,  Jacq.  Icon. — ^Asclepias  echinata,  Rodb.  Fl.  IticL  ii. 
44. Peninsula.    Bengal    Himalaya, 

Mbdical  Uses. — In  medicine  the  natives  use  the  whole  in  infu- 
sion in  pulmonary  affections ;  if  given  in  large  doses  it  will  cause 
nausea  and  vomiting.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  mixed  with  chunam 
is  applied  externally  in  rheumatic  swellings  of  the  limbs. — Aitialie. 

Economic  Uses. — A  fibre  is  yielded  by  the  stems  which  has  been 
recommended  as  a  fair  substitute  for  flax.  It  is  said  to  be  very  fine 
and  strong. — Jury  Rep.  Mad.  Exfiih. 

(224)  Dalbergia  frondosa  (RoxK)    "N.  0.  Lequminosje. 

Description. — ^Tree,  30  feet ;  bark  smooth ;  leaves  pinnate; 
leaflets  about  5  pairs,  alternate,  cuneate-oval,  emarginate,  when 
very  young  silky;  panicles  axillary,  pubescent;  flowers 
secund,  racemose  along  the  alternate  branches  of  the  panicles, 
sm^U,  bluish  white;  calyx  hairy;  alse  as  long  as  the  vexillum, 
about  twice  as  long  as  the  keel;  corolla  papilionaceous;  ovary 
very  slightly  pubescent;  legume  lanceolate,  1-4  seeded  or  less. 
Fl.  May— June.— F.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  266.— Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii. 
226. — Wight  Icon.  t.  266. Courtallum.    Travancore. 

Mbuioal  Uses. — ^The  bark  in  infusion  is  given  internally  in 
dyspepsia,  and  the  leaves  are  rubbed  over  the  body  in  cases  of 
leprosy  and  other  cutaneous  diseases.  An  oil  is  procured  from  the 
seeds  used  in  rheumatic  affections,  and  a  milk  which  exudes  from 
the  root  is  occasionally  applied  to  ulcers. — Roxb. 


17G  dalbergia. 


(225)  Dalbergia  latifolia  (Roxb.)    Do. 

Black-wood  tree,  En  a.    Eettie,  Corin-toweray,  Tam.    Eettie,  Mal.    Viroo-goodu- 
Chawa,  Tel.    Shwet-sal,  Bemo. 

Description. — Tree,  40-50  feet;  leaves  pinnate;  leaflets 
alternate  3-7,  generally  5,  orbicular,  emarginate,  above  glab- 
rous, beneath  somewhat  pubescent  when  young;  panicles 
axillary,  branched,  and  divaricating;  corolla  papilionaceous; 
calyx  segments  oblong ;  stamens  united  in  a  sheath  open  on 
the  upper  side;  ovary  stalked,  5-ovuled;  legumes  stalked, 
oblong-lanceolate,  1-seeded;  flowers  small,  white,  on  short 
slender  pedicels.  FL  April — July. —  W.  <k  A,  Prod.  i.  264. — 
RoxK  FL  Ind.  iii.  221,— Cor,  ii  t  113,— Wight  Icon.  t.  1156. 
Circar  mountains.    S.  Concans.    Travancore. 

Economic  Uses. — A  large  tree,  abundant  in  the  forests  of  S.  India 
and  elsewhere,  producing  what  is  well  known  as  the  Black-wood. 
AlS  a  timber  for  furniture  it  is  in  great  request.  The  planks,  how- 
ever, have  a  propensity  to  split  longitudinally,  when  not  well 
seasoned.  An  earthy  deposit  is  frequently  found  embedded  in  the 
largest  logs,  which  occasions  a  great  defect  in  what  would  otherwise 
be  fine  planks.  Some  planks  are  four  feet  broad  after  the  sapwood 
has  been  removed.  Black-wood  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  woods 
of  S.  India,  and  when  well  polished  has  much  the  appearance  of 
rosewood,  which  name  it  frequently  receives  in  commerce. — Eoxb. 
Pers,  Ohs, 

Black-wood  is  difficult  to  rear,  from  the  ravages  of  insects  on  the 
sprouting  seeds.  It  may,  however,  be  successfully  grown  during 
heavy  rains.  The  seed  may  also  be  sown  in  drills  well  supplied 
with  the  refuse  of  lamp-oil  mills.  The  tree  might  be  planted  at 
distances  of  five  yards,  every  alternate  tree  being  afterwards  re- 
moved. This  tree  also  grows  from  suckers,  but  the  wood  does  not 
turn  out  so  well  as  that  sown  from  seeds. — Besfs  Report  to  Bomb. 
Govt.  1863. 

(226)  Dalbergia  Oojemensis  (Roxb.)    Do. 

Description. — Tree,  30  feet ;  leaves  pinnately  trifoliolate ; 
leaflets  ovate,  roundish,  rather  villous,  with  undulated  curved 
margins ;  pedicels  1-flowered,  rising  in  fascicles,  and  as  weU  as 
the  calyx  villous;  flowers  smallish,  pale  rose,  fragrant.  Fl. 
April — July.— -iJoa*.  Fl,  Ind.  iii.  220. — Oujeinia  dalbergioides, 

Bcnth, —  WigU  Icon,  t  391. Nagpore.     Godavery  forests. 

Oude.    Dheyra  Dhoon. 


DALBERGI A — DAPHNE.  1 77 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  species  yields  a  useful  and  valuable  tim- 
ber especially  adapted  for  house-building. — {Roxh)  The  wood  in 
ripe  trees  is  hard-veined  and  polishes  well  It  is  used  chiefly  for 
cot  posts  and  legs,  as  well  as  for  combs  and  all  small  work,  also 
makes  handsome  furniture.  It  is  not  liable  to  warp,  nor  is  subject 
to  worms.  It  is  of  slow  growth,  and  attains  full  size  in  about  thirty 
years. — (PotcelVs  Punj,  Prod,)  A  kino  extracted  from  the  bark  is 
useful  in  bowel-complaints. — Bedd,  Flor,  Sylv,  t  36. 

(227)  Dalbergia  sissoo  {Rozh.)    Do. 

Tali,  Sliisbam,  Sissoo,  Benq.  and  Hind.    Sissa,  Tel. 

Desckiption. — Tree,  50  feet ;  leaves  pinnate ;  leaflets  3-5, 
alternate,  orbicular  or  obcordate,  with  a  short  sudden  acumina- 
tion,  slightly  waved  on  the  margin,  when  young  pubescent ; 
panicles  axillary,  composed  of  several  short  secund  spikes ; 
flowers  almost  quite  sessile ;  stamens  9,  united  into  a  sheath 
open  on  the  upper  side;  style  very  short;  legumes  stalked, 
linear-lanceolate,  3-seeded;  flowers  small,  yellowish  white. 
Fl  April— July.— TT.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  2&A.—Roxh.  Fl.  Ind,  iii. 
223. Coromandel.    Guzerat.    Bengal 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  timber  is  light  and  remarkably  strong, 
of  a  light  greyish-brown  colour.  It  is  good  for  ordinary  economical 
purposes.  It  is  much  used  in  Bengal  for  knees  and  crooked  timber 
in  ship-building,  as  well  as  for  gun-carriages  and  mail-carts.  Its 
great  durability  combines  to  render  it  one  of  the  most  valuable  tim- 
bers known.  There  are  few  trees  which  so  much  deserve  attention, 
considering  its  rapid  growth,  beauty,  and  usefulness.  It  grows 
rapidly,  is  propagated  and  reared  with  facility,  and  early  attains  a 
good  working  condition  of  timber.  Plantations  have  been  recom- 
mended along  the  channels  of  the  northern  Annicuts. — (Eoxb.  Jury 
Rep,  Mad,  Exhib,)  It  attains  its  fuU  size  in  fifty  years.  It  is  said  to 
be  proof  against  the  att-acks  of  white  ants.  The  timber  is  very  good 
for  gun-carriages,  and  in  some  parts  is  largely  used  in  dockyards. 
Also  for  saddles,  boxes,  and  all  furniture.  A  boat  built  from  it  is 
said  to  last  twenty  years.  The  raspings  of  the  wood  are  said  to  be 
oflicinal,  being  considered  alterative. — (Stewarfs  Pnvj.  Plants.)  An- 
other species  of  Dalbergia  yielding  timber  is  the  D.  eissoides. — 
Roxh, 

(228)  Daphne  papyracea  {Wall.)    N.  0.  TnTMELiEACEiE. 

Nepaul  Paper-sbnib,  Eno. 

Desceiption. — Tree,  or  small  shrub;  leaves  lanceolate  or 
oblong,  veined,  glabrous ;  fascicles  terminal  or  lateral,  sessile, 

12 


178  DAPHNE. 

bracteated;  calyx  funnel-Bhaped,  pubescent,  lobes  ovate-oblong, 
shoiter  than  the  tube;  ovary  glabrous;  flowers  yellow.  Fl, 
Jaa — Feb. —  Wall.  Ap.  StevA  Nom.,  ed  2d,  483. — Dec.  Prod. 
xiv.  537. — D.  odora,  Doru  Mor.  Nep,  68. — D.  cannabina,  WaU, 
in  As.  Res.  xiii.  31 5. Khasia.     Silhet.    Nepaul. 

Economic  Uses. — An  excellent  writing-paper  is  made  from  the 
inner  bark,  prepared  like  hemp.  The  jirocess  of  making  paper  from 
this  species  is  thu3  described  in  the  '  Asiatic  Eesearches : '  After 
scraping  the  outer  surface  of  the  bark,  what  remains  is  boiled  in 
water  with  a  small  quantity  of  oak-ashes.  After  the  boiling  it  is 
washed  and  beat  to  a  pulp  on  a  stone.  It  is  then  spread  on  moulds 
or  frames  made  of  bamboo  mats.  The  Setburosa  or  paper-shrub, 
says  the  same  writer  in  the  above  journal,  is  found  on  the  most  ex- 
posed parts  of  the  mountains,  and  those  the  most  elevated  and 
covered  with  snow  throughout  the  province  of  Kumaon.  In  travers- 
ing the  oak-forests  between  Bhumtah  and  Eamgur,  and  again  from 
Almorah  to  Chimpanat  and  down  towards  the  river,  the  paper-plant 
would  appear  to  thrive  luxuriantly  only  where  the  oak  grows.  The 
paper  prepared  from  its  bark  is  particularly  suited  for  cartridges, 
beiug  strong,  tough,  not  liable  to  crack  or  break,  however  much 
bent  or  folded,  proof  against  being  moth-eaten,  and  not  subject  to 
damp  from  any  change  in  the  weather ;  besides,  if  drenched  or  left 
in  water  any  considerable  time,  it  will  not  rot.  It  is  invariably 
used  all  over  Kimiaon,  and  is  in  great  request  in  many  parts  of  the 
plains,  for  the  purpose  of  writing  misub-namahs  or  genealogical  re- 
cords, deeds,  &c.,  from  its  extraordinary  durability.  It  is  generally 
made  about  one  yard  square,  and  of  three  different  qualities.  The  best 
sort  is  retailed  at  the  rate  of  forty  sheets  for  a  rupee,  and  at  whole- 
sale eighty  sheets.  The  second  is  retailed  at  the  rate  of  fifty  sheets 
for  a  rupee,  and  a  hundred  at  wholesale.  The  third,  of  a  much 
smaller  size,  is  retailed  at  a  hundred  and  forty  sheets,  and  wholesale 
a  hundred  and  sixty  sheets  to  a  hundred  and  seventy  for  a  rupee. 
Specimens  of  the  paper  were  sent  by  Colonel  Sykes  to  the  Great 
Exhibition.  Dr  Eoyle  states  that  an  engraver  to  whom  it  was 
sent  to  experiment  upon,  said  that  it  afforded  finer  impressions  than 
any  English-made  paper,  and  nearly  as  good  as  the  fine  Chinese 
paper,  which  is  employed  for  what  are  called  Indian  paper  proo&. 
Dr  Campbell  describes  the  paper  as  strong,  and  almost  as  durable  as 
leather,  and  quite  smooth  enough  to  write  on,  and  for  office  records 
incomparably  better  than  any  India  paper.  Many  of  the  books  in 
Nepaul  written  on  this  paper  are  of  considerable  age,  and  the  art  ot 
making  paper  there  seems  to  have  been  introduced  about  500  years 
a<?o  from  China,  and  not  from  India. — Murray  in  As.  Res.  Royle*« 
Fibrovs  Plants. 


DAT  URA — DENDROCAL  AMUS.  1 79 


(229)  Datnra  alba  {Nees,  Ah.  Esenb.)    K  0.  Solanacelb. 

White-flowered  Thom-apple,  Eno.     Hummatoo,  Mal.     Vellay-oomatay,  Tam. 
Bbootoora,  Beno.    Sada-oliatoora,  Hind.    Tclla-oomatie,  Tel. 

Description. — Annual,  2-3  feet ;  leaves  ovate,  acuminated, 
repandly  toothed,  unequal  at  the  base,  and  as  well  as  the  stem 
smooth ;  stamens  enclosed ;  fruit  prickly ;  corolla  white ; 
calyx  o-lobed.  FL  All  the  year. — Wight  Icon,  t  852. — ^D. 
metel,  Rooi^. — Bheede,  ii.  t  28. Common  everywhera 

Mbdical  Uses. — ^This  plant  has  probably  in  almost  all  respects 
the  same  properties  as  the  D.  fastuosa.  It  is  a  strong  narcotic, 
though  it  is  said  not  to  be  quite  so  virulently  poisonous  as  the 
latter.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  boiled  in  oil  is  applied  to  cutaneous 
affections  of  the  head.  It  is  also  used  by  Eajpoot  mothers  to  smear 
their  breasts,  so  as  to  poison  their  new-bom  female  children.  The 
seeds  are  employed  in  fevers  about  three  at  a  dose,  and  are,  with  the 
leaves,  applied  externally  in  rheumatic  and  other  swellings  of  the 
Hmbs. — Moxb.     Brown  on  Infanticide. 

The  D.  fastuosa  is  a  variety  with  purple  flowers.  It  is  known  for 
the  intoxicating  and  narcotic  properties  of  its  fruit.  The  root  in 
powder  is  given  by  Mohammedan  doctors  in  cases  of  violent  head- 
aches and  epilepsy.  The  inspissated  juice  of  the  leaves  is  used  for 
the  same  purpose.  The  Hindoo  doctors  use  the  succulent  leaves 
and  fruit  in  preparing  poultices,  mixed  with  other  ingredients,  for 
repelling  cutaneous  tumours  and  for  piles.  They  also  assert  that 
the  seeds  made  into  piUs  deaden  the  pain  of  the  toothache  when 
laid  upon  the  decayed  tooth.  In  Java  the  plant  is  considered 
anthelmintic,  and  is  used  externally  in  herpetic  diseases.  The 
Chinese  employ  the  Datura  seeds  for  stupefying  and  even  poisoning 
those  whom  they  are  at  enmity  with — a  practice  resorted  to  also  in 
India.  This  species  is  reckoned  more  poisonous  than  the  white- 
flowered  one.  The  leaves  in  oil  are  rubbed  on  the  body  in  itch  or 
rheumatic  pains  of  the  Hmbs.  The  seeds  bruised  are  applied  to 
boils  and  carbuncles.  They  are  soporific,  and  very  dangerous  if 
incautiously  used. — (Rheede.  Ainslie.)  It  contains  an  alkaloid 
called  Daturine,  and  is  used  as  a  narcotic  anodyne  and  antispasmodic, 
especially  in  asthma^  and  bronchitis,  also  in  insanity  and  ophthalmia. 
— PotoelVs  Punj.  Prod, 

(230)  DendrocalamuB  strictns  (Nees).    K  0.  Graminacea. 

Male  Bamboo,  Eno.    Sadanapa  Vedroo,  Tel. 

Description. — Stems  straight ;  thorns  frequently  wanting ; 
inflorescence  the  same  as  in  the  common  Bamboo ;  verticels 
sessile,  globular,  numerous,  entirely  surrounding  the  branchlets ; 


1 80  DENDROCALAMUS — DESMODIUM. 

flowers  hermaphrodite ;  corolla  2-valved ;  extreme  valves  pu- 
bescent, sharply  pointed;  pistil  woolly.  Fl,  April — June. — 
Rood).  Fl.  Ind.  iL  193. — Coram.  L  t.  80. CoromandeL 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  species  of  Bamboo  has  great  strength  and 
solidity,  and  is  very  straight,  hence  it  is  better  suited  for  a  variety  of 
uses  than  the  common  Bamboo.  The  natives  make  great  use  of  it 
for  spears,  shafts,  and  similar  purposes.  It  is  clearly  a  distinct 
species,  growing  in  a  drier  situation  than  other  Bamboos — {Roxb.) 
The  natives  assert  that  this  species  accomplishes  the  whole  of  its 
growth  in  two  or  three  weeks  during  the  rains;  and  some  experiments 
made  seem  to  indicate  that  in  its  natural  habitats  a  very  considerable 
proportion  of  the  whole  growth  as  to  size,  though  not  as  to  consis- 
tency, takes  place  within  the  first  season.  The  new  stems  of  the 
year  are  a  much  brighter  green,  and  the  sheaths  remain  on  them. 
Single  stems,  as  in  several  species,  generally  seed,  and  in  such  cases 
the  stems  did.  after  the  seeds  ripen  in  June. — Stewarfa  Punj. 
Plants. 

(231)  Dendrocalamas  tulda  (Nees).    Do. 

Tnlda  Bans,  Beno.    Peka  Bans,  Hnro. 

Description. — Stems  jointed,  unarmed,  smooth ;  leaves  al- 
ternate, bifarious,  sheathing,  linear-lanceolate,  broad,  and  some- 
times cordate  at  the  base ;  sheaths  longer  than  the  joints ; 
panicles  oblong,  composed  of  numerous  supra-decompound 
ramifications,  only  appearing  when  the  plant  is  destitute  of 
leaves ;  spikelets  lanceolate,  sessile,  4-8  flowered.  Fl.  May. — 
Bambusa  tulda,  Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii  193. Bengal 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  is  the  common  Bamboo  of  Bengal,  and  is 
there  very  abundant.  It  ia  much  used  for  house-building,  scaffold- 
ing, &c.,  and  if  soaked  in  water  for  some  weeks  previous  to  being 
used,  lasts  much  longer  and  becomes  stronger ;  besides,  it  prevents 
•  it  being  attacked  by  insects.  It  grows  quickly.  The  tender  shoots 
are  eaten  as  pickles  by  the  natives.  There  are  two  varieties,  one 
called  the  Peea-bans,  which  is  larger  than  the  first,  the  joints  being 
larger  and  thicker,  and  therefore  better  adapted  for  building.  The 
other  is  the  Basliini-bans^  which  has  a  larger  cavity,  and  is  much  em- 
ployed in  basket-making.  Another  species,  the  D.  Ballcooa,  is  also 
much  prized  for  its  strength  and  solidity,  especially  after  having  been 
immersed  in  water  previous  to  using.  Indeed  this  species  is  perhaps 
preferable  to  any  other  from  its  size. — Roxb. 

(232)  Desmodinm  trifloram  (Dec.)    N.  0.  LEOUHiNoSiE. 

Koodaliya,  Beng.    Moonoodna-mooddoo,  Tel.    Kodaliya,  Hind. 

Description. — Stems  procumbent,  diffuse;  leaves  trifolio- 


DICHROSTAOHYS — ^DILLENIA.  181 

late;  leaflets  orbicular,  obovate  or  obcordate,  more  or  less 
pubescent  or  hairy ;  peduncles  axillary,  solitary,  fascicled,  1-3 
flowered ;  calyx  deeply  divided ;  vexillum  obovate,  long-clawed ; 
style  bent  acutely  near  the  summit  and  tumid  at  the  angle ; 
legumes  hispidly  pubescent,  3-6  jointed,  notched  in  the  middle 
on  the  lower  margins,  even  on  the  other ;  joints  truncated  at 
both  ends ;  flowers  small,  blue.  Fl,  All  the  year. — W,  &  A. 
Prod.  i.  229. — Hedysarum  triflorum,  Linn, — ^D.  heterophyllum, 
Dec, — Roxh.  Fl.  Ind.  iii  353. —  Wight  Icon.  L  t.  292. Penin- 
sula.   Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — This  is  a  common  and  widely-distributed  plant, 
springing  up  in  all  soils  and  situations,  in  India  supplying  the  place 
of  Trifolium  and  Medicago  in  Europe.  There  are  several  varieties. 
The  natives  apply  the  plant  fresh  gathered  to  abscesses  and  wounds 
that  do  not  heal  welL — Wight. 

(233)  Dichrostacliys  cinerea  ( W.  ^  A.)    Do. 

Vadataia,  Waratara,  Tam.    VeUitooroo  Yeltoor,  Tel.    Vnrtuli,  Hind. 

DESCRipnoN. — Shrub,  6-7  feet;  thorns  solitary;  calyx  5- 
toothed ;  pinnsB  8-10  pair ;  leaflets  ciliated,  12-15  pair ;  petioles 
pubescent ;  spikes  axillary,  usually  solitary,  cylindric,  droop- 
ing, rather  shorter  than  the  leaves;  corolla  6-cleft,  petals 
scarcely  cohering  by  their  margins;  flowers  white  or  rose- 
coloured  at  the  bottom,  and  yellow  at  the  top ;  legumes  thick, 
curved ;  joints  1-seeded.  Fl.  April — May. — W.  &  A.  Prod.  i. 
271. —  Wight  Icon.  t.  357. — Mimosa  cinerea,  Linn. — Boxb.  Fl. 

Ind.  ii.  561. — Cor.  ii.  1. 174. CoromandeL    Sterile  plains  in 

the  Deccan. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^The  young  shoots  are  bruised  and  applied  to  the 
eyes  in  cases  of  ophthalmia.  The  wood  is  very  hard,  like  that  of 
the  hdbool.  It  is  a  striking  plant  when  in  flower,  with  its  long, 
drooping,  cylindric  spikes  of  white  and  yeUow  fiow&t^—AinsUe. 
Boxb. 

(234)  Dillenia  pentagyna  (Roxh.)    "S.  0.  DiLLRNiAOEiE. 

Rai,  Find,  Nai-tek,  Tah.    Bawadam,  Chinna-kalinga,  Tel. 

Desckiption.  —  Tree,  20  feet;  leaves  broadly  lanceolate, 
sharply  toothed  or  serrated,  appearing  after  the  flowers ;  pe- 
duncles from  the  axils  of  the  scars  of  the  former  year's  leaves, 


182  DILLENIA — DIOSOOREA. 

several  together,  1-flowered ;  inner  row  of  stamens  longer  than 
the  others;  styles  5;  flowers  gold-coloured,  fragrant;  seeds 
immersed  in  a  gelatinous  pulp ;  carpels  joined  into  a  ribbed 
baccate  fruit.    FL  March — April. —  W,  &  A.  Prod.  i.  5. — Roxh. 

Cor.  i.  t  20. — Fl.  Ind.  ii.  652. — Colbertia  Coromandeliana. 

Malabar.     CoromandeL    S.  Mahratta  country.    Assam. 

Economic  Uses. — A  large  timber-tree.  The  wood  is  close-grained, 
and  used  for  a  variety  of  purposes.  In  Assam  it  is  used  for  canoes. 
The  leaves  are  employed  at  Poona  as  a  substratum  for  chuppered 
roofs. — (Roxb,)  The  Dillenias  are  found  in  great  abundance  in  the 
Eastern  Islands  as  well  as  in  Australia.  In  fact,  they  have  a  large 
distribution ;  and  two  genera,  Tetracera  and  Delima,  being  found  in 
Travancore  as  well  as  Silhet,  connect  the  flora  of  S.  India  with  that 
of  the  Eastern  Archipelago. — Royle.    Him,  Bot, 

(235)  Dillenia  speciosa  (Thunh)    Do. 

Syalita,  Mal.    Uva-chitta,  Tel.    Chalita,  Benq.     Uva-maram,  Tax. 
Z/vva 

Description. — Tree,  40  feet ;  leaves  oblong,  serrated,  glab- 
rous, appearing  with  the  flowers ;  sepals  and  petals  5 ;  pedun- 
cles solitary,  terminal,  1-flowered;  stamens  all  equal  in 
length;  styles  and  carpels  about  20;  seeds  hairy;  carpels 
joined  into  a  spurious,  many-celled,  many-seeded  berry,  crowned 
by  the  radiant  stigmas  ;  flowers  large,  showy,  with  white  petals 
and  yellow  anthers. — W,  &  A.  Prod.  i.  5. —  Wight  Icon.  t.  823. 
— BooA.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  650. — ^D.  Indica,  Linn. — Rheede,  iii.  t.  38- 
39. Malabar.    Bengal.    Chittagong. 

Mbdical  Uses. — The  fruit  is  eatable,  and  has  a  pleasant  flavpur 
though  acid.  Mixed  with  sugar  and  water,  the  juice  is  Used  as  a 
cooling  beverage  in  fevers  and  as  a  cough  mixture.  The  bark  and 
leaves  are  astringent,  and  are  used  medicinally.  A  good  jelly  is  made 
in  Assam  from  the  outer  rind  of  the  finiit  The  ripe  fruit  is  slightly 
laxative,  and  apt  to  induce  diarrhcea  if  too  freely  indulged  in. — Roxb. 
Royle. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  tree  yields  good  timber,  and  is  especially 
valuable  for  its  durability  under  water.  It  is  used  for  making  gun- 
stocks.  The  leaves,  which  are  hard  and  rough,  are  used  for  polislung 
furniture  and  tinware,  like  others  of  the  same  family. — Roxb. 

(236)  Dioscorea  bnlbifera  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Dioscoreace^. 

Eatu-katsjil,  Mal. 

Description. — Leaves  alternate,  deeply  cordate,  acuminate. 


DIOSCOREA — DIOSP  Y  ROS.  183 

7-nerved ;  the  exterior  nerves  2-cleft ;  transverse  veins  reticu- 
lated; stem  bulbiferous;  male  spikes  fascicled. — Wiffkt  Icon, 
t  878. — JRheede,  vii  t  36. Both  Concans. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^The  Dioeeoreas  are  climbing  and  sarmentaceous 
plants.  The  roots  are  large,  tuberous,  and  very  rich  in  nutritious 
starch.  The  flowers  and  roots  are  eaten  by  the  poorer  classes :  the 
latter  are  veiy  bitter,  but  after  undergoing  the  process  of  being 
covered  over  with  ashes  and  steeped  in  cold  water,  they  become 
eatable. — (J.  Graham,)  Several  species  yielding  yams  are  eatable. 
Among  the  principal  may  be  mentioned  the  J?,  acideata  (Linn,) 
The  tubers  are  about  2  lb.  or  more  in  weight.  They  are  dug  up  in 
the  forests  in  the  cold  season,  and  sold  in  the  bazaars.  They  are 
known  as  the  Goa  potato.  The  D.  glohosa  (Roxb,)  is  much  culti- 
vated as  yielding  the  best  kind  of  yam,  much  esteemed  both  by 
Europeans  and  natives.  The  D,  triphylla  (Linn,),  not  eatable,  for  the 
tubers  are  dreadfully  nauseous  and  intensely  bitter  even  after  being 
boiled.  They  are  put  into  toddy  to  render  it  more  potent,  as  they 
have  intoxicating  properties.  A  few  slices  are  sufficient  for  the  pur- 
pose.— J,  Graham, 

(237)  DioBCorea  pentaphylla  (Linn,)    Do. 

Mureni-kelangu,  Mal.    Eanta-aloo,  Beno. 

Description. — Tubers  oblong;  stems  herbaceous,  twining, 
prickly ;  leaves  digitate,  downy ;  male  flowers  panicled,  green- 
ish white,  fragrant ;  female  ones  spiked. — Boxb,  Fl.  Ind,  iii 
806. —  Wight  Icon,  t,  814. — Bheede,  vii.  t  34,  35. Concans. 

Economic  Uses. — A  common  species  in  jungles  on  low  hills, 
but  never  cultivated,  so  far  as  I  have  seen,  says  Dr  "Wight,  which  is 
remarkable,  as  I  have  always  found  the  natives  dig  the  tubers  when- 
ever they  had  an  opportunity  to  dress  and  eat  them.  The  male 
flowers  are  sold  in  the  bazaars  and  eaten  as  greens,  and  are  said  to 
be  wholesome.  There  are  several  other  kinds  of  edible  yams,  among 
which  may  be  mentioned  the  D,  fasciculata  (Roxh,),  which  is  culti- 
vated largely  in  the  vicinity  of  Calcutta,  where  it  is  known  as  the  aoomir 
aloo  ;  a  starch  is  also  made  from  the  tubers.  Another  kind  is  the  D. 
purjmrea  (Roxb.),  known  as  the  Pondicherry  sweet  potato,  which  is 
an  excellent  kind  of  yam,  but  only  found  in  a  cultivated  state. — 
(Roxb,  J.  Grah,)  The  roots  of  the  D,  deUoidea  are  used  in  Cash- 
mere for  washing  the  pashm  or  silk  for  shawls  and  woollen  cloths. — 
PotoeUVs  Punj,  Prod, 

(238)  Diospyros  melaaozylon  (Roxb.)    'S,  0.  Ebenace^. 

Coromandel  Ebony-tree,  Eno.    Tumballi,  Tam .    Toomida,  TsL.    Tindoo,  Hind. 
Eiew,  Kendoo,  Bknq. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  young  shoots  pubescent ;  leaves 


184  DIOSPYROS. 

nearly  opposite,  oblong  or  oblong-lanceolate,  acute  at  the  base, 
coriaceous,  entire,  obtuse,  when  young  pubescent ;  calyx  and 
corolla  5-cleft;  male  peduncles  axillary,  solitary,  3-6  flowered; 
stamens  12  ;  hermaphrodite  flowers  rather  larger  than  the  male, 
nearly  sessile ;  styles  3-4 ;  berry  round,  yellow;  flowers  white; 
seeds  2-8  immersed  in  pulp.  FL  April — May. — JRoxb.  Fl,  Ind, 
ii.  630. — Cor.  i.  t  46. Malabar.     CoromandeL    Orissa. 

Medical  Uses. — The  bark  is  astringent,  and,  reduced  to  an  im- 
palpable powder,  is  applied  to  ulcerations,  and  mixed  with  black 
pepper  is  administered  in  dysentery. 

Economic  Uses. — The  true  Ebony  of  commerce  is  obtained  from 
the  D.  ebenum  (Liutl),  a  native  of  Ceylon,  but  in  fact  other  species 
scarcely  differing  from  one  another  yield  this  timber.  The  great 
peculiarity  of  Ebony-wood  is  its  extreme  heaviness  and  dark  black 
colour.  Some  species  have  the  wood  variegated  with  white  or 
brownish  lines.  Ebony  was  known  and  appreciated  by  the  ancients 
as  a  valuable  wood.  Virgil  said  that  it  only  came  from  India,  though 
it  is  well  known  that  -Ethiopia  was  famous  for  it,  a  fact  recorded  by 
Pliny.  Dioscorides  said  that  Ethiopia's  Ebony  was  the  best  Hero- 
dotus wrote  concerning  the  latter  country,  "  It  produces  much  gold, 
huge  elephants,  wild  trees  of  all  kinds.  Ebony,"  &c. 

This  species  yields  a  fine  kind  of  Ebony.  It  is  only  the  centre  of 
the  larger  trees  that  is  black  and  valuable,  and  the  older  the  trees  the 
better  the  quality.  The  outside  wood  is  white  and  spongy,  which 
decaying  or  destroyed  by  insects  displays  the  central  Ebony.  It  is 
much  affected  by  the  weather,  on  which  account  European  cabinet- 
makers seldom  use  it  except  in  veneer.  The  ripe  fruit  is  eatable,  but 
rather  astringent.  There  is  a  slight  export  trade  or  Ebony  from 
Madras.  Other  species  which  yield  a  kind  of  Ebony  are  D.  Mo- 
roxijlon  (Eozb,)j  of  which  the  wood  is  very  hard  and  durable;  the 
D.  cordifolia  {Roxh),  whose  timber  is  used  for  many  economical 
purposes. 

Sir  E.  Tennent  (Ceylon,  i.  117)  has  some  valuable  remarks  upon 
the  different  species  of  Ebony  growing  in  that  island.  The  Ebony 
(D.  ebenum)  grows  in  great  abundance  throughout  all  the  flat  country 
west  of  Trincomalee.  It  is  a  different  species  from  the  Ebony  of  the 
Mauritius  (D,  reticulata),  and  excels  it  and  all  others  in  the  even- 
ness and  intensity  of  its  colour.  The  centre  of  the  trunk  is  the  only 
portion  which  furnishes  the  extremely  black  part  which  is  the  Ebony 
of  commerce ;  but  the  trees  are  of  such  magnitude  that  reduced  logs 
of  2  feet  in  diameter,  and  varying  from  10  to  15  feet  in  length,  can 
readily  be  procured  from  the  forests.  There  is  another  cabinet-wood 
of  extreme  beauty ;  it  is  a  bastard  species  of  Ebony  (Z).  ebenaster), 
in  which  the  prevailing  black  is  stained  with  stripes  of  rich 
brown,  approaching  to  yellow  and  pink.  But  its  density  is  incon- 
siderable, and  in  durability  it  is  far  inferior  to  that  of  true  Ebony. 


Y  (/ip'iJL  i^^r-ir^       <-^      ^    ^^  A..w>^     ^    U^iSf^'^     H     OtTY   ^ 


</ 


DIPTEROC  ARPUS.  185 

The  most  valuable, cabinet-wood  of  the  island,  resembling  Rosewood, 
but  much  surpassing  it  in  beauty  and  durability,  has  at  all  times  been 
in  the  greatest  repute  in  Ceylon;  it  is  the  D.  Iiirsuta,  It  grows 
chiefly  in  the  southern  provinces,  and  especially  in  the  forests  at  the 
foot  of  Adam's  Peak,  but  here  it  has  been  so  prodigally  felled  that 
it  has  become  exceedingly  rare.  Wood  of  a  large  scantling  is  hardly 
procurable  at  any  price,  and  it  is  only  in  a  very  few  localities  that 
even  small  sticks  are  now  to  be  found.  A  reason  assigned  for  this 
is,  that  the  heart  of  the  tree,  neither  of  this  species  nor  of  Z>.  ehen- 
atftevy  is  ever  sound.  The  twisted  portions,  and  especially  the  roots 
of  the  latter,  yield  veneers  of  unusual  beauty,  dark  waviugs  and 
blotches,  almost  black,  being  gracefully  disposed  over  a  delicate  fawn- 
coloured  ground.  The  density  is  so  great  (nearly  60  lb.  to  a  cubic 
foot)  that  it  takes  on  excellent  polish,  and  is  in  every  way  adapted 
for  the  manufacture  of  furniture.  Notwithstanding  its  value,  the 
tree  is  nearly  eradicated  ;  but  as  it  is  not  peculiar  to  Csylon,  it  may 
be  restored  by  fresh  importations  from  the  S.E.  coast  of  India,  of 
which  it  is  equally  a  native. 

The  D,  montana  (Eoxb,)  is  a  timber  variegated  with  dark  and 
white  coloured  veins.  It  is  very  hard  and  durable.  The  Z>.  tomen- 
tosa  (Rozh.)  is  a  native  of  the  northern  parts  of  Bengal.  The  wood  is 
black,  hard,  and  heavy.  Roxburgh  compares  this  latter  tree  to  a 
cypress,  from  its  tall  and  elegant  form.  The  leaves  all  fall  ofl'  in  the 
cold  season:  The  D,  calycina  (Bedd. )  has  been  found  in  the  Tinne velly 
district  and  southern  provinces  of  Madura,  being  very  abundant  up 
to  3000  feet  of  elevation.  It  is  called  in  those  districts  Vdlay 
Toveray,  and  yields  a  valuable  light-coloured  wood  much  used  in 
those  parts. — Bedd.  Fl.  8ylv,  t  68. 

(239)  Dipterocanms  l»vls  (Ham.)    N.  0.  Dipterooarpele. 

Tilea  gurjun,  Bkno. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  young  branches  compressed,  two- 
edged  ;  leaves  ovate  or  oblong-ovate,  retuse  at  the  base,  acute, 
shining  on  both  sides,  with  numerous  prominent  veins ;  petioles 
glabrous ;  tube  of  enlarged  calyx  slightly  ventricose,  two  seg- 
ments expanded  into  wings  when  in  fruit;  capsule  ovate,  even; 
flowers  white,  tinged  with  red.  Fl.  March. —  W.  &  A.  Prod.  i. 
85. — ^Dipterocarpus  turbinatus,  Roxib.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  612. — Cor.  iii. 
t.  213. Chittagong.    Tipperah. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^This  tree  is  famous  over  Eastern  India  and  the 
Malay  Islands  on  account  of  its  yielding  a  thin  liquid  balsam  com- 
monly called  Wood-oil,  and  known  as  the  Gurjun  balsam.  A  large 
notch  is  cut  in  the  trunk  of  the  tree  near  the  ground,  where  fire  is 
kept  until  the  wound  is  charred^  soon  after  which  the  liquid  begins 


V 


186  DOLICHOS. 

to  ooze  out.  A  small  gutter  is  cut  in  the  wood  to  conduct  the  fluid 
into  a  vessel  placed  to  receive  it.  These  operations  are  performed  in  the 
month  of  November  to  February ;  and  should  any  of  the  trees  become 
sickly  the  following  season,  a  year's  respite  is  given  them.  The 
average  produce  is  40  gallons  in  one  season.  Large  quantities  of 
this  wood-oil  is  exported  from  Moulmein  to  Europe,  where  it  has 
become  a  new  drug  in  trade.  It  resembles  in  a  remarkable  degree 
the  balsam  of  Copaiba,  and  has  been  used  as  a  substitute  for  that 
medicine.  It  has  a  curious  property,  which  is  exhibited  when  it  has 
been  heated  in  a  corked  phial  to  about  266^  Fahr. :  it  then  becomes 
slightly  turbid,  and  so  gelatinous  that  the  phial  may  be  inverted  even 
while  hot  without  its  contents  being  displaced ;  and  on  cooling,  the 
solidification  is  still  more  complete.  It  is  soluble  in  water,  scarcely 
in  ether,  but  £reely  in  alcohol.  Its  price  in  the  Calcutta  bazaars 
varies  £rom  3  to  5  rupees  the  maund.  Dr  Wight  speaks  from  ex- 
perience of  the  value  of  Gurjun  oil  mixed  with  dammer  in  preventing 
the  white  ants  from  attacking  timber.  A  new  species,  the  Z>.  indicus, 
was  discovered  in  South  Canara  in  1865. — Beng.  Disp,  Pharm. 
Jour.    Moxb. 

(240)  Dolichos  sinensis  (Linn.)    K  0.  LEGuiiiNoSiB. 

Pam,  Mal.    Burbnti,  Beng.    Kara-mani,  Taic.    Lobia,  Hind.    Alsajida,  Tbl. 

Description. — ^Twining  annual,  glabrous ;  leaves  pinnately 
trifoliolate ;  leaflets  ovate  or  oblong,  acuminated;  peduncles 
longer  than  the  leaves ;  flowers  in  an  oblong  head  or  short 
raceme;  calyx  campanulate,  5-toothed ;  lowest  one  longer  than 
the  rest;  legume  nearly  straight,  cylindric,  torulose,  with  a 
more  or  less  recurved  unguiculate  beak,  6-12  seeded;  seeds 
truncated  at  both  ends ;  flowers  largish,  pale  violet.  Fl.  June 
— Aug.— JT.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  25Q.—Roxb.  Fl  Ind.  iii  302.— 
JRJieede,  viii.  t  42. Cultivated  in  the  Peninsula. 

EooNouic  Uses. — Of  this  plant  there  are  several  varieties,  differ- 
ing in  the  colour  of  their  flowers  and  seeds.  It  is  cultivated  for  the 
seeds,  which  are  much  used  by  the  natives  in  their  food.  Those  with 
white  seeds  are  most  esteemed. — Rozb. 

(241)  Bolichos  nnifloras  (Lam.)    Do. 

Horse-gram  plant,  Enq.    Eoaltee,  Hn^D.    Koolthee,  Beng.   EdUoo,  Tam.    Moo- 
thera,  Mal.    Woola-waloo,  T£L. 

Description. — Annual;  stem  erect;  branches  twining; 
young  shoots  and  leaves  covered  with  silk  hairs ;  leaves  pin- 
nately trifoliolate ;  leaflets  ovate,  villous,  pubescent  when  old ; 
corolla  papilionaceous ;  calyx  deeply  bilabiate ;  upper  lip  split 


DRACONTIUM.  187 

at  the  apex ;  vexillum  longer  than  the  keel,  ovate-oblong ;  al» 
cohering  with  the  keel  at  the  base ;  flowers  axillary,  1-3  to- 
gether, sulphur-coloured ;  legumes  compressed,  linear,  falcate, 
softly  hairy,  6-seeded.    Fl.  Nov. — ^Dec. —  JF.  &  A.  Prod,  i. 

248.— D.  biflorus,  Boxh.  Fl  Ind,  iii.  313  (not  Lour.) Coro- 

mandel.    Deccan.    Bengal    Cultivated  in  the  Peninsula. 

EcoNOHio  Uses. — Of  this  there  is  a  variety  with  jet-black 
seeds,  those  of  the  present  plant  being  grey.  Seeds  of  both  are 
everywhere  given  in  the  Peninsula  for  feeding  cattle.  The  natives 
also  use  them  in  curries.  The  gram  plant  has  never  been  seen  in  a 
wild  state.  The  best  time  to  sow  the  seeds  is  at  the  end  of  the 
rainy  season,  and  in  a  good  soil  in  favourable  years  the  produce 
will  be  sixty-fold. — Roxb, 

• 

(242)  Dracontiiim  polyphylliun  {Linn,)    N.  0.  Abacels. 

Pniple-fltftlked  Dragon,  Enq.    Caat-kansy,  Tail    Junglee  kandi,  DuK.    Adivie 
konda,  Tel. 

Description. — Stalk  1  foot,  smooth,  purple-coloured,  full  of 
sharp  variegated  protuberances,  with  a  tuft  of  leaves  at  the 
top;  scape  very  short;  petiole  rooted;  leaflets  3-parted; 
divisions  pinnatifid ;  root  irregular,  knobbed,  covered  with  a 
rugged  skin ;  flower-stalk,  rising  from  the  root,  about  3  inches 
high ;  spathe  oblong,  opening  lengthwise ;  flowers  closely  ar- 
ranged on  a  short  thick  styla — Linn.  Spec,  1372. — Bot.  Beg.  t. 
700. Bombay.    Concans. 

Medical  Uses. — In  Japan  a  medicine  is  prepared  from  the  acrid 
roots,  esteemed  a  good  emmenagogue.  In  the  Society  Islands  the 
plant  is  cultivated  for  the  sake  of  its  roots,  which,  notwithstanding 
the  taste  being  very  acrid,  are  eaten  in  times  of  scarcity.  Ainslie 
states  that  when  properly  prepared  these  roots  possess  antispasmodic 
virtues,  and  are  aJso  of  repute  in  asthmatic  affections,  given  in  the 
quantity  of  from  12  to  15  grains  per  diem.  They  are  used  by  the 
native  doctors  in  haemorrhoids.  The  plant  is  likewise  a  native  of 
Guiana  and  Surinam ;  and  in  the  former  country  is  a  remedy  against 
the  Labarri  snake,  which  its  spotted  petioles  resemble  in  colour.  It 
is  certainly  a  powerful  stimulant.  The  spathe  on  first  opening 
smells  so  powerfully  that  vomiting  and  fainting  sometimes  ensue 
from  the  stench.  Graham  states  that  it  is  a  very  common  plant, 
the  leaves  opening  in  July,  and  the  scape  springing  up  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  rains.  There  has  existed  some  slight  doubt  as  to 
whether  the  American  and  Indian  species  are  identical — Ainslie, 
Miller.    Lindley.    J.  Oraham. 


188  DROSERA. 

(243)  Drosera  peltata  (Sm,)    K.  0.  Dboserace^ 

Description. — Herbaceous;  stem  erect,  glabrous;  leaves 
scattered,  furnished  with  long  reddish  hairs,  petioled,  peltate, 
broadly  lunate,  with  two  lougish  horns  pointing  upwards ; 
styles  mujtifid,  pencil -shaped ;  seeds  oblong,  testa  not  arilli- 
form ;  sepals  occasionally  ciliated ;  capsule  globose ;  seeds 
small,  numerous ;  flowers  yellow.  Fl,  Aug. — Sept — W.  tfe  A. 
Frod.  L  34. Neilgherries.     Bababoodens. 

EooNOMio  UsEa — The  viscous  leaves  of  this  plant  close  upon 
flies  and  other  insects  which  happen  to  light  upon  them.  A  dye 
might  be  prepared  from  the  plant,  as  Hoyle  mentions  the  fact  of  the 
paper  which  contained  his  dried  specimens  being  saturated  with  a 
red  tinge.  The  leaves,  bruised  and  mixed  with  salt  and  applied  to 
the  skin,  are  said  to  blister  it.  If  mixed  with  milk  they  wiU  curdle 
it.  Cattle  will  not  touch  them.  The  sensitive  irritability  of  the 
hairs  of  the  leaves  is  a  singular  characteristic  of  the  genus  to  which 
this  plant  belongs.  Many  of  the  other  species  yield  a  dye,  but 
no  one  appears  to  have  been  made  aware  of  these  qualities. — Eoyle, 
Lindley. 


189 


E 

(244)  Echaltimn  piBcidinm  ( Wight).    N.  0.  Apootnaoba. 

Description. — Perennial,  climbing;  leaves  oblong,  acumi- 
nated, shining ;  panicles  terminal,  shorter  than  the  leaves ; 
tube  of  corolla  longer  than  the  calyx ;  stamineous  corona  of 
five  bifid  villous  segments ;  follicles  swollen,  oblong,  obtuse ; 
seeds  membranaceous ;  flowers  pale  yellow.  Fl,  May — June. 
— Dec,  Prod,  \m,  416. —  Wight  Icon,  t,  472 — Nerium  pisci- 
dium,  Roxb,  Fl.  Ind,  ii  7. Silhet 

Economic  Usbs. — ^Tho  name  of  this  creeper  in  Silhet,  where  the 
plant  IB  indigenous,  is  Echalat ;  whence  the  origin  of  the  generic 
name  given  by  Dr  Wight  The  bark  contains  a  quantity  of  fibrous 
matter,  which  the  natives  in  Silhet  use  as  a  substitute  for  hemp. 
In  steeping  some  of  the  young  shoots  in  a  fish-pond,  to  facilitate 
the  removal  of  the  bark  and  cleansing  of  the  fibres,  Dr  Roxburgh 
foimd  that  it  had  the  effect  of  killing  nearly  all  the  fish.  Hence 
the  specific  name  which  he  applied. — Boxb,    Boyle  Fib.  Plant 

(245)  Eclipta  erecta  (Linn.)    K.  0.  AsxERACEiB. 

Kaiantagarie,  Kursalenkunnie,  Tam.    Goontagelii^jeroo,  Tel.    BrinraJ  Biingrah, 
HiMD.    Keshooryia,  Benq. 

Descriptign. — Stem  prostrate  or  erect;  leaves  lanceolate, 
serrate,  somewhat  waved ;  flowers  nearly  sessile,  alternate  in 
pairs ;  corolla  white.  Fl.  All  the  year. —  Wight  Contrib.  p.  17. 
— E.  prostrata,  jRoxb.  FL  Ind.  iii.  438. — Cotula  alba,  Linn. — 

Eheede  Mai.  x.  t  41. Common  in  wet  clayey  soils  in  the 

Peninsula. 

Medioal  Uses. — This  plant  in  its  fresh  state,  ground  up  and 
mixed  with  gingely-oil,  is  applied  externally  in  cases  of  elephan- 
tiasis. It  has  a  peculiarly  bitter  taste  and  strong  smelL  Eoxburgh 
considered  the  JS.  erecta,  prostrata,  and  punctata  to  be  the  same 
species,  varying  in  form  from  age,  soil,  and  situation. — {Roxb. 
Ainslie.)  The  root  has  purgative  and  emetic  properties  assigned  to 
it,  and  is  also  used  in  cases  of  liver,  spleen,  and  dropsy. — Pharm.  of 
India. 


1 90  EHRETIA — EL(EODENDRON. 

(246)  Ehretia  bnzifolia  (Roxh.)    K  0.  EHRETiACEiB. 

Coonivingie,  Tam.    Bapana  boory,  Tel.    Poluh,  EiNO. 

Description. — Shrub  or  small  tree ;  leaves  alternate,  fas- 
cicled, sessile,  reflexed,  cuneiform,  very  scabrous,  shining; 
peduncles  axillary,  2-6  flowered ;  pedicels  very  short ;  flowers 
small,  white;  calyx  5-parted,  segments  lanceolate;  corolla 
campanulate,  5-6  cleft;  berry  succulent,  red,  quadrilocular ; 
nuts  2.  FL  July — Aug. — Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  i.  598.— Cor.  i.  t  57. 
Coromandel.     Common  on  barren  lands  and  in  forests. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  is  used  for  purifying  and  altering  the 
habit  in  cases  of  cachexia  and  venereal  affections  of  long  standing. 
By  Mohammedan  doctors  it  is  considered  an  antidote  to  vegetable 
poisons. — Ainslie.    Lindley. 

(247)  Ehretia  serrata  {Roaib.)    Do. 

Eala-oja,  Beno. 

Description. — Tree;  leaves  alternate,  oblong,  and  broad 
lanceolate,  acutely  serrate,  smooth;  calyx  5-cleft;  corolla 
5-parted;  panicles  terminal,  and  from  the  exterior  axils; 
flowers  small,  greenish  white,  fragrant,  numerous,  aggi^egate  in 
somewhat  remote  sub-sessile  fascicles;  drupes  round,  pulpy, 

red  when  ripe.    Fl.  March — May. — Boxb.  FL  Ind.  i  596. 

BengaL    Chittagong.     Dheyrah  Dhoon. 

Economic  Uses. — The  wood  is  tough,  light,  durable,  and  easily 
worked.  Sword-handles  are  made  from  it  It  is  also  considered 
good  for  gun-stocks.  The  tree  is  a  native  of  Bhootan,  as  well  as 
of  the  eastern  parts  of  BengaL  It  is  also  a  common  tree  in  Kepanl, 
where  it  is  called  Nvlslnma.  It  grows  both  on  moimtains  and  in 
valleys,  blossoming  profusely  in  the  summer,  and  ripening  its  fruit 
during  the  rains.  The  latter  are  not  touched  by  the  natives.  The 
flowers  emit  a  powerful  honey-hke  smell. — Roxh.     Wallichia  Ohs. 

(248)  Eloeodendron  Eozburghii  (TT.  ^  A.)    N.  0.  CELASTRACEfi. 

Neerija,  Tel. 

Description. — Small  tree;  leaves  opposite,  elliptical  or 
ovate,  crenate-serrated,  young  ones  glaucous ;  calyx  6-partite ; 
petals  5,  linear-oblong ;  peduncles  axillary ;  cymes  lax,  dicho- 
tomous,  divaricated,  about  half  the  length  of  the  leaves,  usually 


ELEPH  ANTOPUS — ^ELETTARTA.  191 

with  a  solitary  flower  in  the  forks ;  drupe  l-celled,  obovoid ; 

ut  somewhat  crustaceous  and  soft ;  flowers  small,  yellow. 

Fl.  March — April.— fT.  &  A.  Prod.  p.  157.— Nerija  dicho- 

toma,  Roxh.  FL  Ind.  i.  6-lf6. Mountains  of  CoromandeL 

Courtallum. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  is  reported  to  be  an  excellent  specific 
in  snake-bites.  The  fresh  bark  of  the  roots  rubbed  with  water  is 
applied  externally  to  remove  almost  any  swelling.  It  is  a  very 
strong  astringent. — Roxh 

(249)  Elephantopns  scaber  (lAnn,)    K  0.  AsTBRAOBis. 

Anashovadi,  Mal.  and  Tam.    Shamdulun,  Benq.    Samdulun,  Hind. 

Description.— Stem  dichotomous,  ramous  ;  leaves  scabrous, 
radical  ones  crenate,  cuneate,  alternated  at  the  base ;  cauline 
ones  lanceolate;  floral  ones  broad  cordate,  acuminate,  canescent ; 
flowers  purple.    FL  Dec. — Feb. —  Wight  Contrih.  p.  88;  Icon. 

t  im&.—Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii  U5.—RhMde  Mal.  x.  t  7. 

Peninsula.    Common  in  shady  places. 

Medical  Uses. — ^According  to  Eheede,  a  decoction  of  the  root 
and  leaves  is  given  in  dysuria.  In  Travancore  the  natives  boil  the 
braised  leaves  with  lice,  and  give  them  internally  in  swellings  of 
the  body  or  pains  of  the  stomach* — Rheede. 

(250)  Elettaria  cardamomum  {Maton.)    K  O.  ZiNOiBERACRfi. 

Cardamom  plant,  Eno.    Yalnm,  Mal.    Aila-cheddie,  Tam.    Taylakooloo,  Tel. 
Eelachie,  DuK.  and  Hind.    iUachee,  Beng. 

Description. — Stem  perennial,  erect,  jointed,  6-9  feet,  en- 
veloped in  the  sheaths  of  the  leaves ;  leaves  lanceolate,  acumin- 
ate, sub-sessile,  entire,  1-2  feet  long;  sheaths  slightly  villous; 
scapes  several,  flexuose,  jointed,  branched,  1-2  feet  long; 
flowers  alternate,  short-stalked,  solitary  at  each  point  of  the 
racemes ;  calyx  funnel-shaped,  3-toothed,  finely  striated ;  corolla 
tube  as  long  as  the  calyx ;  limb*  double ;  exterior  portion  of 
3  oblong,  concave,  nearly  equal  divisions ;  inner  lip  obovate, 
longer  than  the  exterior  divisions,  curled  at  the  margins ;  apex 
3-lobed,  marked  in  the  centre  with  purple-violet  stripes; 
capsule  oval,  somewhat  3-sided,  3-celled,  3-valved ;  seeds 
numerous,  angular ;  flowers  pale-greenish  white. — Alpinia  car- 
damomum, Roxh.  FL  Ind.  i.  70. — Cor.  iii.  t  226. — Amomum 


192  ELETTARTA. 

repens,  Boseoe. — Bhecde  Mai.  xL  t  45. Hilly  parts  of  Tra« 

vancore  and  Malabar.    Wynaad.     Cobrg.     Nuggur. 

Medical  Uses. — ^As  cordial  and  stimulant  the  seeds  are  frequently 
used  medicinally,  but  more  frequently  as  correctives  in  conjunction 
with  other  medicines.  A  volatile  oil  is  procured  from  them  by 
distillation,  which  has  a  strong  aromatic  taste,  soluble  in  alcohol. 
It  loses  its  odour  and  taste  by  being  kept  too  long.  The  natives 
chew  the  fruit  with  betle,  and  use  it  in  decoction  for  bowel-com- 
plaints and  to  check  vomiting.     In  infusion  it  is  given  in  coughs. 

Economic  Uses. — Produces  the  Cardamoms  of  commerce.  They 
are  either  cultivated  or  gathered  wild.  In  the  Travancore  forests 
they  are  found  at  elevations  of  3000  to  5000  feet  The  mode  of 
obtaining  them  is  to  clear  the  forests  of  trees,  when  the  plants 
spontaneously  grow  up  in  the  cleared  ground.  A  similar  mode  has 
been  mentioned  by  Eoxburgh,  who  states  that  in  Wynaad,  before 
the  commencement  of  the  rains  in  June,  the  cultivators  seek  the 
shadiest  and  woodiest  sides  of  the  loftier  hills.  The  trees  are 
feUed  and  the  ground  cleared  of  weeds,  and  in  about  three  months 
the  Cardamom  plant  springs  up.  In  four  years  the  shrub  will  have 
attained  its  full  height,  when  the  fruit  is  produced  and  gathered  in 
the  month  of  November,  requiring  no  other  preparation  than  drying 
in  the  sun.  The  plant  continues  to  yield  fruit  till  the  seventh  year, 
when  the  stem  is  cut  down,  new  plants  arising  from  the  stumps. 
They  may  also  be  raised  from  seeds.  Cardamoms  are  much  esteemed 
as  a  condiment,  and  great  quantities  are  annually  shipped  to  Europe 
from  Malabar  and  Travancore.  In  commerce  there  are  three  varieties, 
known  as  the  short,  short-longs,  and  long-longs.  Of  these  the  short 
are  more  coarsely  ribbed,  and  of  a  brown  colour,  and  are  called  the 
Malabar  Cardamoms  or  Wynaad  Cardamoms.  They  are  reckoned 
the  best  of  the  three.  The  long-longs  are  more  finely  ribbed,  and  of 
a  paler  colour.  Seeds  are  white  and  shrivelled.  The  short-longs 
merely  differ  from  the  latter  in  being  shorter  or  less  pointed.  It  is 
usual  to  mix  the  several  kinds  together  when  ready  for  exportation. 
Some  care  is  required  in  the  process  of  drying  the  seeds,  as  rain 
causes  the  seed-vessels  to  split,  and  otherwise  injures  them;  and  if  kept 
too  long  in  the  sun  their  flavour  becomes  deteriorated.  Malabar  Carda- 
moms are  worth  in  the  London  market  from  2s.  to  3s.  per  lb.  In  Tra- 
vancore they  are  chiefly  procured  from  the  highlands  overlooking  the 
Dindigul,  Madura,  and  Tinnevelly  districts.  In  these  mountains 
the  cidtivators  make  separate  gardens  for  them,  as  they  thrive  better 
if  a  little  care  and  attention  be  bestowed  upon  them.  Cardamoms 
are  ai  monopoly  in  the  Travancore  State,  and  cultivators  come  chiefly 
from  the  Company's  country,  obtaining  about  200  or  210  rupees  for 
every  candy  delivered  over  to  the  Government. — {Ainslie,  Pereira, 
Pers.  Ohs,  Report  of  Prod,  of  Travancore,)  It  is  to  be  regretted, 
writes  Major  Beddome,  that  Cardamoms  are  not  turned  to  more 
account     The  plant  grows  spontaneously  in  many  of  our  hill-tracts, 


ELEUSINE.  193 

and,  with  judicious  management  and  some  artificial  planting,  might 
be  made  to  yield  a  veiy  handsome  revenue  after  a  few  years.  In 
South  Canara  some  Cardamom  tracts  within  our  reserves  have  been 
sold  by  the  collector,  on  a  lease  of  several  years,  for  a  very  small 
sum,  and  the  amount  is  credited  to  land  revenue.  In  portions  of 
the  AnnamaUays,  Madura,  and  Tinnevelley,  our  tracts  are  poached 
on  by  collectors  under  the  Cochin  and  Travancore  Grovcmments ; 
but  in  a  great  portion  of  these  forests  the  Cardamoms  simply  rot  in 
the  jungles. — Bep.  to  Mad.  Govt.  1870. 

(251)  Eleusine  coracaiia  (Goertn.)    N.  0.  GRiLMiNACEf. 

Mootamy,  Tsjetti-pnlla,  Hal.     Eayrara,  Eelwaragoo,  Tah.     Tomida,  Sodee, 
Tbl.    Murooa,  Bbkq.    Bagee,  Nachem,  Hind. 

Description. — Culms  erect,  2-4  feet,  a  little  compressed, 
smooth ;  leaves  bifarious,  large,  smooth ;  mouths  of  sheaths 
bearded;  calyx  3-6  flowered,  glumes  keeled,  obtuse,  with 
membranaceous  margins;  spikes  4-6  digitate,  incurved,  secund, 
1-3  inches  long,  composed  of  two  rows  of  sessile  3-4  flowered 
spikelets ;  rachis  slightly  waved ;  valves  of  corolla  nearly 
equal ;  seeds  globular,  brown,  a  little  wrinkled,  covered  with 
a  thin  ariL  FL  July — Sept. — JRozh.  Fl,  Ind.  i.  342.— Cyno- 
surus  coracanus,  Linn. — Bheede,  xii  t.  78. Cultivated. 

EcoNOHio  Uses. — ^This  is  the  most  prolific  of  cultivated  grasses, 
forming  the  chief  diet  of  the  poorer  classes  in  some  parts  of  India, 
as  Mysore,  N.  Circars,  and  slopes  of  the  Ghauts.  Roxburgh  says 
he  never  saw  it  in  a  wild  state.  On  the  Coromandel  coast  it  is 
known  as  the  Natchnee  grain,  and  is  the  Raggee  of  the  Mohammedans. 
In  Teloogoo  the  name  of  the  grain  is  Ponassa,  A  fermented  liquor 
is  prepared  from  the  seeds  called  Bojah  in  the  Mahratta  country. — 
(Raxb.)  Eagi  is  perhaps  the  most  productive  of  Indian  cereala 
Roxburgh  adverts  to  the  extraordinary  fertility  derived  firom  two 
seeds  which  came  up  by  accident  in  his  gaiden.  They  yielded 
81,000  corns.  It  is  the  staple  grain  of  the  Mysore  country,  where 
it  is  stored  in  pits,  keeping  sound  for  years. — (W.  Elliot.)  Another 
species,  the  E.  stricta,  is  cultivated  to  a  great  extent.  It  diflers  from 
the  preceding  in  having  the  spikes  straight,  being' of  a  larger  size, 
and  more  productive.  The  seeds  are  also  heavier,  which  cause  the 
spike  to  bend  bown  horizontally.  All  the  miUets  prefer  a  light 
good  soil,  from  which  the  water  readily  flows  after  the  heavy  rains. 
In  a  favourable  season  the  farmers  reckon  on  an  increase  of  about  a 
hundred  and  twenty  fold.  The  variety  known  in  Teloogoo  as  the 
Maddi  rubasoloo  requires  a  richer  soil  than  the  others;  and  in  good 
years,  when  the  land  fit  for  its  cultivation  can  be  procured,  increases 
five  hundred  fold. — Roxh. 

.    13 


* 


1 94  EMBELIA — EMBLICA. 


(252)  Embelia  ribes  (BurnL)    N.  0.  Mtbsinacbil 

VeUal,  Tak.    Viahaul,  Mal.    Bal)erung,  Behq. 

Description.— Large  climbing  shrub;  tender  shoots  and 
peduncles  hoary;  leaves  alternate,  oblong,  entire,  glabrous; 
panicles  terminal,  hoary ;  calyx  and  corolla  5-parted ;  stamens 
inserted  in  the  middle  of  the  petals ;  flowers  numerous,  very 
small,  greenish  yellow ;  tube  of  calyx  concave ;  berries  succu- 
lent, black.  Fl.  Teh.—UaicL—WigM  Icon,  t  1207.— jBoa*. 
FL  Ind.  i.  586. — E.  ribesioides,  Linn. Peninsula.     Silhet. 

Medical  Uses. — The  natives  in  the  vicinity  of  Silhet,  where  the 
plant  grows  abundantly,  gather  the  berries,  and  when  dry  sell  them 
to  the  small  traders  in  black  pepper,  who  fraudulently  mix  them 
with  that  spice,  which  they  so  resemble  as  to  render  it  almost  im- 
possible to  distingidsh  them  by  sight  or  by  any  other  means,  as  they 
are  withal  somewhat  spicy.  Given  in  infusion,  thev  are  anthehiiin- 
tic  They  are  al80  adJiustered  intemaUy  iA  pUes.  Their  pun- 
goncy  is  ascribed  by  Decandollo  to  the  quantity  of  some  peculiar 
quality  of  the  resinous  substance.  Boyle  states  they  are  cathartic. 
— Doru     Royle,     Roxh. 

(253)  Emblica  officinalis  (Gcerfn,)    N.  O.  Euphobbiaoejb. 

Nellee,  Mal.  NeUe-kai,  Tam.  Amla,  Beng.  Amlika,  Arooli,  Aoongra,  Hind. 
Atoereki,  Tsl. 

Desckiption. — Tree;  leaves  alternate,  bifarious,  pinnate, 
flower -bearing;  leaflets  numerous,  alternate,  linear- obtuse, 
entire ;  petioles  striated,  round ;  calyx  6-parted ;  flowers  in 
the  male  very  numerous  in  the  axils  of  the  lower  leaflets,  and 
round  the  common  petiole  below  the  leaflets ;  in  the  female 
few,  solitary,  sessile,  mixed  with  some  males  in  the  most  ex- 
terior floriferous  axils ;  stigmas  3 ;  drupe  globular,  fleshy, 
smooth,  6-striated ;  nut  obovate-triangular,  3-celled ;  seeds  2 
in  each  cell ;  flowets  small,  greenish  yellow.  Fl.  April— Nov. 
—  Wight  Icon.  t.  1896. — PhyUanthus  emblica,  Linn. — Soxb. 
FL  Ind.  iii.  671. — Bheede  Mal.  i  t.  38. Coromandel.  Mala- 
bar.   Deccan.    Bengal 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  seeds  are  given  internally  as  a  cooling 
remedy  in  bilious  affections  and  nausea,  and  in  infusion  make  a 
good  drink  in  fevers.  They  are  also  used  in  diabetes.  Infusion  of 
the  leaves  is  applied  to  sore  eyes.  Bark  of  the  root  mixed  with 
honey  is  applied  to  aphthous  inflammations  of  the  mouth.     The 


•   *    . 


EMBRYOPTERIS.  195 

bark  of  the  tree  itself  is  astringent,  and  is  used  for  tanning  purposes. 
It  is  medicinally  used  in  diarrhoea.  The  fruit  is  occasionally  pickled^ 
or  preserved  in  suga^.  When  dry  it  is  said  to  be  gently  laxative. 
In  the  latter  state  the  decoction  is  employed  in  fevers,  and  mixed 
with  sugar  and  drunk  in  vertigo.  The  young  leaves  mixed  with 
BOUT  milk  are  given  by  the  natives  in  dysentery.  In  Travancore  the 
natives  put  the  young  branches  into  the  wells  to  impart  a  pleasant 
flavour  to  the  water,  especially  if  it  be  impure  from  the  accumula- 
tion of  vegetable  matter  or  other  causes. — {Ainelie.  Rheede.)  An- 
tiscorbutic virtues  have  been  attributed  to  the  fruits,  which  are 
known  as  the  Emblic  Myrobalans.  The  flowers  are  employed  by 
the  Hindoo  doctors  for  their  supposed  refrigerant  and  aperient 
qualities.  The  bark  partakes  of  the  astringency  of  the  fruit  Dr 
A.  Boss  prepared,  by  decoction  and  evaporation,  from  the  root, 
an  astringent  extract  equal  to  catechu  both  for  medicine  and  the 
arts. — Pharm.  of  India, 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — This  tree  yields  a  valuable  timber. 

(254)  Embryopteris  glntinifera  (RozK)    N.  0.  EsENAOBiB. 

WUd  Mangosteen,  Eno.    Panitsjika  mamm,  Mal.    Panichekai  toombika,  Tam. 
Tnmika,  Tel.    Qanb,  HmD.    Qab,  Beno. 

Description. — Tree,  25-30  feet;  leaves  alternate,  linear- 
oblong,  pointed,  glabrous,  shining,  short  -  petioled ;  male 
peduncles  axillary,  solitary,  3-4  flowered;  stamens  20;  females 
1 -flowered,  larger  than  the  male;  stamens  2-4,  short;  pistils 
4 ;  nut  globular,  size  of  a  small  apple,  rusty-coloured,  filled 
with  pulpy  juice  and  covered  with  a  rusty  farina ;  seeds  8 ; 
flowers  white.    FL  March — April. — Roocb,  Fl,  Ind,  ii.  533. — 

Cor.  L  t  70. —  Wight  Icon.  t.  844. — Rheede  Mal.  iii.  t  41. 

Peninsula.    Travancore.    Bengal 

Medical  Uses. — The  juice  of  the  fruit  is  powerfully  astringent, 
and  is  an  excellent  remedy  in  diarrhoea  and  dysentery.  Dr  Short 
mentions  that  it  is  used  by  the  natives  as  a  local  application  to 
bruises  and  sprains,  as  it  tends  to  relieve  the  swelling. — Pharm.  of 
India. 

EooNOMio  TJsES. — ^The  fruit,  though  astringent,  is  eaten  by  the 
natives.  The  juice  is  used  in  Bengal  for  paying  the  bottom  of  boats. 
The  unripe  fruit  contains  a  very  Isj^e  proportion  of  tannin.  The  in- 
fusion is  used  to  steep  fishing-nets  in,  to  make  them  more  durable. 
The  Hindoo  doctors  apply  the  fresh  juice  of  the  fruit  to  wounds. 
On  the  Malabar  coast  it  is  much  employed  by  carpenters  as  an  ex- 
cellent glue.  The  glutinous  pulp  surrounding  the  seeds  is  used  by 
Europeans  in  binding  books,  as  it  is  obnoxious  to  insects.  The 
fruit  also  yields  a  concrete  oil  from  boiling  the  seeds.     They  are 


196  EMILIA — ENTADA, 

first  dried  in  the  sun,  then  pounded  and  boiled ;  the  oil  collects  on 
the  surface,  and  becomes  concrete  during  the  cooling.  It  is  of  a 
yellowish  colour. — Eoxb.    Ainalie. 

(255)  Emilia  soncliifolia  {Dec.)    K.  0.  AsTERACEiB. 

Muel-schevi,  Mal.    8adi-modi,  Bkno. 

Description. — ^Annual ;  stem  herbaceous,  branching  a  little 
towards  the  top ;  leaves  lyrate ;  stem  clasping ;  flowers  few,  in 
terminal  umbellets,  cylindrical,  peduncled;  flowers  small, 
bright  purpla     Fl,  Nov.  —  Feb.  —  Wight   Contrib.  p.   24. — 

Cacalia  sonchifolia,  Idnn, — Rheede  Mal.  x.  t  68. ^Both 

Peninsulas.    Common  everywhere. 

Medical  Uses. — This  plant  is  used  in  decoction  on  the  Malabar 
coast  as  a  febrifuge,  and  mixed  with  sugar  the  juice  is  given  in 
bowel-complaints.  The  leaves  are  eaten  raw  in  salads  in  China.  In 
Travancore  the  pure  juice  of  the  leaves  is  poured  drop  by  drop  in 
the  eyes  for  about  ten  minutes  in  cases  of  night-blindness.  The 
natives  consider  the  juice  as  cooling  as  rose-water,  and  prescribe  it 
in  inflammation  of  the  eyes. — Rheede,     Ainslie,     Pers,  Ob, 

(256)  Entada  pnacBtha  (Dee.)    N.  0.  Leouminosa 

Gila-gach.  BtOKQ.    Parin-kaka  Vally,  Mal. 

Description. — Climbing  shrub;  leaves  bipinnated;  pinnso 
2  pairs,  sometimes  only  1 ;  leaflets  2-5  pairs,  glabrous  on  both 
sides,  oblong-ovate  or  ovate-emarginate ;  spikes  solitary  or  in 
pairs,  axillary  ;  petals  5,  connected  at  the  base  ;  stamens  10 ; 
legume  more  or  less  twisted,  very  large,  2-3  feet  long,  ligneous, 
with  the  sutures  very  thick  ;  seeds  nearly  orbicular,  2  inches 
in  diameter ;  flowers  small,  pale  yellow.  Fl.  March — ^April. — 
W.  iSk  A.  Prod,  i.  267. — K  monostachya,  Dec. — Mimosa  scan- 
dens,  Linn. — M.  Entada,  Linn. — Rheede  Mal.  viii.  t.  32-34. — 
X.  t.  77. ^Travancore.    Western  Ghauts.    N.  Cii'cars. 

Medical  Uses. — The  seeds,  which  are  of  an  immense  size,  are 
used  by  natives  for  washing  the  hair,  and  by  the  hUl  people  as  a 
febrifuge,  and  also  said  to  be  employed  in  pains  of  the  loins  and 
debility.  In  Java  they  are  employed  as  emetic.  When  the  plants 
are  young,  the  spikes  are  frequently  axillary  on  the  young  shoot, 
which  has  made  some  botanists  suppose  that  there  are  two  species 
in  India. — Wight    Rheede,     Gibson, 


EPICARPUKUS — ERIODEN  DRON.         197 


(257)  Epicaiponui  orientalis  (Blutne).    K  O.  MoBACEiE. 

Sheon,  Bbng.    Peeialii.  Tak.    Pakkie,  Tel.    Nuckchilnie,  Duk.    Seenra,  HmD. 
Tinda-pania,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree;  leaves  alternate,  short-petioled,  obo- 
vate,  cuspidate,  acuminate,  serrated  towards  the  apex,  very- 
rough  above ;  male  flowers  capitate,  heads  axillary,  aggregated, 
short-peduncled ;  females  axillary,  1-2  togetiier,  longish-pedi- 
celled;  fruit  drupaceous,  deep  yellow,  1-seeded;  cotyledons 
very  unequal-sided  ;  flowers  small,  greenish  yellow.  Fl.  Jan, 
— Feb. — Wight  Icon.  vi.  t.  1961. — Trophis  aspera,   Willd. — 

Boxb.  Fl.  Ind,  iiL  761. — Rheede  Mal,  i  t.  48. Concans. 

CoromandeL     Bengal 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  is  described  by  Dr  Wight  as  a  small,  rigid, 
stunted -looking  tree,  common  all  over  India,  very  suitable  for 
hedges.  The  milky  juice  is  applied  to  sand-cracks  in  the  feet  and 
excoriations  of  the  skin.  The  plant  is  said  to  have  astringent  and 
antiseptic  qualities.  On  the  Malabar  coast  it  is  applied  in  decoc- 
tion 88  a  lotion  to  the  body  in  fevers,  and  the  root  bruised  is  applied 
to  boils.  A  fibre  is  procured  &om  the  stem,  and  pieces  of  the  wood 
are  frequently  used  by  the  natives  as  tooth-brushes. — Ainslie. 
Rheede, 

(258)  Eriodendion  anfractnoBum  (Dec)    'S,  0.  Bombacks. 

Pania,  Paniala,  Mal.     Elaynm,  Tam.     Pww  Tel.     Huttian,  Hnu).     Shwet- 
Bhimool,  Bbno.  3^  y^a  CL  ^   e-^^  KonA  Wk  c 

Desckiption. — Tree,  50-60  feet ;  trunk  prickly  at  the  base ; 
branches  growing  out  horizontally  from  the  stem,  three  from 
one  point ;  leaflets  5-8,  quite  entire,  or  serrulated  towards  the 
point,  lanceolate,  mucronate,  glaucous  beneath ;  petals  5,  united 
at  the  base,  filaments  joined  at  the  base,  each  bearing  2-3 
versatile  anfractuose  anthers ;  style  crowned  with  a  5-6  cleft 
stigma ;  capsule  5-celled,  5-valved ;  cells  many-seeded ;  seeds 
embedded  in  silky  cotton ;  flowers  white,  springing  from  the 
branches.  Fl.  Dec. — Jan. —  W.  &  A,  Prod,  i  61. —  Wight  Icon, 
t.  400. — Bombax  pentandrum,  Linn, — Bheede  Mal.  iii  t.  49-51, 
Peninsula.    Travancore. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — A  solution  of  the  gum  of  this  tree  is  given  in 
conjunction  with  spices  in  bowel-complaints.  The  cotton  which  is 
got  from  the  pods  is  only  of  use  for  stuffing  pillows  and  cushions. 
The  texture  is  too  loose  to  admit  of  its  being  used  in  the  fabrication 


198  ERYTHRJBA — ^ERYTHRINA. 

of  cloth.  The  cotton  from  it,  easily  catching  fire,  is  pnt  in  tinder- 
boxes,  and  employed  in  the  preparation  of  fireworks.  An  oil  is 
extracted  from  the  seeds,  of  a  dark-brown  colour. — {Jury  Rep.)  Dr 
Macfadyen  {Flora  of  Jamaica^  i.  93)  says  of  this  tree,  it  is  of 
rapid  growth  and  is  readily  propagated  by  stakes  placed  in  the 
ground.  Perhaps  no  tree  in  the  world  has  a  more  lofty  or  imposing 
appearance.  Even  the  untutored  children  of  Africa  are  so  struck 
with  the  majesty  of  its  appearance  that  they  designate  it  the  god- 
tree,  and  account  it  sacrilege  to  injure  it  with  the  axe.  The  large 
stems  are  hollowed  out  to  form  canoes.  The  wood  is  soft,  and  sub- 
ject to  the  attacks  of  insects  ;  but  if  steeped  in  strong  lime-water  it 
will  last  for  several  years,  even  when  made  into  boards  and  shingles, 
and  in  situations  exposed  to  the  weather.  The  young  leaves  are 
sometimes  dressed  by  the  negroes  as  a  substitute  for  okro. 


(259)  Erythraa  Boxburghii  {Dm).    N.  0.  Gentianacejs. 

Description. — Herbaceous;  stem  erect;  lowermost  leaves 
rosulate,  obovate- oblong,  obtuse ;  cymes  1-2  dichotomous, 
spreading;  flowers  lateral,  ebracteate,  star-like,  pink.  Fl. 
Jan. — ^Feb. — Dec,  Prod.  ix.  59. — Chironia  centauroides,  Bod>. — 
Wight  Icon,  1. 1325. ^Bengal  Peninsula.  Common  in  cul- 
tivated fields  after  the  rains. 

Medioal  Uses. — The  whole  plant  is  powerfully  bitter,  and  is 
held  in  great  repute  as  a  tonic  by  the  natives. — Beng.  Disp.  p.  461. 

(260)  Erythxlna  Indica  {Lam.)    N.  0.  LEOUMiNOSiSB. 

Indian  Coral  tree,  Eno.    Muruka-marum,  Tam.    Moolloo-moorikah,  Kal.    Palita- 
luundar,  Beno.     Furrud,  Hind.    Badide-chettu,  Tkl. 

Description. — Tree,  10-30  feet,  armed  with  prickles;  petioles 
and  leaves  unarmed;  leaves  pinnately  trifoliolate ;  leaflets 
glabrous,  entire,  the  terminal  ones  broadly  cordate ;  racemes 
terminal,  horizontal ;  calyx  spathaceous,  contracted  and  5- 
toothed  at  the  apex ;  corolla  papilionaceous ;  vexillum  about 
three  times  shorter  than  the  calyx,  and  four  times  longer  than 
the  alee ;  petals  of  keel  distinct ;  stamens  monadelphous,  with 
the  sheath  entire  at  the  base,  thence  diadelphous  with  the  tube 
split ;  legumes  6-8  seeded  ;  flowers  scarlet.  Fl.  Jan. — April — 
W.  &  A.  Prod.  I  2&Q.—Roxh.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  24a.—WigU  Icon, 

t  58. — Bhcede  Mai.  vi.  t.  7. — ^E.  Corallodendron,  LiuTi. Coro- 

mandel.     Concans.    Bengal 


EUCALYPTUS.  199 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — This  tree  yields  a  light  and  soft  wood  called 
Mootchie-woody  much  used  for  toys,  sword-sheaths,  and  other  light 
work.  Leaves  and  bark  are  used  in  cases  of  fevers  by  the  natives. 
The  tree  is  much  used  in  Malabar  for  the  support  of  the  betel  vines ; 
and  from  being  armed  with  numerous  prickles,  it  serves  as  an  ex- 
cellent hedge-plant  to  keep  cattle  from  cultivated  grounds. — Wight, 

(261)  EncalyptiiB  globnlns  (Labill)    K  0.  Mtrtacke. 

Axistralian  or  Blue-Gum  tree,  Eno. 

Description. — Lofty  tree;  young  shoots  and  foliage  glau- 
cous-white; leaves  of  the  young  trees  opposite,  sessile,  and 
cordate,  of  the  full-grown  tree  lanceolate  or  ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate,  falcate ;  veins  rather  conspicuous,  oblique  and  an- 
astomosing, the  intra-marginal  one  at  a  distance  from  the  edge ; 
flowers  large,  axillary,  solitary,  or  2-3  together,  closely  sessile 
on  the  stem  or  on  a  peduncle  not  longer  than  thick; ;  calyx 
tube  broadly  turbinate,  thick,  woody,  and  replete  with  oil-re- 
ceptacles, more  or  less  ribbed  and  rugose ;  border  prominent ; 
operculum  thick,  hard,  and  warty,  depressed  hemispherical ; 
stamens  inflected  in  the  bud,  raised  above  the  calyx  by  the 
thick  edge  of  the  disk ;  anthers  ovate,  with  parallel  cells ;  fruit 
semi-globular,  the  broad  flat-topped  disk  projecting  above  the 
calyx,  the  capsule  nearly  level  with  it ;  valves  flat. — Dec.  Prod. 
iii.  220.— Hook  Fl  Tami.  i.  m.—Benth.  Fl.  Austr.  iii  225. 
Cultivated  on  the  Neilgherries  and  other  high  lands. 

Medical  Uses. — Several  species  of  Eucalyptus  have  of  late  years 
become  naturalised  on  the  Neilgherries  and  other  high  lands  of  India. 
The  red  gum  of  Western  AustreJia  is  the  produce  of  several,  especially 
of  E.  resinifera.  In  its  medical  properties  it  is  nearly  allied  to  kino. 
It  has  been  introduced  into  British  practice  by  Sir  Eonald  Martin, 
who  found  it  very  effectual  in  the  treatment  of  chronic  bowol- 
complaints,  and  especially  in  the  chronic  dysentery  of  Europeans.  It 
is  reckoned  less  directly  astringent  and  more  demulcent  than  catechu 
or  kino.  The  dose  is  from  five  to  ten  grains  in  the  form  of  powder 
or  syrup. — (Pharm.  of  India.)  Professor  Wiesner  of  Vienna  in- 
vestigated the  subject  of  Eticalyptus  kino,  as  hitherto  no  reliable 
information  on  the  subject  existed.  He  adopts  the  name  kinOy 
because  gums  are  mostly  soluble  in  alcohol  as  well  as  in  water.  Eu- 
ealypttta  Mno  contained  from  16  to  17  per  cent  of  water;  it  gave 
only  a  trace  of  ash,  and  no  sugar  was  found  on  analysis.  The  phy- 
sical properties  nearly  agree  with  those  of  ordinary  kino :  it  forms 
dark  red,  more  or  less  transparent  grains :  in  thin  fragments,  under 
the  microscope,  quite  transparent  and  amorphous.  They  sink  in  cold 
water.     Water  dissolves  it  more  or  less  readily  to  a  red,  yellowish, 


200  EUCALYPTUS. 

or  brownish  liquid  of  astringent  taste.  Many  of  the  species  have 
hitherto  not  been  known  to  yield  any  gum.  The  E.  kino  is  ap- 
plicable for  tanning  or  dyeing.  The  value  varies  very  much.  The 
best  is  procured  from  JE.  corymboaa,  E,  roatrata,  and  E.  citriodora. 
— {Wiesner  in Pluvrm.  Jour,  Aug.  1871.)  The  species  under  consid- 
eration is  easily  acclimatised  in  the  southern  provinces  of  France, 
Corsica,  Algiers,  and  Spain,  being  known  in  the  last-named  country 
as  the  fever-tree.  An  essential  oil  is  obtained  from  the  leaves  by 
distillation,  which  has  been  named  Eucalyptol.  It  has  an  agreeable, 
fragrant,  aromatic  odour,  and  a  warm,  bitter  flavour.  Large  doses 
sometimes  cause  headache  and  fever,  with  accelerated  respiration 
and  thirst :  upon  anaemic  persons  it  acts  as  a  narcotic.  The  phy- 
siological action  of  the  leaves  is  very  similar. 

In  Australia  the  E,  globulus  is  the  })opular  remedy  for  fevers,  and 
in  Europe  it  has  been  used  successfully  in  the  treatment  of  diseases 
prevalent  in  marshy  districts.  M.  Gubler  quotes  the  testimony  of 
several  medical  practitioners,  who  say  that  it  produces  marvellous 
results  in  cases  of  intermittent  fevers,  especially  obstinate  ones,  where 
sulphate  of  quinine  has  failed.  He  also  points  out  that  in  marshy 
districts  near  to  Eucalyptus  forests  intermittent  fevers  are  unknown, 
a  result  that  he  attributes  either  to  the  neutralisation  of  the  effluvia 
by  the  aromatic  emanations  from  the  trees,  or  else  to  the  sweetening 
of  the  stagnant  waters  by  the  leaves  and  pieces  of  bark  that  fall  into 
them — such  waters,  according  to  travellers,  being  perfectly  potable. 
Efforts  are  therefore  being  made  to  increase  the  number  of  Eucalyp- 
tus plantations  in  the  marshy  and  insalubrious  districts  of  Corsica 
and  Algeria. 

The  tincture,  infusion,  and  decoction  of  Eucalyptus  are  used  for 
disinfecting  the  dressings  of  wounds.  M.  Mares  has  employed  fresh 
young  leaves  as  a  local  stimulant  to  small  wounds  slow  to  cicatrise. 
Dilute  essence,  infusion,  and  distilled  water  of  the  leaves  are  used  as 
astringents  and  haemostatics.  The  preparations  are  also  used  with 
success  in  purulent  catarrhal  affections  of  the  urethra  and  vagina. 
The  leaves,  when  masticated,  perfume  the  breath  and  harden  spongy 
and  bleeding  gums. — Professor  Gubler  in  Pltarfn,  Jour.  March 
1872. 

Economic  Uses. — ^These  trees  have  spread  so  rapidly  on  the 
Keilgherries  and  other  high  lands  that  they  bid  fair  to  become  of 
the  greatest  importance  as  timber-trees,  among  which  they  rank  very 
high,  being  especially  rapid  in  their  growth,  and  remarkably  durable. 
They  will  succeed  at  low  elevations,  at  3000  or  4000  feet  The  E. 
rostrata,  known  as  the  Yarrali  of  Western  Australia,  is  particularly 
recommended  for  sleepers  on  railways,  for  piles  in  river-work,  and 
in  all  purposes  requiring  strength  and  durability.  It  possesses  the 
property  of  resisting  the  white  ant  and  sea-worm  {Teredo  navalis)^ 
neither  of  which  have  been  kno>vn  to  attack  it,  though  constantly 
exposed  to  both.  The  specific  gravity  of  Yarrah  is  about  the  same 
as  teak.    It  is  unsuited  for  cabinet-work,  as  it  is  extremely  hard,  and 


EUCALYPTUS.  201 

could  not  be  worked  to  advantage.  The  K  globulus  attained  at  Oota- 
camund  9  feet  in  girth  in  18  years.  The  other  species  growing  there 
are  K  gummifera  and  E,  rohusta, — {GleghorrCa  Forests  arid  Gardens 
of  8.  India,  Govt  Reports,)  A  vcJuable  oil  is  yielded  by  several 
species  of  Ihtealypttts,  and  now  forms  a  considerable  branch  of  trade 
in  Australia.  In  his  lecture  on  Forest  Culture,  Baron  Von  MueUer 
says  it  is  possible  to  produce  the  oil  at  a  price  so  cheap  as  to  allow 
the  article  to  be  used  in  various  branches  of  art — ^for  instance,  in  the 
manufacture  of  scented  soap,  it  having  been  ascertained  that  this  oil 
surpasses  any  other  in  value  for  diluting  the  oils  of  roses,  of  orange- 
flowers,  and  other  very  costly  oils,  for  which  purpose  it  proves  far 
more  valuable  than  the  oil  of  rosemary  and  other  ethereal  oils  hitherto 
used.  As  this  became  known,  such  a  demand  arose  that  a  thoughtful 
and  enterpnsing  citizen  of  Melbourne  was  able  to  export  about  9000 
lb.  to  England  and  3000  lb.  to'  foreign  ports,  though  even  now  this 
oil  is  but  very  imperfectly  known  abroad.  The  average  quantity  now 
produced  at  his  establishment  for  export  is  700  lb.  per  month.  Al- 
coholic extracts  of  the  febrifugal  foliage  of  Eucalyptus  globulus  and 
E,  amygdalina  have  also  been  exported  in  quantity  by  the  same 
gentleman  to  England,  Germany,  and  America.  Originally  an  opinion 
was  entertained  that  all  the  Eucalyptus  oils  had  great  resemblance  to 
each  other ;  such,  however,  proved  not  to  be  the  case  when  accurate 
experimental  tests  came  to  be  applied.  Thus,  for  instance,  the  oil, 
which  in  such  rich  percentage  is  obtained  from  Eucalyptus  amygda- 
lina, though  excellent  for  diluting  the  most  delicate  essential  oils,  is 
of  far  less  value  as  a  solvent  for  resins  in  the  fabrication  of  select 
varnishes.  For  this  latter  purpose  the  oil  of  one  of  the  dwarf  Eu- 
calypts  forming  the  Malee  scrub,  a  species  to  which  Dr  Mueller  gave, 
on  account  of  its  abundance  of  oil,  the  name  Eucalyptus  oleosa, 
nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago,  proved  far  the  best.  It  is  this 
Malee  oil  which  is  now  coming  into  extensive  adaptations  for  dis- 
solving amber,  Kauri  resin,  and  various  kinds  of  copal.  Those  Eu- 
calypts  are  the  most  productive  of  oil  from  their  leaves  which  have 
the  largest  number  of  pellucid  dots  in  these  organs.  This  is  easily 
ascertaiQed  by  viewing  the  leaves  by  transmitted  light,  when  the 
transparent  oU-glands  will  become  apparent,  even  without  the  use  of 
a  magnifying  lens.  But  there  are  still  other  reasons  which  have 
drawn  the  Eucalypts  into  extensive  cultural  use  elsewhere — for 
instance,  in  Algeria,  Spain,  Portugal,  Italy,  the  south  of  France, 
Greece,  Egypt,  Palestine,  various  uplands  of  India,  the  savannahs 
of  ^North  .Ajnerica,  the  llanos  of  South  America,  at  Natal,  and  other 
places  in  South  Africa,  and  even  as  near  as  New  Zealand.*  One  of 
the  advantages  offered  is  the  extraordinary  facility  and  quickness 
with  which  the  seeds  are  raised,  scarcely  any  care  being  requisite  in 
nursery-work — -a  seedling,  moreover,  being  within  a  year,  or  even 

*  The  seeds  of  Eucalyptus  rostrata  (red-gnm  tree)  are  available  for  all  tropic 
countries,  inasmuch  as  this  species,  \rhich.  is  almost  incomparably  valuable  for 
its  lasting  wood,  ranges  naturally  right  through  the  hot  zone  of  Australia. 


202  EUGENIA. 

less  time,  fit  for  final  transplantation.  Another  advantage  consists 
in  the  ease  vriih.  T^hich  the  transmit  can  be  efifected,  in  consequence 
of  the  minuteness  of  most  kinds  of  Eucalyptus  seeds,*  there  being, 
besides,  no  difficulty  in  packing  on  account  of  the  natural  dryness 
of  these  seeds.  For  curiosity's  sake  Dr  Mueller  had  an  ounce  of  the 
seed  of  several  species  counted,  with  the  following  results : — 

Blae-gum  tree  1  ounce—sifted  fertile  seed-grains,  10,112. 
Stringy-bark  tree  (unsifted),  21,080. 
Swamp-gam  tree  (unsifted),  28,264. 
Peppermint  Eucalypt  (unsifted),  17,600. 

According  to  this  calculation,  161,792  plants  could  be  raised  from 
1  lb.  of  seeds  of  the  blue-gum  tree.  If  only  half  the  seeds  of  such 
grew,  the  number  of  seedlings  would  be  enormous ;  and  even  if  only 
the  seedlings  of  one  quarter  of  the  seeds  of  1  lb.  finally  were  estab- 
lished, they  would  suffice,  in  the  instance  of  the  blue-gum  tree,  to 
cover  404  acres,  assuming  that  we  planted  at  the  rate  of  100  trees  to 
the  acre  (allowing  for  thinning  out). 

It  seems  marvellous  that  trees  of  such  colossal  dimensions,  counting 
among  the  most  gigantic  of  the  globe,  shoidd  arise  from  a  seed-grain 
80  extremely  minute. 

The  exportation  of  Eucalyptus  seeds  has  already  assumed  some 
magnitude.  The  monthly  mails  convey  occasionally  quantities  to 
the  value  of  over  JBIOO ;  the  total  export  during  the  last  twelve  years 
must  have  reached  several,  or  perhaps  many,  thousand  pounds  ster- 
ling. For  the  initiation  of  this  new  resource,  through  his  extensive 
correspondence  abroad,  Dr  Mueller  can  lay  much  claim ;  and  he  be- 
lieves that  almost  any  quantity  of  Eucalyptus  seed  could  be  sold  in 
the  markets  of  London,  Paris,  Calcutta,  San  FranciBco,  Buenos  Ayres, 
Valparaiso,  and  elsewhere,  as  it  will  be  long  before  a  sufficient  local 
supply  can  be  secured  abroad  from  cultivated  trees. — Von  Mueller  on 
Fm-est  Culture.     Pharm.  Jour.  Feb.  1872. 

(262)  Eugenia  acris  (Wight).    N".  0.  Myrtace^. 

The  Pimento-tree,  Eno. 

-  Description. — Tree,  20-30  feet ;  young  branches  acutely  4- 
angled;  leaves  opposite,  elliptic-oval,  obtuse,  very  glabrous, 
upper  side  reticulated  with  elevated  veins;  peduncles  com- 
pressed, axillary  and  terminal,  trichotomous,  corymbose,  rather 
longer  than  the  leaves;  calyx  limb  5-partite,  segments  roundish; 
berry  globose,  1-4  seeded ;  flowers  small,  white.  Fl.  Jaa — 
March. —  W.  &  A.  Prod,  i  331. — R  pimenta,  Dec. — Myrtus 
pimenta,  Linn. Courtallum.    Travancore.    Madras. 

*  The  seeds  of  the  West  Australian  red-fram  tree  (EttccUypiua  ccUophylla)  and 
the  East  Australian  bloodwood-tree  {Euealifptua  corymboia)  are  comparatively 
large  and  heavy.  _  _ 


EUONYMUS — ^EUPHORBIA.  203 

'  Economic  Ubbh. — Introdnced  from  America.  The  limber  is  hard, 
red,  and  heavy,  capable  of  being  polished  and  used  for  mill-cogs,  and 
other  purposes,  where  much  friction  is  to  be  sustained.  The  bark  is 
astringent  and  somewhat  aromatic  The  leaves  are  sweetly  aromatic, 
astringent,  and  often  used  in  sauce.  The  berries  are  used  for  culinary 
purposes. — Lunan. 

(263)  Enonymiui  crennlatns  {WdU.)    "N.  0.  CELASTRACEiS. 

DESCRiPTiON.r-Small  tree ;  leaves  elliptic,  obtuse,  crenulate- 
serrate  towards  the  apex,  coriaceous,  deep  shining  green 
above ;  peduncles  solitary,  shorter  than  the  leaves,  1-2  dicho- 
tomous,  few -flowered;  flowers  5-6  merons,  petals  orbicular; 
stamens  very  short ;  anthers  opening  transversely ;  margin  of 
the  torus  free ;  style  very  short ;  stigma  blunt,  jsomewhat 
umbilicated ;  capsule  turbinate,  6-celled,  lobed  at  the  apex ; 
seed  with  a  small  aril. —  W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  161. — Bedd.  Flor. 
Sylv.  1 144i. Neilgherries.    Pulneys.    Western  Ghauts. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  wood  is  white,  very  hard  and  close-grained, 
and  answers  for  wood-engraving,  and  about  the  best  substitute  for 
boxwood.     The  wood  of  the  other  species  is  similar. 

(264)  Enpatorinm  Ayapana  (Vent)    N.  O.  CoMPosiTiB. 

Description.  —  Small  shrub;  branchlets  reddish;  leaves 

opposite,  lanceolate  ;  flowers  yellow. Banks  of  the  Jumna. 

Naturalised. 

Medical  IJsBS.--^Properly  indigenous  to  South  America,  though 
some  botanists  believe  it  to  have  been  introduced  into  India  from 
the  Isle  of  France,  and  others  that  it  is  a  native  of  the  country. 
The  leaves  have  a  peculiar  fragrant  odour,  and  when  first  tasted 
slightly  irritate  the  tongue,  but  afterwards  the  astringent  quality  is 
felt.  When  fresh  bruised,  they  are  advantageously  applied  to  the 
cleansing  of  foul  ulcers.  The  whole  plant  is  aromatic,  and  is  a  good 
stimulant,  tonic,  and  diaphoretic.  In  the  Mauritius  it  is  used  in 
the  form  of  infusion  in  dyspepsia  and  other  affections  of  the  bowels 
and  lungs. — (Bouton  Med.  Plants  of  Mauritius.)  As  an  antidote  to 
snake-bites,  it  has  been  employed,  both  externally  and  internally, 
with  apparent  success. — (Madras  Quart.  Med,  Journ.  iv.  7.)  A 
decoction  of  the  leaves  makes  a  good  fomentation. — Pharm,  of  India. 

(265)  Euphorbia  antianomm  (Linn.)    N.  0.  EuPHORBucEiB. 

Triangular  Spurge,  Eno.  Schadida-calll,  Mal.  Shadray  Eullie,  Tah.  Bonta- 
jammoodoo,  Tel.    Narashjj,  Seyard,  Hind.    Nars^,  Beno. 

Description. — Stems  jointed,  erect,  ramous,  3-4  or  more 


204  EUPHORBIA. 

angled ;  angles  furnished  with  numerous  protuberances,  each 
armed  with  two  short  spreading  stipulary  spines ;  joints 
straight ;  peduncles  solitary  or  in  pairs,  usually  3-flowered  a 
little  above  the  axils  of  the  stipules ;  flowers  greenish  yellow. 
FL  Dec-^Jan.— 5oa;6.  Fl  Ind.  ii.  468.—  Wight  Icon,  t  897 

— JRheede,  iL  t,  42. CoromandeL     Common  in  waste  places 

in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  juice  which  flows  from  the  branches  of  this 
plant  is  corrosive.  The  natives  use  it  externally  in  rheumatism ; 
they  also  give  it  in  toothache ;  and  internally,  when  diluted,  as  a 
purgative  in  cases  of  obstinate  constipation.  This  is  easily  distin- 
guished from  the  allied  species  by  the  straight,  not  twisted  stem, 
and  the  peduncles  being  few,  one  or  two  from  each  protuberance  or 
bud,  while  in  the  others  they  are  nimierous.  A  plaster  prepared 
from  the  roots  and  mixed  with  assafoetida  is  applied  externally  to 
the  stomachs  of  children  suflering  from  worms.  The  bark  of  the 
root  is  purgative,  and  the  stem  is  given  in  decoction  in  gout — 
{Wight  Rheede,  Ainslie.)  The  resin  has  acrid,  narcotic,  drastic, 
and  emetie  qualities.  It  is  used  in  dropsy,  and  as  an  errhine  in 
chronic  affections  of  the  ears,  eyes,  or  brain.  It  is  a  dangerous 
medicine.  Mixed  with  cantharides,  it  forms  gout  -  plaster. — 
LindUy. 

(266)  Euphorbia  Oattimandoo  (TT.  Elliot).    Do. 

Cattimanda,  Tel. 

Description. — Shrub  or  small  tree ;  stem  erect,  5-sided,  with 
prominent  repand  angles;  stipulary  thorns  paired,  short, 
subulate;  leaves  sessile,  succulent,  deciduous,  obovate,  sub- 
cuneate,  cuspidate,  glabrous ;  peduncles  crowded,  3-flowered, 
middle  one  usually  sterile,  and  lateral  one  fertile,  flowering 
after  the  fall  of  the  leaf.  FL  March — June. —  Wight  Icon,  t 
1993. ^Vizagapatam. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  valuable  plant  was  first  brought  to  notice 
by  the  Hon.  W.  Elliot.  I  here  transcribe  from  Dr  Wight's  *Icones* 
the  following  notes,  which  were  communicated  to  him  by  Mr  Elliot: 
"  The  milk  is  obtained  by  cutting  off  the  branches,  when  it  flows 
freely.  It  is  collected  and  boiled  on  the  spot,  at  which  time  it  is 
very  elastic ;  but  after  being  formed  into  cakes  or  cylinders,  it 
becomes  resinous  or  brittle,  in  which  state  it  is  sold  in  the  bazaars, 
and  employed  as  a  cement  for  fixing  knives  into  handles,  and  other 
similar  purposes,  which  is  effected  by  heating  it.  It  is  also  employed 
medicinally,  as  an  outward  application  in  cases  of  rheumatism.  The 
juice  I  sent  you  was,  I  think,  boiled  in  water.     It  is  much  superior 


V 


V5 


^  EUPHORBIA.  205 

v^   to  what  is  sold  in  tlie  bazaar ;  but  it  has  not  the  valuable  property, 

^    like  gutta-percha,  of  being  ductHe  at  aU  times.     It  can  be  made  to 

^   take  any  shape  when  first  boiled,  but,  as  far  as  we  know,  not  after- 

^    wards,  though  some  plan  may  be  found  for  making  it  more  pliant 

afterwards."    In  remarking  upon  the  specimen  sent  him,  Dr  Wight 

^  states  as  follows :  "  Judging  from  the  above-mentioned  sample  of 

"^   the  Cattimandoo  now  before  me,  I  should  suppose  that,  were  it  in 

"V    the  hands  of  men  accustomed  to  work  in  such  material,  it  would 

^^    soon  be  turned  to  valuable  account.     I  find,  when  exposed  to  the 

^^^    heat  of  a  fire  or  lamp,  it  rapidly  softens,  and  becomes  as  adhesive  to 

^    the  hands  as  shoemaker's  wax;  but  when' soaked  for  some  time  in 

•  ^     warm  water  (150°  to  180°),  then  it  slowly  softens,  becomes  pliable 

^>r*    and  plastic,  and  in  that  state  takes  any  required  form."     Specimens 

of  the  gum  were  sent  to  the  Great  Exhibition  in  1851,  as  well  aa 

to  the  Madras  Exhibition.     In  the  report  of  the  jurors  it  was  said 

that  it  may  be  applied  to  a  variety  of  uses.     It  requires  little  or  no 

jS     preparation.     The  fresh  juice  is  used  as  a  vesicant.     Articles  may 

^    easily  be  moulded  by  the  hand  from  it. — Wight,     Jury  Rep. 

(267)  Enphorbia  lignlaria  {RoxK)  '  Do. 

,^3  Monsa  sg,  Bkno. 

Description. — Tree,  20  feet ;  young  shoots  5-sided,  some- 
what spirally  disposed,  and  armed  with  large  teeth,  each  of 
which  supports  a  leaf,  and  a  pair  of  short,  black,  stipulary 
thorns;  leaves  alternate  about  the  ends  of  the  branches, 
wedge-shaped,  waved,  fleshy ;  peduncles  solitary  between  the 
serratures  of  the  angles  of  the  branchlets,  1-3  dichotomous, 
with  a  larger  sessile  flower  in  the  forks;  petals  5,  fringed 
with  a  ragged  margin  inserted  into  the  calyx ;  flowers  greeuish 
yellow.  Fl  Feb. — March.— iJoajJ.  Fl  Lid,  ii.  465. Penin- 
sula.   Bengal. 

Medical  Uses — The  root  mixed  with  black  pepper  is  employed  in 
cases  of  snake-bites,  both  ititemally  and  extemsdly.  The  plant  is 
sacred  to  Munsa,  the  goddess  of  serpents.  Every  part  abounds  with 
an  acrid  milky  juice,  employed  to  remove  warts  and  cutaneous  erup- 
tion.— (Roxb.)  In  July  and  August,  on  Tuesdays  igid  Thursdays, 
the  natives  approach  this  tree  with  offerings  of  rice,  milk,  and  sugar, 
praying  to  be  delivered  fipom  snake-bites.  However,  they  employ  a 
surer  meauB  by  mixing  the  root  with  black  pepper  as  a  remedy  in 
bites.  The  native  doctors  purify  arsenic  by  making  a  hole  in  the 
trunk  of  the  tree,  flUing  it  up  with  solid  arsenic,  and  after  being 
covered  with  the  bark  of  the  same  plant,  the  whole  is  exposed  to  a 
good  Are,  until  the  external  parts  of  the  trunk  are  completely  charred, 
when  the  arsenic  is  taken  out  and  becomes  fit  for  use. — Joum,  of 
Agri,  Hart.  Soc  of  India,  x.  37.  ^  -^ 


206  EUPHORBIA. 


(268)  Euphorbia  nivnlia  (Buck.)    Do. 

Ellaciilli,  Mal.    Elakullie,  Tam.    Akoo-jemmoodoo,  Tel.    Ptoon,  HcvD.    8by, 
Beno. 

Description. — ^Tree;  branches  round;  thorns  stipnlary; 
leaves  sub  -  sessile,  wedge  -  shaped ;  peduncles  3  -  flowered ; 
flowers  greenish  yellow.  FL  March — ^ApriL —  WigM  Icon,  t 
1862. — Boxb,  FL  Ind,  ii  467. — E.  nereifolia,  Linn. — Rheede,  ii. 
t  43. Concans.    Bengal    Coromandel. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^The  juice  of  the  leaves  of  this  plant  is  used 
internally  as  a  purgative;  mixed  with  Margosa  oil  it  is  applied 
externally  in  certain  cases  of  rheumatism.  On  the  western  coast 
the  bark  of  the  root  boiled  in  rice-water  and  arrack  is  given  in 
dropsy.  The  leaves  simply  warmed  in  the  fire  will  promote  urine 
externally  applied,  while  their  juice  warmed  is  a  good  remedy  in 
ear-ache,  and  is  occasionally  rubbed  over  the  eyes  to  remove  dimness 
of  sight — {Ainalie.  Rheede,)  The  pulp  of  the  stem,  mixed  with 
green  ginger,  is  given  to  persons  who  have  been  bitten  by  mad  dogs, 
previous  to  the  appearance  of  hydrophobia. — Joum,  of  Agru-Hort. 
Soc.  X.  37. 


(269)  Euphorbia  thymifolia  (Linn.)    Do. 

Chin-amaum-patchayarise,  Sittra  paladi,  Tam.    Biddarie-nanabeeam,  Tel.  Shewt* 
khenia,  Beno. 

DESCRrpnoN. — ^Branches  pressing  flat  on  the  earth,  coloured, 
hairy ;  leaves  opposite,  obliquely  ovate,  serrate  ;  flowers  axil- 
lary, crowded  on  short  peduncles,  small,  greenish ;  calyx  and 
corolla  each  of  four  semilateral  parts.  FL  Nearly  all  the  year. 
— Roxb.  FL  Ind.  ii  473. ^Peninsula.  Bengal  Dry  situa- 
tions near  woods. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves  and  seeds  are  slightly  aromatic  and 
astringent.  In  a  dried  state  they  are  given  as  a  vermifuge.  The 
leaves  when  carefully  dried  smell  like  tea.—  Aindie. 


(270)  Euphorbia  tiracalli  {Linn.)    Do. 

Milk-bedge  or  Indian  Tree  Spnrge,  Eko.    Triacalli,  Mal.  and  Tax.    Lnnka  sij, 
Beno. 

Description. — Tree  unarmed,  20  feet;  leaves  alternate, 
remote,  sessile,  linear,  smooth;  flowers  at  the  end  of  the 
twigs  and  in  the  divisions  of  the  bi-anchlets,  crowded,  sub- 
sessile,  pale  yellow  ;  calyx  campanulate,  with  3-5  flat  peltate 


EURYALE,  20? 

horizontal  segments ;  capsule  villous,  5-lobed,  3-celled ;  seeds 
solitary.  Fl,  June — Sept. — Roocb.  Fl.  Ind,  ii.  470. — RJieede, 
ii.  t  44 CoromandeL    Malabar.    BengaL 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  iresli  acrid  juice  of  this  plant  is  used  as  a 
yesicatory.  Bheede  says  that  a  decoction  of  the  tender  branches  is 
given  in  colic,  and  the  milky  juice  mixed  with  butter  as  a  purga- 
tive, on  the  Malabar  coast.  It  is  used  among  the  natives  as  a  good 
manure.  Goats  will  eat  the  plant  notwithstanding  its  acrid  juice. 
The  bark  and  small  branches  are  ingredients  used  in  dyeing  cotton 
a  black  colour.  The  root  in  decoction  is  administered  internally  in 
pains  in  the  stomach.  On  the  Coromandel  coast  it  is  frequently 
employed  for  hedges,  and  is  known  as  the  milk-hedge. — RoxK 

(271)  Enryale  feroz  (SalisK)    K  0.  NrMPHiBACE^, 

Machana,  Hind. 

Desckiption. — Stemless  floating  plant ;  sepals  4 ;  petals 
numerous  in  4-7  series ;  leaves  peltate,  about  1-4  feet  each 
way  from  orbicular  to  oval,  entire,  dark  green  above,  with 
ferruginous  veins,  armed,  with  few  slender  prickles  above, 
spinous  beneath ;  petioles  armed ;  calyx  covered  with  recurved 
spines  on  the  outside;  carpel  size  of  a  pea;  flowers  bluish 
purpla  FL  Nearly  all  the  year. — Anneslea  spinosa,  Boxb.  FL 
Ind.  ii  573. Chittagong.    Lucknow. 

EcoxoMio  UsB& — The  fibrous  roots  of  this  curious  plant  descend 
deep  into  the  soil  at  the  bottom  of  the  water.  If  the  water  be 
shallow  the  peduncles  are  long  enough  to  elevate  the  flower  above 
the  surface,  but  if  deep  they  blossom  under  water.  The  petals  of 
the  flowers  are  very  numerous,  the  exterior  ones  being  large,  and 
gradually  lessening  till  they  become  very  small.  It  is  a  native  of 
sweet-water  lakes  and  ponds  in  Chittagong  and  places  eastward  of 
Calcutta,  where  it  is  in  blossom  most  part  of  the  year.  The  seeds 
are  farinaceous,  and,  after  being  heated  in  hot  sand  and  husked,  are 
eaten  by  the  natives.  Eoxburgh  states  that  the  mode  of  preparation 
to  fit  them  for  the  table  is  as  follows :  A  quantity  of  sand  is  put 
into  an  earthen  vessel,  placed  over  a  gentle  fire :  in  the  sand  they 
put  a  quantity  of  the  seed,  agitate  the  vessel,  or  the  sand,  with  an 
iron  ladle.  The  seed  sweUs  to  more  than  double  its  original  size, 
when  it  becomes  light,  white,  and  spongy.  During  the  operation  the 
liard  husk  of  the  seed  breaks  in  various  parts,  and  then  readily 
separates  by  rubbing  between  two  boards,  or  striking  it  gently  with 
a  by-board.  The  Hindoo  physicians  consider  these  seeds  to  be  pos- 
sessed of  powerful  medical  virtues,  such  as  restraining  seminal  gleets, 
and  invigorating  the  system. — (Roxb.)    This  plant  was  found  by 


208  EVOLVULUS — EXACUM. 

Lord  Valencia  between  Lucknow  and  the  foot  of  the  hills,  and  bj 
Dr  Roxburgh  in  the  lakes  of  Tipperah  and  Chittagong.  Dr  Eoyle 
met  with  it  in  the  j  heels  beyond  Saharunpore,  but  it  had  no  doubt 
been  introduced  there,  as  the  names  given  it  are  synonymous  with 
southern  Nymphaoa  and  purple  Nelumbium.  It  is  mentioned  by 
Sir  Greorge  Staunton  as  occurring  in  the  province  of  Kianang,  and 
by  the  Chinese  missionaries  it  is  said  to  have  been  introduced  into 
China  for  three  thousand  years.  It  may,  however^  be  one  of  those 
plants  which  belong  equally  to  India  and  China. — Royle  Him.  Bot. 

(272)  Evolvnlas  alsinoides  {Linn,)    K  0.  Convolvulaoea. 

Yistna-clandi,  Mal.    Vistnoo-krandie,  Tam.    Vistnoo-kraiidum,  Tel. 

Description. — Procumbent ;  stem,  scarcely  any  ;  branches' 
numerous,  covered  when  young  with  long,  soft,  white  hairs ; 
leaves  alternate,  bifarious,  sub-sessile,  oblong,  entire,  hairy  on 
both  sides ;  peduncles  axillary,  solitary,  longer  than  the  leaves, 
pointed  near  the  middle,  1-3  flowered,  erect  while  in  blossom, 
afterwards  drooping ;  calyx  of  5  segments,  lanceolate ;  corolla 
campanulate;  flowers  small,  blue  with  a  white  tube.  Fl. 
Nov. — Jan. — Roxb,  Fl,  Ind.  ii.  106. — E.  hirsutus.  Lam. — 
Mheede,  xi.  t  64. Peninsula.     Bengal 

Medical  Uses. — ^A  widely-distributed  plant  The  leaves,  stalks, 
and  roots  are  used  in  medicine,  and  reputed  to  be  excellent  reme- 
dies in  dysentery  and  fever. — Ainslie, 

(273)  Exacnin  bicolor  {Raxh,)    N.  0.  Gentianaces. 

Description. — Small  plant,  1-2  feet;  stem  and  branches 
tetragonal ;  leaves  sessile,  sub-acute,  ovate,  3-5  nerved,  mar- 
gins smooth  ;  calyx  4-cleft ;  flowers  axillary,  solitary,  on  short 
pedicels ;  corolla  white,  having' the  segments  tipped  with  blue. 
Fl  Aug.— Oct— Wight  Icon,  t  1321.— Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  I  397. 

Neilgherries.     Malabar.     Cuttack.     Salsette.     By  the 

margins  of  rivulets. 

Medical  Uses. — A  valuable  febrifuge.  The  dried  stalks  are  sold 
at  Mangalore  and  elsewhere  in  the  Southern  Peninsula  under  the 
name  of  Country  Kariyat.  It  possesses  the  tonic  stomachic  pro- 
perties of  Gentian,  and  may  be  advantageously  substituted  for  it. 
The  E.  tetraganum  is  another  species,  possessing  similar  properties. 
It  is  common  in  the  Himalaya,  and  the  mountains  and  plains  of 
Bengal  and  Central  India  as  far  south  as  Bombay.  The  whole 
plant  is  powerfully  bitter,  and,  according  to  Boyle,  is  called  by  the 


EXCiECARIA.  209 

natives  Ooda  (purple)  Chiretta.  The  E,  pedunculatum  is  a  third 
species,  with  similar  virtues  as  a  bitter  tonic.  It  is  common  in  the 
western  districts  of  Mysore.  Dr  Wight  recommends  that  the  plants 
be  gathered  when  the  flowers  begin  to  fade,  and  to  be  carefully  dried 
in  the  shade.  For  administration  it  may  be  given  in  infusion  and 
tincture  of  the  same  strength  as  those  of  Chiretta.  Many  other 
species  occur  in  India,  and  are  all  worthy  of  trial  where  they  are 
indigenous. — Pharm.  of  India. 

(274)  Exc8Bcaria  AgaUocha  (Muller),    N.  0.  Euphorbiaceje, 

var,  Camettia. 

Canietti,  Mal. 

Description. — Small  tree  or  shrub ;  leaves  ovate  or  elliptic ; 
obtuse  at  the  base,  entire  or  crenate-semilate ;  male  spikes 
amentiform,  dense-flowered,  cylindric ;  female  racemes  shorter 
than  the  male  spikes,  and  in  separate  branches,  both  axillary, 
solitary,  or  rarely  twin ;  bracts  destitute  of  distinct  glands  ; 
male  calyx  sessile,  covered  by  the  bract,  female  sepals  ovate, 
with  one  gland  on  both  sides  of  the  base  inside ;  anthers  long — 
exserted  after  flowering;  capsule  sulcately  3-lobed;  flowers 
greenish.  FL  March — May. — Dec,  Prod.  xv.  s.  2,  p.  1221. — 
E  camettia,  Willd.  Wight  Icon,  t  18G5. — Rheede,  v.  t.  45. 
Salt  marshes  of  the  Peninsula.    Travancore  back-waters. 

Medical  Uses. — This  shrub  or  small  tree  grows  abundantly  along 
the  back-waters  in  Travancore  and  Cochin.  It  abounds  in  an  acrid 
mOky  juice,  and  is  known  as  the  Tigei's-milk  tree.  The  natives 
are  afraid  almost  to  cut  the  branches,  for  fear  of  the  milk  blistering 
the  skin,  or  causing  blindness  should  it  by  chance  get  into  the 
eyes.  The  juice  is  applied  with  good  eifect  to  inveterate  ulcers. 
The  leaves  are  used  also  in  decoction  for  this  purpose.  A  good  kind 
of  caoutchouc  may  be  prepared  from  the  milk,  which  is  worthy  of 
attention. — Wieede.     Prrs.  Obs. 

(275)  Excfldcaria  sebifera  (Muller).    Do. 

China  Tallow-tree,  Eno. 

Description. — Tree ;  leaves  long-petioled,  rhomb-ovate,  en- 
tire, sharply  acuminate  at  the  apex,  sub-membranaceous ;  ra- 
cemes spiciform,  terminal,  at  length  far  exceeding  the  leaves  ; 
bracts  very  broadly  ovate,  acute,  many-flowered,  many  times 
shorter  than  the  aggregated  pedicels;  male  calyx  2-3  cleft, 
female  S-partite,  1-2  of  the  segments  often  cleft,  and  the  calyx 

14 


210  EXCiECARIA. 

then  becomes  irregularly  and  spuriously  5-partite;  stamens 
most  frequently  2 ;  styles  connate  below  into  a  column,  above 
recurved,  spreading;  capsules  largish,  globose-ellipsoid,  sub- 
acute, thinly  fleshy,  long,  black;  seeds  furnished  imder  the 
skin  with  a  thick,  white,  tallowy  bed,  forming  a  spurious  ariL — 
MuUer  in  Dec,  Prod.  xv.  s.  p.  p.  1210. — Stillingia  sebifera^ 
Michx. — Sapium  sebiferum,  Boaib. — S.  sinensis,  Baill.  JEuph. 
p.  512.  t  7,  fig.  26-30. Cultivated. 

EcoNOHio  Uses. — A  native  of  China,  this  useful  tree  has  for  some 
time  been  introduced  into  India.  In  northern  China  it  forms  a  vast 
trade.  At  Shanghai  it  is  equal  to  2^  millions  sterling,  and  by  its 
produce  the  cultivators  pay  the  revenue  of  whole  districts.  The  tree 
now  grows  with  great  luxuriance  in  the  Dhoons,  and  in  the  Kohistan 
of  the  K.W.  Provinces  and  Punjaub,  and  there  are  now  tens  of 
thousands  of  trees  in  the  Government  plantations  of  Kowalghir, 
Hawal  Bagh,  and  Ayar  Tolie,  from  which  tons  of  seeds  are  available 
for  distribution.  For  burning,  the  tallow  is  excellent,  gives  a  bright, 
clear,  inodorous  flame,  and  without  smoke.  The  tree  fruits  abun- 
dantly both  in  the  Dhoons  and  in  the  plains,  and  grows  with  great 
rapidity.  The  tallow  is  separated  by  steaming  the  seeds  in  tubs  with 
convex  open  wicker  bottoms,  placed  over  caldrons  of  boiling  water. 
The  seed-vessels  are  hard  brownish  husks,  not  omlike  those  of  chest- 
nuts, and  each  of  them  contains  three  round  white  kernels,  having 
small  stones  within.  It  is  the  hard,  white,  oleaginous  substance 
surrounding  these  stones  which  possesses  most  of  the  properties  of 
tallow ;  but  on  stripping  it  off  it  does  not  soil  the  hands.  From  the 
shell  and  stone,  or  seed,  oil  is  extracted,  so  that  the  fruit  produces 
tallow  for  candles  and  oil  for  lamps.  To  obtain  the  extract  the 
Chinese  grind  the  fruit  in  a  trunk  of  a  tree  which  is  hollowed  out, 
shaped  l&e  a  canoe,  lined  with  iron,  and  firmly  fixed  in  the  ground. 
Lengthwise  within  this  trunk  there  moves  backwards  and  forwards 
a  millstone,  whose  axis  is  fixed  to  a  long  pole  laden  with  a  heavy 
weight  to  increase  the  pressure,  and  suspended  from  a  beam.  After 
the  seed  has  been  pounded,  it  is  thrown  with  a  small  quantity  of 
water  into  a  large  iron  vessel,  exposed  to  fire,  and  reduced  by  heat 
into  a  thick  consistent  mass.  It  is  next  put  into  a  case  consisting  of 
four  or  five  broad  iron  hoops,  piled  one  above  the  other,  and  lined 
with  straw,  and  then  pressed  down  with  the  feet  as  closely  as  possible 
till  it  fills  the  case.     It  ia  afterwards  carried  to  the  press. 

Another,  and  perhaps  more  generally  adopted  process,  is,  merely 
to  boil  the  bruised  seed  in  water,. and  to  collect  the  tallowy  matter 
that  floats  to  the  surface.  A  certain  quantity  of  some  vegetable  oil, 
occasionally  in  as  great  a  proportion  as  3  lb.  to  eveiy  10  lb.  procured 
from  the  tallow-tree,  is  mixed  up  with  it 

It  is  not  so  consistent  as  tallow,  and  therefore,  to  promote  the 
better  cohesion  of  the  material,  the  candles  made  of  it  are  dipped  in 


EXC-ffiCARIA.  211 

wax :  this  external  coating  liardena  them,  and  preserves  them  from 
guttering.  The  comhustion  of  these  candles  is  described  as  being 
less  perfect,  yielding  a  thicker  smoke,  a  dimmer  light,  and  consuming 
much  more  rapidly  than  ours.  Yet,  animal  tallow  being  very  scarce 
in  China,  the  vegetable  production  is  there  held  in  the  highest  es- 
timation. The  timber  is  white  and  close-grained,  and  well  fitted  for 
printing-blocks,  while  the  leaves  arie  valuable  as  a  dye. — AheVs 
Travels  in  China,  p.  177.     Lankester  Veg,  Suhst, 


212 


P 


(276)  Feronia  elephantum  (Corr,)    K  0.  Aurantia.cile. 

Elephant  or  Wood  apple,  Exo.    Velanga  mamm,  Mal.    Velam  mamm,  pitavooU, 
Tam.    Velaga,  Tel.    Khoet,  Hind,  or  DuK.    Kuthbel,  Benq. 

Description. — ^Tree,  50-60  feet,  armed  with  spines ;  leaves 
pinnated ;  leaflets  5-7,  obovate,  almost  sessile;  petioles  winged, 
pointed ;  racemes  lax,  axillary  or  terminal ;  calyx  5-toothed ; 
petals  5 ;  style  scarcely  any ;  flowers  small,  pale  pink  with 
crimson  anthers  ;  fruit  about  the  size  of  an  apple  with  a  hard 
greyish  rind,  5-celled,  many-seeded ;  seeds  immersed  in  fleshy 
pulp.    FL  March. —  W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  96. —  Wight  Icon,  1 15. — 

Roxb.  FL  Ind,  ii.  411. — Cor.  ii.  t  141. Coromandel.    Tra- 

vancore.     Guzerat.     Bengal 

Medical  Uses. — A  transparent  gummy  substance  exudes  from  t^a^ 
stem  when  cut  or  broken  which  is  called  in  Tamil  Vdam  pisnie.'^t 
resembles  much  the  true  gum-ai*abic,  and  is  used  medicinally  by  the 
native  Vytians,  being  reduced  to  powder  and  mixed  with  honey  and 
then  given  in  dysentery  and  diarrhoea.  The  leaves  when  bruised 
have  a  fragrant  smell,  like  anise.  The  natives  consider  them  as 
stomachic  and  carminative.  They  are  also  used  by  native  practitioners 
as  a  gentle  stomachic  stimulant  in  the  bowel-complaints  of  children. 
There  is  a  variety  of  this  tree,  the  properties  of  which  are  nearly  the 
same  as  this.  It  is  called  Cooti'Velam  in  Tamil. — Wight  Ainslie, 
Beng.  Dlsp, 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  pulpy  part  of  the  fruit  is  edible.  A  jelly, 
much  resembling  black-currant  jelly,  only  with  a  more  astringent  taste, 
is  made  from  it.  The  wood  is  white,  hard  and  durable,  fine-grained  j 
and  would  answer  well  for  ornamental  carving, — R&xb, 

(277)  FicuB  Bengalensis  {Linn,)    K  0.  Moracks. 

Common  Banyan-tree,  Eno.    Ala-marum,  Tam.    Bur,  Bat,  Benq.    Marri,  Tel. 
Peralu,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree ;  branches  spreading  very  much ;  lower 
ones  rooting ;  leaves  alternate,  ovate,  bluntly  acuminated,  with 
parallel  nerves,  paler  underneath,  entire,  downy  when  young, 
afterwards  smooth ;  fruit-receptacles  axillary,  paired,  sessile, 


FICUS.  213 

as  large  as  a  middle-sized  cheny,  appearing  and  ripening  in 
the  hot  season. —  W^/ht  Icon,  t  1989. — F.  Indica,  lioxb.  Fl. 
Ind.  iii.  539. — Urostigma  Bengalense,  Miqttd. — Rheede,  i.  t 
28. Common  everywhere. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  seeds  of  the  firuit  are  considered  as  cooling 
and  tonic,  being  prescribed  in  the  form  of  electuary.  The  white 
glutinous  juice  which  flows  from  the  stems  is  applied  as  a  remedy  in 
toothache,  and  also  to  the  soles  of  the  feet  when  cracked  and  inflamed. 
The  bark  given  in  infusion  is  said  to  be  a  tonic,  and  is  also  used  in 
diabetes. — A  indie. 

Economic  Uses. — ^There  are  several  species  as  well  as  varieties  of 
the  Banyan-tree  which  throw  out  roots  from  their  branches.  The 
present  one  may  perhaps  be  considered  the  best  type  of  the  family. 
It  is  remarkable,  as  every  one  knows,  for  the  singular  property  of 
letting  a  gummy  kind  of  rootlet  fall  from  its  branches,  llieso  on 
reaching  the  ground  soon  form  a  natural  support  to  the  laiger  branches 
of  the  parent  tree,  and  several  of  these  extending  and  increasing  from 
year  to  year,  forming  a  vast  assemblage  of  pillar-like  stems,  cover  a 
considerable  area  round  the  original  trunk, — 

''  Branching  so  broad  and  long  that  in  the  ground 
The  bending  twigs  take  root,  and  daughters  grow 
About  the  mother  tree,  a  pillared  shade — 
High  oyer-arched  with  echoing  walks  between." 

Many  instances  are  9n  record  of  the  immense  extent  of  some  of 
these  trees,  which  form  so  peculiar  a  feature  in  an  Oriental  landscape. 
One  tree  of  the  kind  near  Fort  St  David  was  computed  to  cover 
nearly  1700  yards.  Colonel  Sykes  mentions  one  at  Mhow  with  68 
stems  descending  from  the  branches,  and  capable  of  aflbrding  a  shade 
under  a  vertical  sun  to  20,000  men.  Eoxbuigh  says  that  he  has 
seen  such  trees  fuUy  500  yards  round  the  circumference  of  the 
branches  and  100  feet  high,  the  principal  trunk  being  more  than  25 
feet  to  the  branches,  and  8  or  9  feet  in  diameter.  Travellers  in  this 
country  have  described  them  large  enough  to  shelter  a  regiment  of 
cavaliy,  and  how  they  have  formed  a  natural  canopy  for  public  meet- 
ings and  other  assemblages.  The  ancients  were  acquainted  with  the 
tree,  and  both  Strabo  and  Pliny  have  accurately  described  it.  The 
wood  is  of  no  value,  being  light  and  porous.  The  Brahmins  use  the 
leaves  as  plates  to  eat  off.  Bird-lime  is  manufactured  from  the  milky 
juice  which  abounds  in  every  part  of  the  tree.  If  the  seeds  drop 
into  the  axils  of  the  leaves  of  the  palmyra-tree,  the  roots  grow 
downwards  embracing  the  trunk  in  their  descent,  until  by  degrees 
they  envelop  every  part  except  the  top.  In  very  old  specimens 
the  leaves  and  head  of  the  palmyra  are  seen  emerging  from  the 
trunk  of  the  Banyan-tree,  as  if  they  grew  from  it.  These  the 
Hindoos  regard  with  reverence,  and  call  them  holy  marriages. — 
Roxb. 


214  FICUS.  r)^ 

(278)  FicnB  Benjamina  (lAnnJ)    Do. 

OvaMeaved  Fig-tree,  Eira    Itty  alu,  Mal.    Telia  baiinka,  Tel. 

« 

Description.— Tree ;  branches  slender,  flexuose,  streaked 
and  wrinkled;  leaves  petioled,  ovate,  entire,  slenderly  streaked 
across;  fruit  globular,  scattered  over  the  brauchlets. — Roscb. 
Fl  Ind.  iii.  550.—  Wight  Icon,  t  642,  &m.—Rheede,  1 1  26. 
Peninsula.    Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — This  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of  the  species. 
A  decoction  of  the  leaves  mbced  with  oil  Ib  reckoned  in  Malabar  a 
good  application  to  ulcers. — (Rheede,)  Another  species  growing  in 
the  Concans  and  Malabar,  and  called  in  Malayalmn  Katv^ou,  is  the 
F.  citrifolia.  Of  this  the  bark  of  the  root  boiled  in  water  is  given 
as  a  wash  in  aphthous  complaints.  It  is  said  to  strengthen  the 
gums,  and  also  to  be  diuretic.  A  kind  of  balsam  prepared  from  the 
bark  is  mixed  with  oil  and  applied  to  ulcerous  affections  of  the  ear, 
and  in  deafuess.  A  bath  made  from  the  bark  of  root  and  stem  is 
said  by  the  natives  to  be  very  efficacious  in  the  cure  of  leprosy,  and , 
mitigating  pains  in  the  limbs. — Rheede, 


.'^ 


(279)  Ficua  cunia  (5mcA.)    Do.      ^     ^ 

Perina  teregazn,  Mal.  ^ 

Description. — Fruit  -  receptacles  turbinate,  ribbed,  pedi- 
celled,  size  of  a  filbert,  hairy,  umbilicated,  in  pairs  or  threes 
on  long  procumbent,  radical  and  cauline,  compound,  leafless 
branches,  appearing  all  the  year. — F.  conglomerata,  Roocb,  FL 

Ind.  iiL  561. — Wight  Icon,  t  648. — Rheede,  iii  t  61. 

Concans.    Malabar.    Oude.    CoromandeL 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  rough  leaves  of  this  tree  are  used  for  polish- 
ing furniture.  The  firuit  is  administered  in  aphthous  complaints ; 
and  also,  boiled  in  milk,  in  visceral  obstruction.  A  bath  made  both 
from  the  fruit  and  bark  is  reckoned  a  useful  treatment  in  leprosy. 
— Rheede. 

(280)  Fiens  elastica  (Roxh.)    Do. 

Indian  Caoutchouc-tree,  Esq.    Eusneer,  Beno. 

Description. — ^Tree,  30-40  feet ;  leaves  from  oval  to  oblong, 
pointed,  thick,  firm,  and  glossy ;  fruit  in  axillary  pairs,  sessile, 
oval,  smooth,  the  size  of  an  olive  ;  stipules  nearly  as  long  as 
the  leaves,  smooth  and  rosy.  Fl.  March — ApriL — Roxb.  Fl. 
Ind.  iii.  541. — Stilpnophyllum  elasticum,  Fndl. — Wight  Icon. 


FICTJS,  215 

t  663. Khassya  mouutains.    Juntipoor  hills.    Cultivated 

in  Malabar. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^This  beautiful  tree  produces  when  wounded  a 
quantity  of  mUk  which  yields  about  one-third  of  its  weight  of 
Caoutchouc  This  milk  is  used  by  the  natives  of  Silhet  to  smear 
over  the  inside  of  baskets  constructed  of  split  rattan,  which  are  then 
rendered  water-tight.  The  milk  is  extracted  by  incisions  made 
across  the  bark  down  to  the  wood,  at  a  distance  of  about  a  foot 
&om  each  other  iQl  round  the  trunk  or  branch  up  to  the  top  of  the 
tree ;  and  the  higher  the  incision,  the  more  abundant  the  fluid  is 
said  to  be.  llie  tree  requires  a  fortnight's  rest  before  the  operation 
is  repeated.  When  the •  juice  is  exposed  to  the  air,  it  separates 
spontaneously  into  a  fine  elastic  substance  and  a  foetid  whey-coloured 
liquid.  Fifty  ounces  of  pure  milky  juice  taken  from  the  tree  in 
August  yielded  exactly  15^  oz.  of  clean-washed  Caoutchouc.  This 
substance  is  of  the  fluest  quality,  and  may  be .  obtained  in  laige 
quantities.     It  is  perfectly  soluble  in  the  essential  oil  of  Cajeput. 

The  tree  is  easily  propagated  by  cuttings. — (Boxb.)  Dr  Eoyle 
(Him.  Boty  p.  338,  339,  note)  says :  "  I  have  been  favoured  with  a 
letter  from  Professor  Christison  of  Edinburgh,  who  obtained  speci- 
mens of  the  East  Indian  Caoutchouc  after  it  had  been  eight  years 
in  the  countiy,  and  employed  it  in  making  a  flexible  tube  for  con- 
veying coal-gas.  Eespecting  it  he  says — *  I  can  most  decidedly 
state  that,  so  far  as  my  trials  go,  it  is  a  far  better  article  than  is 
commonly  thought,  and  quite  fit  for  many  most  important  econo- 
mical uses.'  The  specimens  have  been  submitted  to  experiment  by 
M.  Lierier  the  sculptor,  so  well  known  for  his  numerous  experi- 
ments on  any  important  applications  of  this  substance.  He  pro- 
nounces the  Indiarubber  from  Silhet,  though  carelessly  collected, 
and  80  long  ago  as  eleven  years  since,  to  be  equal  in  elasticity  to 
the  best  from  South  America,  and  superior  to  it  from  lightness  of 
colour  and  freedom  from  smelL  There  can  be  little  doubt,  there- 
fore, of  its  being  an  important  and  profitable  article  of  commerce, 
since  nearly  500  tons  of  Caoutchouc  are  now  imported  from  other 
parts  of  the  world;  and  its  application  and  uses  are  so  rapidly 
increasing  that  it  is  not  possible  at  present  for  the  supply  to  keep 
pace  with  the  demand.  It  is  hoped,  therefore,  that  some  enter- 
prising individual  will  be  induced  carefully  to  collect — t.e.,  keep 
clean — the  juice  of  Ficua  dastica.  The  tree  is  called  Kaemeer  by  the 
inhabitants  of  Pundua  and  the  Juntipoor  mountains.  It  is  also 
found  near  Durrunj  in  Assam,  between  the  Burrampooter  and  the 
Bootan  hills.  The  highest  price  of  Caoutchouc  can,  however,  only 
be  obtained  for  that  which  is  collected  in  the  bottle  form,  or  prefer- 
ably in  that  of  a  cylinder  of  1^  to  2^  inches  in  diameter,  and  4  or 
5  inches  in  length.  Much  usefol  information  on  the  subject  will  be 
found  in  Eoxburgh  in  his  article  Urceola  dastica,  and  in  his  Flora 
Indica,  iii.  541-5  ;  also  in  an  article  on  the  same  subject  by  Howi- 


216  FICUS. 

son  in  the  5th  vol.  Trans.  As.  Soc.  of  Calcutta,  and  Falconer  in 
Agri.-Hort.  Soc.  of  India. — Boyle. 

(281)  Ficns  excelsa  (VaJil)    Do. 

# 

Attimeralloo,  Mal. 

Description.  —  Tree;  leaves  alternate,  bifarious,  slightly 
scabrous  beneath ;  fruit-receptacles  axillary,  solitary  or  paired, 
peduncled,  somewhat  turbinate,  smooth,  size  of  a  cherry,  yellow 
when  ripe.  FL  June  —  July.  —  Roaib,  FL  Ind.  iii  552. — 
Wight  Icon,  t  650. — Rheede,  iii.  t  58. Peninsula.  Mala- 
bar. 

Medical  Uses. — Rheede  states  that  at  the  pagoda  at  Yyekkam, 
a  town  on  the  back-water  about  twenty  miles  south-east  of  Cochin, 
one  of  these  trees  was  growing  in  his  time  about  fifty  feet  in  circum- 
ference, and  which  was  traditionally  reported  to  be  two  thousand 
years  old.  A  decoction  is  made  from  the  root  powerfully  aperient 
iu  visceral  obstructions.  The  bark  of  the  root  of  the  F.  nitida  and 
root  itself,  as  well  as  the  leaves,  boiled  in  oil,  are  severally  con- 
sidered as  good  applications  for  wounds  or  bruises. — Rheede. 

(282)  Ficus  oppoBitifolia(Tr27;e^.)    Do. 

Description.  —  Small  tree;  young  shoots  scabrous,  and 
covered  with  short  hair,  fistulous  and  interrupted  at  the 
insertion  of  the  leaves;  leaves  opposite,  round  or  oblong, 
slightly  serrate,  glandular  in  the  axils  of  the  veins  beneath, 
shining  above,  downy  beneath ;  fruit  axillary  £tnd  peduncled, 
racemose  on  the  naked  woody  branches,  round,  about  the  size 
of  a  large  nutmeg,  covered  with  short  white  hair,  with  several 
equidistant  ridges. — Roxb.  Flor.  Ind.   iii.  561. — Cor.  t  124. 

Wight  Icon,  t  638. — Covellia  oppositifolia,  Qaspar. Banks 

of  rivulets  in  the  Peninsula  and  Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — The  fruit,  seeds,  and  bark  are  possessed  of 
valuable  emetic  properties.  The  best  form  of  administration  ap- 
pears to  be  the  seed  of  the  ripe  fruit,  dried  and  preserved  from 
moisture  in  stoppered  bottles.  The  bark  is  also  a  good  anti-periodic 
and  tonic.  The  F.  polycarpa  possesses  the  same  medicinal  pro- 
perties.— Phann.  of  India, 

• 

(283)  FicoB  racemosa  {Linn,)    Do. 

Red-wooded  Fig-tree,  or  Country  Fig-tree,  Eng.    Atti-alu,  Mal.    Attie-manim, 
Tam.    Maydi,  Tkl.    Gooler,  Hind. 

DBScmpnoN,— Tree ;  leaves  ovate,  entire,  pointed,  veined ; 


FICUS.  217 

fruit-receptacles  on  racemes,  round,  reddish,  size  of  a  small 
plum. — JRheede,  i.  t  25. Concans.     Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  in  decoction  aod  bark  of  the  tree  are 
used  in  medicine.  The  latter  is  slightly  astringent,  and  sometimes 
used  in  the  form  of  a  fine  powder;  and,  in  combination  with  Gingeley- 
oil,  is  applied  in  cancerous  affections.  The  fruit  is  edible.  A  fluid 
which  is  yielded  by  incisions  in  the  root  is  given  as  a  tonic  by 
native  doctors.  An  infusion  of  the  bark  is  given  in  diabetes ;  and 
the  young  leaves  reduced  to  powder  and  mixed  with  honey  in 
bilious  affections. — Ainslie.    lOieede, 

(284)  Ficns  religiosa  {Linn.)    Do. 

Poplar-leaved  Fig-tree,  Eva.    Ashwuth,  Beno.    Pippnl,  Hind.    Aiasum-marum, 
Tam .    Ray,  Raghie,  Tel.    Arealu,  Mal.    Ani-peepul,  Duk.  T\3^^   Tf^  £) 

Description. — Tree;  leaves  long-petioled,  ovate,  cordate, 
narrow  acuminate,  acumen  one-third  the  length  of  the  leaf,  en- 
tire, or  repandly  undulated  towards  the  apex ;  fruit-receptacles 
axillary,  paired,  sessile,  depressed,  size  of  a  small  cherry,  ap- 
pearing in  the  hot  season  and  ripening  in  the  rainy  season. — 
Wight  Icon.  vi.  t.  1967. — Roai),  FL  Ind.  iii.  547. — Urostigma 

religiosum,  Miqud. — Bheede,  i.  t  27. Common  all  over 

IndicL 

Medical  Uses. — The  seeds  are  said  to  possess  cooling  and  altera- 
tive qualities,  and  are  prescribed  in  electuary  and  in  powder.  Leaves 
and  young  shoots  are  used  as  a  purgative,  and  an  infusion  of  the 
bark  is  given  internally  in  scabies,  though  of  doubtful  efficacy. — 
Ainslie.     Wight, 

Ecoi^OMio  Uses. — Of  this  tree  there  are  two  nearly-allied  species. 
The  tree  is  commonly  distributed  over  the  country.  It  is  much  re- 
spected by  the  natives,  who  are  very  unwilling  to  cut  it  down  at  any 
time.  It  is  frequently  to  be  met  with  near  pagodas,  houses,  and 
other  buildings.  The  Hindoos  venerate  it  from  a  superstitious  be- 
lief that  their  deity  Vishnoo  was  bom  among  the  branches.  The 
petioles  being  very  long  and  slender,  the  leaves  tremble  in  the  air 
like  those  of  the  aspen-tree.  Silk-worms  are  very  fond  of  the  leaves. 
The  Arabs  use  them  in  tanning.  Birds  are  very  fond  of  the  fruit, 
and  often  drop  the  seeds  in  cracks  of  buildings,  where  they  vegetate, 
and  occasion  great  damage  if  not  removed  in  time.  The  wood  is 
light  and  of  no  use. — Boa^,     Wight 

(285)  Ficns  rnbescens  (Vahl.)    Do. 

Valli-teragam,  Mal.    Buroni,  Tel.    Goori-shiora,  Beno. 

Description. — All  rough  and  harsh ;  leaves  alternate,  short- 


218  FLACOURTIA. 

petioled,  stiff,  membranaceous,  roughish  above  and  of  a  deep 
green,  paler  below,  oblong-acute,  acute  at  the  base,  serrated, 
entire  or  3-lobed,  of  all  shapes ;  fruit  axillary,  solitary,  rarely 
twin,  between  turbinate  and  globose. — Boxh.  Fl.  Ind,  iii.  532. 
— ^F.  heterophylla,  Linn, —  Wight  Icon,  t  659. — Rheede,  iii.  t  62. 
Common  in  moist  places  in  the  Peninsula  and  Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — The  juice  of  the  root  of  this  shrub  is  internally 
administered  m  coUc  pains,  and  the  juice  of  the  leaves  mixed  with 
milk  in  dysentery.  The  bark  of  the  root,  which  is  very  bitter,  pul- 
verised and  mixed  with  Coriander  seed,  is  considered  a  good  remedy 
in  coughs  and  asthma,  and  similar  affections  of  the  chest — (Rheede, 
Rozb.)  The  F.  tsiela  appears  to  have  similar  virtues.  From  the 
bark  of  the  root  of  the  F,  infectoria  a  peculiar  kind  of  bow-string  is 
made,  and  a  red  dye  is  prepared  from  the  root  used  for  dyeing  cloths. 
Most  of  the  species  of  Ficus  have  been  removed  to  the  new  genus 
Urostlgma. 

(286)  Flacourtia  cataphracta  (Roxh,)    K.  0.  FLAcouBTiACRfi. 

TaUshaputrie,  Mal.  and  Taic  Talishaputiie,  Tel.  Talispntri^,  Hind.  Pani- 
yala,  Benq. 

m 

Description. — Tree,  armed  with  large  multiple  thorns; 
leaves  oval-oblong,  acuminated,  serrated;  racemes  axillary, 
many-flowered ;  berry  size  of  a  small  plum,  purple,  with  very 
hard  sharp-edged  seeds ;  flowers  small,  greenish.  Fl,  Dec. — 
Jan. — Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  834 — Dec,  Prod,  i  256. — Rheede,  v.  t 
38. Warree  country.    Assam.     Nepaul.     Behar. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  fruit  is  edible.  The  leaves  and  young  shoots, 
which  are  bitter  and  astringent,  have  the  taste  of  rhubarb,  and  are 
considered  stomachic,  and  are  given  in  diarrhoea,  dysentery,  fevers, 
and  even  in  consumption.  An  infusion  of  the  bark  is  used  in  hoarse- 
ness. — A  inslie.     Lindley, 

Economic  Uses. — The  wood  is  close-grained,  hard,  and  durable. 
Another  species,  the  F,  crenata,  is  common  on  the  Neilgherries  and 
Shevaroys,  and  yields  a  first-rate  timber.  It  is  white,  very  hard, 
and  dense. — Bedd,  Flor,  Sylv,  t  78. 

(287)  Flacourtia  sapida  {Roxb.)    Do. 

Booinch,  Beng.    Kanrdga,  Tel. 

Description. — Small  tree  or  shrub ;  thorns  scattered,  naked; 
leaves  serrated,  elliptical,  obtuse,  older  ones  membranaceous ; 
male  flowers,  stamens  closely  arranged  on  the  dilated  torus ; 
female,  stigmas  57?,  radiating,  linear,  furrowed  above;   ped- 


FLACOURTI  A— FUM  A  KI  A.  219 

uncles  axillary,  many-flowered ;  flowers  small,  greenish.  Fl 
Dec— Jan.— »^.  &  A,  Prod,  i.  29.—Roxb.  Cor.  t  69. — -Pen- 
insula.   Bengal. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  species  has  hut  few  trifling  points  of  dif- 
ference between  it  and  F,  Ramontchi,  the  Mauritius  plum.  The 
fruit  is  eatable,  but  by  no  means  good.  The  wood  is  hard  and 
close-grained,  and  does  not  warp.  The  native  inoculators  for  the 
small-pox  use  the  thorns  of  this  shrub  for  breaking  the  pustules  of 
the  small-pox  on  the  ninth  or  tenth  day. — /.  Grah,  Wight.  Lcmg 
on  Med.  Plants  of  BeTigal. 

(288)  Flacourtia  sepiaria  {Roxh.)    Do. 

Conioti  moelli,  Mal.    Conrev,  Tkl.    Sottacla,  Tam.    Jootay  karoonday,  DuK. 

Description. — Shrub,  6  feet ;  thorns  very  numerous,  patent, 
bearing  both  leaves  and  flowers ;  leaves  obovate-oblong,  older 
ones  very  rigid  and  coriaceous,  serrate;  peduncles  axillary, 
solitary,  1 -flowered;  flowers  small,  green ;  berry  very  globular, 
size  of  a  pea,  succulent ;  seeds  4-8.  Fl.  April. —  W.  &  A.  Prod. 
i  29.—Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  835.— Cor.  i  t.  &8.—Rheede,  v.  t.  39. 
Peninsula     Common  everywhere. 

Medical  Uses. — The  berries  are  eatable,  and  are  sold  in  the 
bazaars.  The  plant  makes  good  fences,  from  its  numerous  sharp 
thorns.  An  infusion  of  the  leaves  and  roots  is  given  in  snake-bites, 
and  the  bark  rubbed  with  oil  and  made  into  a  liniment  is  used  on 
the  Malabar  coast  in  cases  of  gout.  The  bark  fried  in  oil  is  applied 
externally  in  rheumatism. — Wight     Ainslie.     RJieede. 

(289)  Fumaria  parriflora  (Dec.)    K.  0.  FuMARiACEiB. 

Description. — Annual ;  smooth ;  leaves  linear,  channelled ; 
bracteas  at  first  as  long  as  the  flower,  afterwards  as  short  as 
the  fructiferous  pedicel;  petals  4,  the  lower  one  distinct, 
linear,  the  three  upper  united,  the  middle  one  spurred  down- 
wards ;  sepals  minute ;  fruit  globose,  slightly  pointed  ;  flowers 
pale  rose.    Fl.  Dec. — Jan. — W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  18. — Roa^.  Flor. 

Ind.  iii  217. — Wighfs  III.  i.  1 11. Neilgherries.     NepauL 

Bombay.    BengaL 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  plant  has  long  been  acclimatised  in  the 
East,  and  at  the  present  day  is  considered,  in  conjunction  with  black 
pepper,  an  efficacious  remedy  in  common  agues.^-(5oyZe  H.  B.)  It 
is  extensively  employed  as  an  anthelmintic,  and  to  purify  the  blood 
in  skin  diseases.  Also  as  a  diuretic,  diaphoretic,  and  aperient. — 
PoioelTa  Punj.  Prod. 


220 


Or 

(290)  Garcinia  gambogia  (Desraus).    N.  0.  Clusiage^. 

Description. — ^Tree ;  leaves  lanceolate,  deep  green ;  flowers 
terminal  or  axillary,  sessile  or  sub-sessile,  pedicelled,  solitary  or 
several  together;  male,  anthers  numerous,  on  a  short,  thick 
androphore,  oblong,  2-celled,  dehiscing  longitudinally,  introrse ; 
female,  staminodes  surrounding  the  base  of  the  ovary  in  several 
phalanges,  each  containing  2-3  sterile  spathulate  stamens; 
stigmas  5-10-lobed,  papillose,  glandular;  ovary  6-10-celled; 
fruit  yellow  or  reddish,  6-10-furrowed,  6-10-seeded,  nearly 
globular  or  ovate,  furrows  broad,  with  angular  edges,  the  fur- 
rows not  continued  to  the  apex,  which  is  smooth  and  depressed, 
and  often  nipple-shaped. — Dec,  Prod,  L  561. —  W,  &  A,  Prod, 
i.  100. — 6.  Kydia,  W,  &  A,  I,  c, — Cambogia  gutta,  Linn. — 

G.  papilla,  Wight  Icon,  t  960.— Bedd,  FL  Sylv.  t,  85. 

Forests  of  the  western  coast. 

Economic  Uses. — The  pigment  which  exudes  from  the  trunk  is 
semi-transparent,  very  adhesive,  and  unsuitable  as  a  paint.  The 
acid  rinds  of  the  ripe  fruit  are  eaten,  and  in  Ceylon  are  dried,  and 
eaten  as  a  condiment  in  curries.  The  tree  is  called  Heela  on  the 
Keilgherries.  It  yields  an  excellent,  straight-grained,  lemon-coloured, 
slightly  elastic  wood,  and  would  answer  for  common  furniture. — 
(Beddome,)  The  following  report  upon  the  gum-resin  of  this  tree  is 
given  by  Mr  Broughton :  "  This  Gramboge,  though  produced  by 
a  diflferent  tree  to  those  which  yield  the  Siam  and  Ceylon  G-amboge, 
appears,  nevertheless,  exceedingly  similar,  and  to  be  of  fine  quality. 
An  estimation  of  the  amount  of  colouring  resin,  which  is  the  essen- 
tial constituent,  gave  a  yield  of  76  per  cent,  the  remainder  consLsting 
of  gum  and  starch.  The  specimen  I  received  was  in  small  lumps^ 
and  differed  thus  in  external  appearance  to  the  commercial  speci- 
mens I  have  seen ;  but  in  quality  it  can  well  compare  with  them. 
The  yield  of  ordinary  Gamboge  in  colouring  resin  varies  from  40  to 
75  per  cent  Gamboge  is  used  as  a  pigment  in  the  manufacture  of 
lacquer  and  in  medicine.  The  price  of  the  Canara  gum  is  1  rupee 
per  lb.  I  believe  the  English  wholesale  price  is  j£38  per  cwt.  As 
a  commercial  product,  this  Gamboge  appears  to  promise  well  I 
believe,  some  time  ago,  Dr  Cleghom  was  led  to  pay  much  attention 
to  this  substance." 


GARCIKIA.  221 

(291)  Qarcinia  peduncxilata  (Roxh.)    Do. 

Tikul  or  Tikoor,  Hind. 

Description. — Tree,  60  feet ;  leaves  opposite,  short-petioled, 
oblong  or  obovate-oblong,  entire,  smooth  on  both  sides,  with  large 
parallel  veins  ;  flowers  terminal,  peduncled ;  male  ones  numer- 
ous, forming  smaM  trichotomous  panicles  on  separate  trees ; 
females  solitary ;  calyx  of  two  opposite  pairs  of  nearly  equal 
sepals  ;  petals  4,  alternate  with  the  segments  of  the  calyx,  and 
nearly  of  the  same  length  ;  berry  large,  round,  smooth,  yellow 
when  ripe;  seeds  10,  reniform,  arillate.  Fl,  Jan. — March. — 
JKoa*.  FL  Ind.  ii  625.—  Wighf8  III.  L  125.— Icon.  t.  114,  115. 
Rungpore. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^The  fruit  of  this  species  of  Garcinia  ripens 
about  April  or  May.  It  is  very  large,  about  2  lb.  weight,  of  a  rich 
yellow  colour  when  ripe,  and  exceedingly  acid  to  the  taste.  Each 
seed  is  enclosed  in  its  own  proper  aril,  within  which  is  generally 
found  a  soft  yellow  resin.  The  fleshy  part  of  the  fruit  has  a  shai'p, 
pleasant,  acid  taste.  It  is  used  by  the  natives  in  their  curries,  and 
for  acidulating  water.  If  cut  into  slices  and  dried  it  retains  its 
qualities  for  years,  and  might  possibly  be  used  to  advantage  during 
long  sea-voyages  as  a  substitute  for  limes,  or  put  into  various  messes 
where  salt  meat  is  employed. — Roxb. 

One  of  the  most  delicious  fruits,  the  Mangosteen,  is  produced  by 
a  tree  of  this  order  (Garcinia  mangostana,  Linn.),  growing  in  the 
Eastern  Archipelago.  The  white  delicate  pulp  which  surrounds  the 
seeds  has  been  aptly  likened  by  Sir  E.  Tennent  to  "perfumed 
snow."  The  tree  has  been  successfully  grown  and  the  fruit  ripened 
at  Courtallum ;  but  it  requires  great  care,  and  the  fruit  never  acquires 
the  size  and  flavour  ijb  has  in  its  native  country. — (Pers.  Ohs.)  The 
fleshy  pericarp  is  a  valuable  astringent.  It  contains  tannin,  resin, 
and  a  crystallisable  principle.  It  has  been  successfully  employed  in 
the  advanced  stages  of  dysentery  and  in  chronic  diarrhoea.  Dr 
Waitz  {Diseases  of  Children  in  Hot  Climates,  p.  164)  recommends  a 
strong  decoction  as  an  external  astringent  application  in  dysentery. 
— Pharm.  of  India. 

(292)  Garcinia  pictoria  (Roxb.)    Do. 

Mysore  Gamboge-tree,  Eno.    Mukki,  Tak. 

Descbiption. — Tree,  60  feet;  much  branched;  leaves  opposite, 
short-petioled,  oblong- ventricose,  slightly  acute,  entire,  smooth 
on  both  sides ;  hermaphrodite  flowers  axillary,  solitary,  sessile; 


222  GARCINIA. 

calyx  segments  obtuse,  in  two  unequal  pairs ;  petals  4,  oval ; 
berry  oval,  size  of  a  large  cherry,  smooth,  slightly  marked  with 
4  lobes,  and  crowned  with  the  sessile  verrucose  stigma ;  seeds 
4,  oblong,  reniform ;  calyx  and  corolla  of  male  flowers  as  in 
the  female ;  flowers  yellow.  FL  Feb. — Wight  Icon,  t  102. — 
Boxb,  Fl,  Ind.  ii.  627. — Hebradendron  pictorium,  Christison. 
Wynaad  forests.    Mysore. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  tree  is  found  in  the  high  mountain-lands 
of  "Wynaad,  and  attempts  to  cultivate  it  in  the  low  country  have 
failed.  A  good  kind  of  Gamboge  is  procured  &om  the  tree.  The 
bark,  according  to  Roxburgh,  is  intermixed  with  many  yellow  specks, 
and  through  its  substance,  particularly  on  the  inside,  considerable 
masses  of  Gamboge  are  found.  Samples  which  were  sent  to  Dr  R 
from  Tellicherry,  even  in  a  crude  and  unrefined  state,  he  considered 
superior  to  most  other  kinds ;  and  the  specimens  forwarded  to  the 
Madras  Exhibition  were  also  considered  of  an  excellent  quality. 
The  tree  is  to  be  found  in  the  greatest  abundance  along  the  whole 
line  of  Ghauts,  and  it  is  probable  that  if  the  attention  of  the  trade  were 
directed  to  these  provinces  it  might  become  an  important  article  of 
export.  An  oil  is  got  from  the  seeds.  The  following  particulars 
regarding  it  were  furnished  by  Dr  Oswald  to  the  Madras  Exhibition : 
It  is  procurable  in  moderate  quantities  by  pounding  the  seeds  in 
a  stone  mortar,  and  boiling  the  mass  until  the  butter  or  oil  rises  to 
the  surface.  Two  and  a  half  measures  of  seeds  should  yield  one  seer 
and  a  half  of  butter.  In  the  Nuggur  division  of  Mysore  it  is  sold  at 
the  rate  of  1-4  As,  per  seer  of  24  Es.  weight,  or  at  £36,  6s.  per  ton; 
and  is  chiefly  used  as  a  lamp-oil  by  the  better  classes  of  natives,  and 
by  the  poor  as  a  substitute  for  ghee.  The  butter  thus  prepared  does 
not  appear  to  possess  any  of  the  purgative  qualities  of  the  Gamboge 
resin,  but  is  considered  an  antiscorbutic  ingredient  in  food.  There 
has  been  some  difierence  of  opinion  among  botanists  regarding  the 
true  definition  of  the  species  yielding  the  Mysore  Gramboge;  and 
also  in  what  respect  both  the  tree  itself  and  its  products  differ  with 
those  from  Ceylon  and  Siam.  An  excellent  paper  has  been  written 
by  Dr  Christison  upon  this  subject  From  the  information  which 
Dr  C.  has  been  able  to  collect  regarding  this  Gamboge-tree,  it  would 
appear  to  constitute  a  genus  distinct  from  the  Ceylon  plant,  which 
latter  Dr  Graham  (Comp.  Bot  Mag.)  has,  from  certain  points  of 
distinction  in  its  botanical  character,  designated  as  the  Hebradendron 
Gambogioides.  The  species  under  consideration  is  found  on  high 
lands  in  the  Coorg  and  Mysore  countries.  Dr  Cleghom  had  an  op- 
portunity of  personally  examining  the  tree  in  its  native  forest,  which 
is  iu  the  north-western  parts  of  Mysore.  He  then  remarked  that  its 
range  of  elevation  was  between  2000  •  and  3000  feet,  and  that  he 
found  it  in  greater  abundance  as  he  proceeded  southward.  It  pro- 
bably has  an  extensive  range  along  the  Western  Ghauts.     Kegard- 


GARCINIA.  223 

ing  the  quality  of  the  specimens  sent  him,  Dr  Christison  observed 
that  they  were  all  in  a  concrete  state,  of  a  tawny  brownish  yellow 
colour  and  glistening  waxy  lustre,  exactly  like  fiie  Siam  Gamboge, 
and  showing  its  tendency  to  conchoidal  fracture;  free  from 
odour,  tasteless,  and  equal  to  the  Siam  Gamboge  in  being  easily 
reducible  to  a  fine  emulsion  in  water.  As  a  pigment  it  proved 
of  an  excellent  quality,  like  that  of  Ceylon.  It  is  in  a  great 
degree  soluble  in  sulphuric  ether,  to  which  it  communicates  a  fine 
orange  colour,  the  solution  yielding  upon  evaporation  an  orange- 
coloured  resin.  Upon  analysis  the  composition  proved  to  be  essen- 
tially the  same  with  that  of  Ceylon,  but  indicating  more  colouring 
matter,  more  resin,  and  less  gum,  than  in  the  Gamboge  of  commerce. 
In  its  medicinal  effects  it  would  appear  to  excite  the  same  influence 
on  the  animal  body  as  common  Gamboge,  as  it  has  undergone  experi- 
ments both  in  England  and  in  this  country.  The  natives  appear 
little  acquainted  with  its  uses,  unless  perhaps,  as  Dr  Cleghom  ascer- 
tained, for  colouring  cloth  in  the  low  country.  Dr  Clmstison  ex- 
pressed his  opinion  that  ^'  it  is  probable  this  Gamboge  might  advan- 
tageously be  applied  to  any  use  to  which  the  Gamboge  of  Siam  is 
habitually  put."  At  all  events  it  is  an  equally  fine  pigment,  and  as 
it  can  be  obtained  in  almost  unlimited  quantity,  it  may  be  introduce4 
equally  into  the  European  trade.  Gamboge  fetches  in  the  London 
market  from  £6  to  £11  per  cwt. — Dr  Christison  in  Pharm,  Joum, 
Dr  Hunter's  Indian  Joum, 

(293)  Qarciziia  pnrpnrea  (Roxh,)    Do. 

Mate  Mangosteen,  Eno. 

Description. — Tree ;  branches  drooping ;  leaves  lanceolar, 
obtuse,  shining,  dark  green ;  berry  spherical,  smooth,  not  fur- 
rowed, deep  purple  throughout. —  Roodb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii  624. — J. 

Orah.  Cat  p.  25. —  Wight  III  i  125. Concans.     Eavines 

at  KandaUa. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  differs,  says  Eoxburgh,  fipom  every  other 
species  in  the  whole  fruit,  which  is  about  the  size  of  a  small  orange, 
being  throughout  of  a  deep  purple  colour,  even  the  proper  purple 
anl  of  the  seeds.  The  seeds  yield  an  oil  known  as  the  Kokum  oil. 
It  is  of  much  use  in  cases  of  chapped  skin,  hands,  and  face,  either 
scraped  into  hot  water  or  powdered,  the  powder  being  rubbed  on  the 
face  and  hands.  The  fruit  has  an  agreeable  acid  flavour,  and  is 
eaten  by  natives.  Workers  in  iron  use  the  acid  juice  as  a  mordant. 
A  concrete  oil  is  obtained  from  the  seeds,  which  is  well  known  and 
used  at  Goa  for  adulterating  ghee.  This  oil  is  used  by  the  natives 
as  a  healing  application,  and  from  its  powerfully  absorbing  heat  it 
might  be  usefully  employed  in  such  wounds  or  sores  as  are  accom- 
panied with  inflammation.  Kokum  butter  is  a  solid,  firm,  and  friable 
substance,  having  a  greasy  feeL     Its  colour  is  pale  yellow,  and  has 


224  GARDENIA — GENDARUSSA. 

a  faint  but  not  disagreeable  odour.  It  is  readily  soluble  in  ether,  and 
slightly  so  in  rectified  spirits — more  in  hot  than  in  cold. — Phajin, 
Joum.     Roxh,  - 

(294)  Gaxdenia  lucida  {Roxh,)    K  0.  Cinchonag£L£. 

Description. — Tree,  unarmed,  with  resinous  buds ;  leaves 
short-petioled,  oblong  or  oval  or  obovate,  obtuse  or  bluntly 
pointed,  glabrous,  shining,  with  simple  parallel  nerves  and 
prominent  veins ;  limb  of  calyx  with  5  divisions,  sprinkled  on 
the  inside  with  stoutish  bristles ;  corolla  hypocrateriform ;  tube 
long,  striated ;  limb  5-partite,  divisions  as  long  as,  or  a  little 
shorter  than,  the  tube ;  berry  drupaceous,  even,  oblong,  crowned 
with  the  calyx  ;  nut  very  hard,  thick,  and  long,  with  two 
parietal  receptacles;  flowers  somewhat  terminal,  solitary 
shortly  pedicelled,  large,  pure  white,  fragrant.  FL  March — 
April. — TF.  &  A.  Prod.  L  395. —  Wight  Icon,  t  575. — Roxb. 

FL  Ind.  i.  707. Circars.     S.  Mahratta  country.      Chitta- 

gong. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  is  stated  by  Roxburgh  to  be  in  flower  and 
fruit  the  greater  part  of  the  year.  The  total  want  of  pubescence, 
structure  of  the  stipules,  length  of  the  calyx,  and  sharpness  of  its 
divisions,  distinguish  this  species  from  G.  gummifera,  which  it 
most  resembles.  A  fragrant  resin,  known  in  Canara  and  Mysore  as 
the  Dikamali  resin,  is  procured  from  the  tree,  which  is  said  to  be 
useful  in  hospitals,  keeping  away  flies  from  sores  on  account  of  its 
strong  aroma.  It  is  used  by  native  farriers,  and  is  certainly  a  sub- 
stance worthy  of  attention. — {Roxh.  Jury  Rep.  Mad.  Exiiih.)  The 
G.  campanulata  is  used  as  a  cathartic  and  anthelmintic;  and  a 
yellow  resin,  similar  to  gum  elemi,  exudes  from  tlie  buds  and  wounds 
in  the  bark  of  G.  gummifera^  which  might  be  turned  to  good  account. 
— Roxh. 

(295)  GendaruBsa  vulgaris  {Nees.)    N.  0.  Acanthacej:. 

Vada-kodi,  Mal.    Caroo-nochie,  Tah.    Kali-Thumbali,  Duk.     Nulla  Vavali, 
Tkl.    Jugutmudun,  Beno. 

Description. — Shrub,  3-4  feet ;  leaves  opposite,  lanceolate, 
elongated ;  branches  numerous,  long,  and  straggling ;  flowers 
in  whorls  on  terminal  spikes;  upper  lip  undivided;  flowers 
pale,  greenish  white,  sparingly  stained  with  purple. —  Wigh 
lam.  t.  468. — Justicia  Gendarussa,  Roxb.  FL  Ind.  i.  128. — 
Rheede,  ix.  t  42. N.  Concans.     Travancore.     Peninsula. 


GIRARDINIA.  225 

Medical  Uses. — The  leaves  and  tender  stalks  are  prescribed  in 
certain  cases  of  chronic  rheumatism ;  the  bark  of  the  young  parts  is 
generally  of  a  dark-purple  colour,  whence  it  derives  its  Tamil  name. 
In  Java  it  is  considered  a  good  emetic.  The  leaves  are  scattered  by 
the  natives  amongst  their  clothes  to  preserve  them  from  insects. 
The  same  in  infusion  are  given  intemcdly  in  fevers ;  and  a  bath  in 
which  these  leaves  are  saturated  is  very  efficacious  in  the  same  com- 
plaints. The  juice  of  the  leaves  is  administered  in  coughs  to  chil- 
dren, and  the  same  mixed  with  oil  as  an  embrocation  in  glandular 
swellings  of  the  neck  and  throat ;  also,  mixed  with  mustard-seed,  is 
a  good  emetic.  The  natives  put  the  leaves  in  a  bag  with  some  common 
salt,  and  warming  them,  reckon  it  a  good  remedy  applied  externally 
in  diseases  of  the  joints. — Ainslie.     Rheede, 

(296)  Oirardinia  heterophylla  (Dak.)    K  0.  IJRTicACEiE. 

Neilgheny  Nettle,  Bno.    Ana  schorigenam,  Mal. 

Description. — Annual,  erect ;  leaves  broad-cordate,  7-lobed, 
lobes  oblong,  acute,  coarsely  serrated,  clothed  on  both  sides 
with  fine  whitish  down,  armed  above  with  thin  scattered 
prickles,  thickly  clothed  beneath  with  the  same;  male  and 
female  flowers  in  distinct  glomerate  peduncled  spikes ; 
flowers  small,  green.  FL  Sept. — Nov. — Ddlz.  Bonib,  Flor,,  p. 
238. — Urtica  heterophylla,  Willd,      G.  Leschenaultiana,  De- 

caisne, —  Wight  Icon,  t  1976. — Bfieede,  ii.  t  41. Common 

on  the  slopes  of  the  Ghauts.    Peninsula.    NepauL 

Economic  Uses. — If  incautiously  touched,  this  nettle  wiU  produce 
temporarily  a  most  stinging  pain.  The  plant  succeeds  well  by  cul- 
tivation. Its  bark  abounds  in  fine,  white,  glossy,  silk-like,  strong 
fibres.  The  Todawars  on  the  Neilgherries  separate  the  fibres  by 
boiling  the  plant,  and  spin  it  into  thin  coarse  thread  :  it  produces  a 
beautifully  fine  and  soft  flax-like  fibre,  which  they  use  as  a  thread. 
The  Malays  simply  steep  the  stems  in  water  for  ten  or  twelve  days, 
after  which  they  are  so  much  softened  that  the  outer  fibrous  portion 
is  easily  peeled  off.  Dr  Dickson  states  that  the  Neilgherry  nettle 
is  the  most  extraordinary  plant ;  it  is  almost  all  fine  fibre,  and  the 
tow  is  very  much  like  the  fine  wool  of  sheep,  and  no  doubt  will  be 
largely  used  by  wool-spinners. — Wight     Boyle. 

The  following  report  upon  the  cultivatiou  and  preparation  of  the 
fibre  was  forwarded  to  the  Madras  Government  by  Mr  M*Ivor, 
superintendent  of  the  Horticultural  Gardens  at  Ootacamund  : — 

Cultivation. — The  Keilgherry  nettle  has  been  described  as  an 
annual  plant ;  it  has  however  proved,  at  least  in  cultivation,  to  be 
a  perennial,  continuing  to  throw  out  fresh  shoots  from  the  roots  and 
stems  with  unabated  vigour  for  a  period  of  three  or  four  years.  The 
mode  of  cultivation,  therefore,  best  suited  to  the  plant,  is  to  treat  it 

15 


226  GIRAKDINIA. 

as  a  perennial  by  sowing  the  seeds  in  rows  at  fifteen  inches  apart, 
and  cutting  down  the  young  shoots  for  the  fibre  twice  aryear — viz., 
in  July  and  January.  The  soil  best  suited  to  the  growth  of  this 
plant  is  found  in  ravines  which  have  received  for  years  the  deposit  of 
alluvial  soils  washed  down  from  the  neighbouring  slopes.  In  cutting 
off  the  first  shoots  from  the  seedling  crop,  about  six  inches  of  the 
stem  is  left  above  the  ground ;  this  forms  ''  stools,''  from  which  fresh 
shoots  for  the  succeeding  crops  are  produced.  After  each  cutting 
the  earth  is  dug  over  between  the  rows  to  the  depth  of  about  eight 
inches ;  and  where  manure  can  be  applied,  it  is  very  advantageous 
when  dug  into  the  soil  between  the  rows  with  this  operation.  When 
the  shoots  have  once  begun  to  grow,  no  &rther  cultivation  can  be 
applied,  as  it  is  quite  impossible  to  go  in  among  the  plants,  owing 
to  their  stinging  property.  The  plant  is  indigenous  or  growing  wild 
all  over  the  Neilgherries,  at  elevations  varying  from  4000  to  8000 
feet,  and  this  indicates  the  temperature  best  suited  to  the  perfect 
development  of  the  fibre. 

Produce  per  acre. — From  the  crop  of  July  an  average  produce  of 
from  450  to  500  lb.  of  clean  fibre  per  acre  may  be  expected.  Of 
this  quantity  about  120  lb.  will  be  a  very  superior  quality;  this  is 
obtained  from  the  young  and  tender  shoots,  which  should  be  placed 
by.  themselves  during  the  operation  of  cutting.  The  crop  of  January 
will  yield  on  an  average  600  or  700  lb.  per  acre ;  but  the  fibre  of 
this  crop  is  aU  of  a  uniform  and  somewhat  coarse  quality,  owing  to 
shoots  being  matured  by  the  setting  in  of  the  dry  season  in  Decem- 
ber. It  might  therefore  be  advantageous,  where  fine  quality  of 
fibre  only  was  required,  to  cut  the  shoots  more  frequently — probably 
three  or  four  times  in  the  year — as  only  the  finest  quality  of  fibre  is 
produced  from  young  and  tender  shoots. 

Preparation  of  the  fibre. — Our  experiments  being  limited,  our 
treatment  of  the  fibre  has  been  necessarily  very  rude  and  imperfect, 
as  in  this  respect  only  in  extensive  cultivation  can  efficient  appliances 
be  obtained. 

The  inner  bark  of  the  whole  of  the  plant  abounds  in  fibre,  that  of 
the  young  shoots  being  the  finest  and  strongest,  while  that  of  the  old 
stems  is  comparatively  short  and  coarse,  but  still  producing  a  fibre 
of  very  great  strength  and  of  a  peculiar  silky  and  woolly  like  appear- 
ance, and  one  which  no  doubt  will  prove  very  useful  in  manufactories. 

For  cutting  down  the  crop  fine  weather  is  selected;  and  the 
shoots  when  cut  are  allowed  to  remain  as  they  fall  for  two  or  three 
days,  by  which  time  they  are  sufficiently  dry  to  have  lost  their 
stinging  properties ;  they  are,  however,  pliable  enough  to  allow  of 
the  bark  being  easily  peeled  off  the  stems,  and  separated  from  the 
leaves.  The  bark  thus  taken  from  the  stems  is  tied  up  in  small  bundles 
and  dried  in  the  sun,  if  the  weather  is  fine;  if  wet,  is  dried  in  an  open 
shed  with  a  free  circulation  of  air.  When  quite  dry,  the  bark  is 
slightly  beaten  with  a  wooden  mallet,  which  causes  the  outer  bark 
of  that  in  which  there  is  no  fibre  to  break  and  fall  off.     The  fibrous 


OISEKIA-— GLORIOSA.  22T 

part  of  the  bark  is  then  wrapped  up  in  small  bundles,  and  boiled  for 
about  an  hour  in  water  to  which  a  small  quantity  of  wood-ashes  has 
been  added,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  separation  of  the  woody  matter 
firom  the  fibre.  The  fibre  is  then  removed  out  of  the  boiling  water, 
and  washed  as  rapidly  as  possible  in  a  clear  running  stream,  after 
which  it  is  submitted  to  the  usual  bleaching  process  employed  in 
the  manufacture  of  fibre  from  flax  or  hemp. — Bepoi't,  April  1862. 

(297)  (Hselda  phamaceoides  (Linn.)    K  O.  PHTTOLAcoAOEiB. 

Desckiption. — Herbaceous ;  leaves  short-petioled,  elliptic- 
lanceolate,  very  obtuse,  scarcely  mucronulate,  pale  green 
above,  glaucous  white  beneath ;  cymes  sub-sessile,  shorter  than 
the  leaf,  ball-shaped,  simple,  5-10  flowered,  somewhat  loose; 
flowers  nearly  equalling  the  pedicel,  pale  green.  Fl,  All  the 
year. — Dec.  Prod,  xiii.,  s.  2,  p.  27. —  Wight  Icon,  t  1167. — 

Boocb.   Cor.  t  183. Common  in  pasture-grounds  all  over 

the  coimtry. 

Medical  Uses. — A  powerful  anthelmintic  in  cases  of  taenia.  The 
firesh  plant,  including  leaves,  stalks,  and  capsules,  is  employed  in 
doses  of  about  an  ounce,  ground  up  in  a  mortar,  with  sufficient  water 
to  make  a  draught  This  should  be  repeated  three  times  at  an 
interval  of  four  days,  the  patient  each  time  taking  it  after  fasting  for 
some  houra — Lowther  in  Joum.  of  Agri.-Hort.  Soc.  of  India.,  ix. 
p.  285. 

(298)  Gloriosa  snperba  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Liliace^. 

Mendoni,  Mal.    Caateejan,  Tax.    Ulatehandul,  Bbhg.    Cariari,  Hun). 

Desckiption.  —  Climbing,  with  herbaceous  stem;  leaves 
cirriferous,  ovate-lanceolate,  inferior  ones  oblong;  corolla 
6  -  petalled ;  petals  reflexed ;  flowers  yellow  and  crimson 
mixed;  capsule  3-celled,  3-valved.  Fl.  Aug. — Oct. — Wight 
Icon.  vi.  t.  2047. — Roicb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  143. — ^Methonica  superba, 
Lam. — Rheede,  vii.  t.  67. CoromandeL  Malabar.  Con- 
cans.    Bengal. 

Medical  TJsEa — ^This  splendid  creeper,  designated  by  Linnaeus 
as  "  vere  gloriosus  flos,"  is  commonly  to  be  met  with  in  the  Travan- 
core  forests.  Eoxburgh  says  it  is  one  of  the  most  ornamental  plants 
any  country  can  boast  of.  The  root  of  the  plant  is  reckoned  poison* 
ous.  The  natives  apply  it  in  paste  to  the  hands  and  feet  of  women 
in  difficult  parturition.  A  salt  is  procured  from  the  root  by  repeated 
washing  and  grinding,  throwing  away  the  liquor,  and  washing  the 
residuum  carefully.    The  white  powder  so  found  is  bitter  to  the 


228  GLUTA — GMELINA. 

taste.  Mixed  witli  honey  it  is  given  in  gonoirlioea. — (Idndley. 
Boxb.)  The  native  practitioners  say  it  possesses  nearly  the  same 
properties  as  the  root  of  Aconitum  ferox,  hence  its  name  of  Country  or 
Wild  Aconite.  Its  taste  is  faintly  bitter  and  acrid.  It  is  farinaceous 
in  structure.  It  is  not  poisonous  in  12-grain  doses,  but,  on  the  con- 
trary, is  alterative,  tonic,  and  anti-periodic.  It  might  be  poisonous 
in  larger  quantities. — Modem  Sheriff  in  Suppl.  to  Phann,  of  India, 

(299)  Oluta  TraTancorica  (Bedd,)    N.  0.  Anacardiace^ 

Shen-kurani,  Tah. 

Descbiption. — ^Laige  tree ;  leaves  crowded  about  the  apex 
of  the  branches,  alternate,  entire,  elliptic,  attenuated  at  both 
ends,  glabrous,  petioles  very  short,  ciliated,  panicles  terminal, 
and  from  the  upper  axils,  crowded,  canescent,  shortly  pubescent; 
calyx  irregularly  and  slightly  6-toothed,  splitting  irregularly 
and  caducous ;  bracts  ovate,  cymbiform ;  petals  5,  imbricate ; 
fruit  depressed,  transversely  oblong,  with  a  rough  brownish 

rind. — Bedd.  Mar,  Sylv,  t.  60. Tinnevelly  mountains  and 

Travancqre. 

Economic  Uses. — A  valuable  timber-tree.  The  wood  is  reddish, 
fine-grained,  takes  a  good  polish,  and  is  well  adapted  for  furniture. 
— Beddome, 

(300)  Gmelina  arborea  (Roxh)    K.  0.  YERBEKACEiB. 

Cumbulu,  Mal.     Joogani-cliookur,  Hind.     Gumbaree,  Beno.     Tagoomooda, 
Tam.    Goomadee,  Tel. 

Description. — Arboreous,  unarmed ;  branchlets  and  young 
leaves  covered  with  a  greyish  powdery  tomentum ;  leaves 
long-petioled,  cordate  or  somewhat  produced  and  acute  at  the 
base,  acuminate,  the  adult  ones  glabrous  above,  greyish  tomen- 
tose  beneath,  with  2-4  glands  at  the  base  ;  panicles  tomentose, 
axillary,  and  terminal ;'  raceme-like  cymules  decussate,  tricho- 
tomous,  few-flowered ;  bracts  lanceolate,  deciduous ;  the 
acutely  dentate  calyx  eglandulose;  flowers  large,  sulphur- 
coloured,  slightly  tinged  with  red  on  the  outside.  Fl,  April — 
May. — Wight  Icon.  t.  1470. — Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  84. — Oor.  iii. 
t.  246. — Eheede,  i.  t.  41. CoromandeL  Neilgherries.  Con- 
cans.    Oude. 

Economic  Uses. — A  small  tree  not  unfrequent  in  the  Paulghaut 
jungles,  and  generally  distributed  in  Malabar.     The  light  wood  of 


GMELINA— GOSSYPIUM.  229 

this  tree  is  used  bj  natives  for  making  the  cylinders  of  their  drams 
called  Dholucks,  also  for  making  chairs,  carriages,  panels,  &c,  as  it 
combines  lightness  with  strength.  It  is  common  in  the  Ganjam 
and  Yizagapatam  districts.  The  wood  is  not  readily  attacked  by 
insects.  The  shade  is  good.  It  grows  rapidly,  and  the  seeds  may 
be  planted  in  beds. — WiglU,     Road). 

(301)  Gmelina  Asiatica  {Unn,)    Do. 

Neelftcoomil,  Tam.    Nelagoomadi,  Tel. 

Description. — Shrub;  leaves  opposite,  petioled,  ovate, 
tomentose  underneath,  with  frequently  a  sharp  short  lobe  on 
each  side ;  spines  axillary,  opposite,  horizontal,  pubescent  at 
the  tip,  the  length  of  the  petioles  ;  flowers  from  the  end  of  the 
tender  twigs  on  peduncles ;  fruit  a  berried  drupe  size  of  a 
jujube,  black,  smooth  ;  flowers  large,  bright  sulphur.    Fl.  All 

the  year. — Raocb,  Fl,  Ind,  iii.  87. CoromandeL    Travan- 

core. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  is  a  demulcent  and  mucilaginous. 
Another  species,  the  G,  parviflora,  has  the  power  of  rendering  water 
mucilaginous,  and  is  employed  for  the  cure  of  the  scalding  of  urine 
in  gonorrhoea. — Eoxib. 

(302)  Qordonia  obtnsa  {Wall,)    K  0.  Ternbtrjsmuoea. 

Description. — Tree,  middling  size;  leaves  cuneate-oblong 
to  elliptic-lanceolate,  obtuse  or  with  a  blunt  acumination,  with 
shallow  serraturps,  glabrous ;  petioles  about  2  lines  long ; 
peduncles  a  little  shorter  than  the  petioles  ;  petioles  obcordate, 
slightly  united  at  the  base,  silky  on  the  outside,  as  are  the 
bracts  and  calyx ;  stamens  somewhat  pentadelphous. — W,  & 
A.  Prod.  p.  87. — G.  parviflora,  Wight  III — Bedd.  Fl  Sylv.  t 
73. 

Economic  Uses. — ^A  beautiful  tree,  coromon  on  the  Keilgherries, 
Wynaad,  and  Western  Ghauts  of  Madras,  from  2500  to  7500  feet 
elevations.  It  is  called  Nagetta  on  the  hill&  The  timber  is  white, 
with  a  straw  tint,  even-grained,  and  easy  to -work,  and  resembling 
beech.  It  is  in  general  use  for  planks,  doors,  rafters,  and  beams, 
but  liable  to  warp  if  not  well  seasoned. — Beddome. 

(303)  Qossypiiim  Indicnm  {Linn,)    JS*.  0.  Malvace^ 

Indian  Cotton  plant,  Eno.    Paratie,  Van-paratie,  Tam.   Eapas,  DUK.  Puttie,  Tbl. 

Description. — Herbaceous ;  stem  more  or  less  branched,  1 J 


230  GOSSYPIUM. 

foot ;  young  parts  velvety,  often  hairy,  in  the  upper  part  some- 
times of  a  reddish  colour,  frequently  marked  with  black  spots ; 
leaves  hairy,  palmate,  3-5  lobed ;  lobes  broad,  rounded ; 
petioles  long,  usually  hispid  and  dotted;  flowers  axillary, 
generally  solitary  towards  the  extremities  of  the  branches ; 
petals  yellow,  with  a  purple  spot  near  the  claw ;  segment  of 
involucel  cordate  at  the  base,  margin  dentate,  sometimes 
entire;  capsule  ovate,  pointed,  3-4  celled;  seeds  5,  clothed 
with  greyish  down  under  the  short-staple  white  wool — RoyU. 
— G.  herbaceum,  Linn, — Roicb,  Fl.  Ind,  iii  184. — Hoyle,  III. 
Him.  Bot  t  23,  fig.  1. Cultivated. 

EooNOMio  Uses.  —  As  flax  is  characteristic  of  Egypt,  and  the 
hemp  of  Europe,  so  cotton  may  truly  be  designated  as  belonging  to 
India.  Long  before  history  can  furnish  any  authentic  account  of 
tbis  invaluable  product,  its  uses  must  have  been  known  to  the  in- 
habitants of  this  country,  and  their  wants  supplied  irom  time  imme- 
morial, by  the  growth  of  a  fleecy-like  substaace,  covering  the  seeds 
of  a  plant,  raised  more  perhaps  by  the  bounty  of  Providence  than 
the  labour  of  mankind. 

In  Sanscrit,  cotton  is  called  kurpas,  from  whence  is  derived  the 
Latin  name  carhasuSy  mentioned  occasionally  in  Eoman  authors. 
This  word  subsequently  came  to  mean  sails  for  ships  and  tents. 
Herodotus  says,  talking  of  the  products  of  India, — '^  And  certain  wild 
trees  bear  wool  instead  of  finut,  that  in  beduty  and  quality  exceeds 
that  of  sheep :  and  the  Indians  make  their  clothing  from  these 
trees"  (iii.  106).  And  in  the  book  of  Esther  (i.  6)  the  word  green 
corresponds  to  the  Hebrew  kurpas,  and  is  in  the  Vulgate  translated 
carhadnvs.  The  above  shows  from  how  early  a  period  cotton  was 
cultivated  in  this  country.  "The  natives,"  says  Eoyle  (alluding 
to  its  manufacture  in  India),  "  of  that  country  early  attained  excel- 
lence in  the  arts  of  spinning  and  weaving,  employing  only  their 
Angers  and  the  spinning-wheel  for  the  former;  but  they  seem 
to  have  exhausted  their  ingenuity  when  they  invented  the  hand- 
loom  for  weaving,  as  they  have  for  ages  remained  in  a  stationaiy 
condition." 

It  has  sometimes  been  considered  a  subject  of  doubt  whether  the 
cotton  was  indigenous  to  America  as  well  as  Asi£^  but  without 
sufficient  reason,  as  it  is  mentioned  by  very  early  voyagers  as  form- 
ing the  only  clothing  of  the  natives  of  Mexico ;  and,  as  stated  by 
Humboldt,  it  is  one  of  the  plants  whose  cultivation  among  the 
Aztec  tribes  was  as  ancient  as  that  of  the  Agave,  the  Maize,  and  the 
Quinoa  (Chenopodium),  If  more  evidence  be  required,  it  may  be 
mentioned  that  Mr  Brown  has  in  his  possession  cotton  not  separated 
from  the  seeds,  as  well  as  cloth  manufactured  from  it  brought  from 
the  Peruvian  tombs;  and  it  may  be  added  that  the  species  now 


GOSSYPIUM.  231 

lecognised  as  American  differ  in  character  from  all  known  Indian 
species  {RoyU), 

Cotton  is  not  less  yaluable  to  the  inhabitants  of  India  than  it  is  to 
European  nations.     It  forms  the  clothing  of  the  immense  population 
of  that  country,  besides  being  used  by  them  in  a  thousand  different 
ways  for  carpets,  tents,  screens,  pillows,  curtains,  &c.     The  great  de- 
mand for  cotton  in  Europe  has  led  of  late  years  to  the  most  important 
consideration  of  improvements  in  its  cultivation.     The  labours  and 
outlay  which  Government  has  expended  in  obtaining  so  important 
an  object  have  happily  been  attended  with  the  best  results.     The 
introduction  of  American  seeds  and  experimental  cultivation  in 
various  parts  of  India  have  been  of  the  greatest  benefit.     They  have 
been  the  means  of  producing  a  better  article  for  the  market,  simpli- 
fying its  mode  of  culture,  and  proving  to  the  Ryots  how,  with  a  little 
care  and  attention,  the  article  may  be  made  to  yield  tenfold,  and 
greatly  increase  its  former  value.     To  neither  the  soil  nor  the  climate 
can  the  failure  of  Indian  cotton  be  traced :  the  want  of  easy  transit, 
however,  from  the  interior  to  the  coast,  the  ruinous  effect  of  absurd 
fiscal  regulations,  and  other  influences,  were  at  work  to  account  for 
its  failure.     In  1834,  Professor  Eoyle  drew  attention  to  two  circum- 
stances :  *'  I  have  no  doubt  that  by  the  importation  of  foreign,  and 
the  selection  of  native  seed — attention  to  the  peculiarities  not  only  of 
soil  but  also  of  climate,  as  regards  the  course  of  the  seasons,  and  the 
temperature,  dryness,  and  moisture  of  the  atmosphere,  as  well  as 
attention  to  the  mode  of  cultivation,  such  as  preparing  the  soil,  sow- 
ing in  lines  so  as  to  facilitate  the  circulation  of  air,  weeding,  ascer- 
taining whether  the  mixture  of  other  crops  with  the  cotton  be  injurious 
or  otherwise,  pruning,  picking  the  cotton  as  it  ripens,  and  keeping 
it  clean — ^great  improvement  must  take  place  in  the  quality  of  the 
cotton.     Experiments  may  at  first  be  more  expensive  than  the  or- 
dinary culture ;  the  natives  of  India,  when  taught  by  example,  would 
adopt  the  improved  processes  as  regularly  and  as  easily  as  the  other ; 
and  as  labour  is  nowhere  cheaper,  any  extra  outlay  would  be  repaid 
fully  as  profitably  as  in  countries  where  the  best  cottons  are  at 
present  produced." 

The  experiments  urged  by  so  distinguished  an  authority  were  put 
in  force  in  many  parts  of  the  country,  and  notwithstanding  the  great 
prejudice  which  existed  to  the  introduction  t)f  novelty  and  other 
obstacles,  the  results  have  proved  eminently  successful.  It  has  been 
urged  that  Indian  cotton  is  valuable  for  qualities  of  its  own,  and 
especiaUy  that  of  wearing  welL  It  is  used  for  the  same  purposes  as 
hemp  and  flax,  hair  and  wool,  are  in  England.  There  are,  of  course, 
a  great  many  varieties  in  the  market,  whose  value  depends  on  the 
length,  strength,  and  fineness  as  well  as  softness  of  the  material,  the 
chief  distinction  being  the  long  stapled  and  the  short  stapled. 
Cotton  was  first  imported  into  England  from  India  in  1783,  when 
about  114,133  lb.  were  received.  In  1846,  it  has  been  calculated 
that  the  consumption  of  cotton  for  the  last  30  years  has  increased  at 


232  GOSSYPIUM. 

the  compound  ratio  of  6  per  cent,  thereby  doublmg  itself  every 
twelve  years.  The  chief  parts  of  India  where  the  cotton  plant  is 
cultivated  are  in  Guzerat,  especially  in  Suiat  and  Broach,  the 
principal  cotton  districts  in  the  country;  the  southern  Mahratta 
countries,  including  Dharwar,  which  is  about  a  hundred  miles  from 
the  seaport ;  the  Concans,  Canara,  and  Malabar.  There  has  never 
been  any  great  quantity  exported  from  the  Madras  side,  though  it  is 
cultivated  in  the  Salem,  Coimbatore,  and  Tinnevelly  districts,  having 
the  port  of  Tuticorin  on  one  coast,  and  of  late  years  that  of  Cochin 
on  the  other,  both  increasing  in  importance  as  places  of  export  In 
the  Bengal  Presidency,  Behar  and  Benares,  and  the  Saugor  and 
Nerbudda  territories,  are  the  districts  where  it  is  chiefly  cultivated. 

The  present  species  and  its  varieties  are  by  far  the  most  generally 
cultivated  in  India.  Dacca  cotton  is  a  variety  chiefly  found  in 
Bengal,  furmshing  that  exceedingly  fine  cotton,  and  employed  in 
manufacturing  the  very  delicate  and  beautiful  muslins  of  that  place, 
the  chief  difference  being  in  the  mode  of  spinning,  not  in  any  inherent 
virtue  in  the  cotton  or  soil  where  it  grows.  The  Berar  cotton  is 
another  variety  with  which  the  K.  Circar  long-cloth  is  made.  This 
district,  since  it  has  come  under  British  rule,  promises  to  be  one  of 
the  most  fertile  and  valuable  cotton  districts  in  the  whole  country. 

Much  diversity  of  opinion  exists  as  to  the  best  soil  and  climate 
adapted  for  the  growth  of  the  cotton  plant ;  and  considering  that  it 
grows  at  altitudes  of  9000  feet,  where  Humboldt  found  it  in  the 
Andes,  as  well  as  at  the  level  of  the  sea,  in  rich  black  soil  and 
also  on  the  sandy  tracts  of  the  sea-shore,  it  is  superfluous  to  attempt 
specifying  the  particular  amount  of  dryness  or  moisture  absolutely 
requisite  to  insure  perfection  in  the  crop.  It  seeins  to  be  a  favourite 
idea,  however,  that  the  neighbourhood  of  the  sea-coast  and  islands 
are  more  fSftvourable  for  the  cultivation  of  the  plant  than  places  far 
inland,  where  the  saline  moisture  of  the  sea^ir  cannot  reach.  But 
such  is  certainly  not  the  case  in  Mexico  and  parts  of  Brazil,  where 
the  best  districts  for  cotton-growing  are  far  inland,  removed  from  the 
influence  of  sea-air.  Perhaps  the  different  species  of  the  plant 
may  require  different  climates.  However  that  may  be,  it  is  certain 
that  they  are  found  growing  in  every  diversity  of  climate  and  soil, 
even  on  the  Indian  continent ;  while  it  is  well  known  that  the  best 
and  largest  crops  have  invariably  been  obtained  from  island  planta- 
tions, or  those  in  the  vicinity  of  the  sea  on  the  mainland. 

A  fine  sort  of  cotton  is  grown  in  the  eastern  districts  of  Bengal 
for  the  most  delicate  manufactures ;  and  a  coarse  kind  is  gathered  in 
every  part  of  the  province  from  plants  thinly  interspersed  in  fields 
of  pulse  or  grain.  Captain  Jenkins  describes  the  cotton  in  Cachar 
as  gathered  from  the  Jaum  cultivation  :  this  consists  in  the  jungle 
being  burnt  down  after  periods  of  from  four  to  six  years,  the  ground 
roughly  hoed,  and  the  seeds  sown  without  further  culture.  Dr 
Buchanan  Hamilton,  in  his  statistical  account  of  Dinagepore,  gives  a 
full  account  of  the  mode  of  cultivation  in  that  district,  where  he  says 


GOSSYPIUM.  233 

Bome  cotton  of  bad  quality  is  grown  along  with  turmeric,  and  some 
by  itself,  which  is  sown  in  the  beginning  of  May,  and  the  produce 
collected  from  the  middle  of  August  to  the  middle  of  October,  but 
the  cultivation  is  miserable.  A  much  better  method,  however,  he 
adds,  is  practised  in  the  south-east  parts  of  the  district,  the  cotton  of 
which  is  finer  than  that  imported  from  the  west  of  India :  The  land 
is  of  the  first  quality,  and  the  cotton  is  made  to  succeed  rice,  which 
is  cut  between  August  and  the  middle  of  September.  The  field  is 
immediately  ploughed  until  well  broken,  for  which  purpose  it  may 
require  six  double  ploughings.  After  one-half  of  these  has  been 
given,  it  is  manured  with  dung,  or  mud  from  ditches.  Between  the 
middle  of  October  and  the  same  time  in  November,  the  seed  is  sown 
broadcast ;  twenty  measures  of  cotton  and  one  of  mustard.  That 
of  the  cotton,  before  it  is  sown,  is  put  into  water  for  one-third  of  an 
hour,  after  which  it  is  rubbed  with  a  little  dry  earth  to  facilitate  the 
sowing.  About  the  beginning  of  February  the  mustard  is  ripe,  when 
it  is  plucked  and  the  field  weeded.  Between  the  12th  of  April  and 
12th  of  June  the  cotton  is  collected  as  it  ripens.  The  produce  of  a 
single  acre  is  about  300  lb.  of  cotton,  worth  ten  rupees ;  and  as  much 
mustard-seed,  worth  three  rupees.  A  still  greater  quantity  of  cotton,  - 
Dr  Hamilton  continues,  is  reared  on  stiff  clay-land,  where  the  ground 
is  also  high  and  tanks  numerous.  If  the  soil  is  rich  it  gives  a 
summer  crop  of  rice  in  the  same  year,  or  at  least  produces  the  seedling 
rice  that  is  to  be  transplanted.  In  the  beginning  of  October  the 
field  is  ploughed,  and  in  the  end  of  the  month  the  cotton-seed  is 
sown,  mingled  with  Sorisha  or  Lora  (species  of  Sinapis  and  Eruca) ; 
and  some  rows  of  flax  and  safflower  are  generally  intermixed.  About 
the  end  of  January,  or  later,  the  oil-seeds  are  plucked,  the  field  is 
hoed  and  manured  with  cow-dung  and  ashes,  mud  from  tanks,  and 
oil-cake ;  it  is  then  watered  once  in  from  eight  to  twelve  days.  The 
cotton  is  gathered  between  the  middle  of  April  and  the  middle  of 
June,  and  its  produce  may  be  from  360  to  500  lb.  an  acre. 

In  the  most  northern  provinces  of  India  the  greatest  care  is  bestowed 
on  the  cultivation.  The  seasons  for  sowing  are  about  the  middle  of 
March  and  April,  after  the  winter  crops  have  been  gathered  in,  and 
again  about  the  commencement  of  the  rainy  season.  The  crops  are 
commenced  being  gathered  about  the  conclusion  of  the  rains,  and 
during  October  and  November,  after  which  the  cold  becomes  con- 
siderable, and  the  rains  again  severe.  About  the  beginning  of 
February  the  cotton  plants  shoot  forth  new  leaves,  produce  fresh 
flowers,  and  a  second  crop  of  cotton  is  produced,  which  is  gathered 
during  March  and  beginning  of  April.  The  same  occurs  with  the 
cottons  of  Central  India,  one  crop  being  collected  after  the  rains  and 
the  other  in  February,  and  what  is  late  in  the  beginning  of  March. 

I  venture  to  insert  here  the  following  interesting  particulars  about 
cotton  manufacture  :  "  The  shrub  Perutti,  which  produces  the  finer 
kind  of  cotton,  requires  in  India  little  cultivation  or  care.  When  the 
cotton  has  been  gathered  it  is  thrown  upon  a  floor  and  threshed,  in 


234  GOSSYPIUM. 

order  tliat  it  may  be  separated  from  tlie  black  seeds  and  busks  whicb 
serve  it  as  a  covering.  It  is  then  put  into  bags  or  tied  up  in  bales 
containing  from  300  to  320  lb.  of  16  oz.  each.  After  it  has 
been  carded  it  is  spun  out  into  such  delicate  threads  that  a  piece  of 
cotton  cloth  20  yards  in  length  may  almost  be  concealed  in  the 
hollows  of  both  hands.  Most  of  these  pieces  of  cloth  are  twice 
washed ;  others  remain  as  they  come  from  the  loom,  and  are  dipped 
in  cocoa-nut  oil  in  order  that  they  may  be  longer  preserved.  It  is 
customary  also  to  draw  them  through  conjee  or  rice-water,  that  they 
may  acquire  more  smoothness  and  body.  This  conjee  is  sometimes 
applied  to  cotton  articles  in  so  ingenious  a  manner  that  purchasers 
are  often  deceived,  and  imagine  the  cloth  to  be  much  stronger  than 
it  really  is ;  for  as  soon  as  washed  the  conjee  vanishes,  and  the  cloth 
appears  quite  slight  and  thin. 

"  There  are  reckoned  to  be  no  less  than  22  different  kinds  of  cotton 
articles  manufactured  in  India,  without  including  musUn  or  coloured 
stuffs.  The  latter  are  not,  as  in  Europe,  printed  by  means  of  wooden 
blocks,  but  painted  with  a  brush  made  of  coir,  which  approaches 
near  to  horse-hair,  becomes  very  elastic,  and  can  be  formed  into  any 
shape  the  painter  chooses.  The  colours  employed  are  indigo  (Indig(h 
fera  tinctoria),  the  stem  and  leaves  of  which  plant  yield  that  beauti- 
ful dark  blue  with  which  the  Indian  chintzes,  coverlets,  and  other 
articles  are  painted,  and  which  never  loses  the  smallest  shade  of  its 
beauty.  Also  curcuma  or  Indian  safBx^n,  a  plant  which  dyes  yellow; 
and  lastly,  gum-lac,  together  with  some  flowers,  roots,  and  fruits 
which  are  used  to  dye  red.  With  these  few  pigments,  which  are 
applied  sometimes  singly,  sometimes  mixed,  the  natives  produce  on 
their  cotton  cloths  that  admirable  and  beautiful  painting  which, 
exceeds  anything  of  the  kind  exhibited  in  Europe. 

"  No  person  in  Turkey,  Persia,  or  Europe  has  yet  imitated  the 
Betilla,  a  certain  kind  of  white  East  Indian  chintz  made  at  Masuli- 
patam,  and  known  under  the  name  of  Organdi.  The  manufacture 
of  this  cloth,  which  was  known  in  the  time  of  Job,  the  painting  of 
it,  and  the  preparation  of  the  colours,  give  employment  in  India  to 
male  and  female,  young  and  old.  A  great  deal  of  cotton  is  brought 
from  Arabia  and  Persia  and  mixed  with  that  of  India." — Bart. 
Voy,  to  East  Indies, 

The  remaining  uses  of  this  valuable  plant  must  now  claim  oui 
attention.  The  seeds  are  bruised  for  their  oil,  which  is  very  pure, 
and  is  largely  manufactured  at  Marseilles  from  seeds  brought  from 
Egypt.  These  seeds  are  given  as  a  fattening  food  to  cattle.  Cotton- 
seed cake  is  imported  from  the  West  Indies  into  England,  being 
used  as  a  valuable  food  for  cattle.  The  produce  of  oil-cake  and  oil 
from  cotton-seeds  is,  2  gallons  of  oil  to  1  cwt.  of  seeds,  and  96  lb. 
of  cake.  A  great  quantity  is  shipped  from  China,  chiefly  from 
Shanghai,  for  the  English  market.  It  forms  an  invaluable  manure 
for  the  fSarmer. — Eoyle  on  Cotton  CtUtivation,  Bimmonds,  LindXey. 
Eoxb, 


GKANGEA — GRISLEA.  235 

(304)  Orangea  Maderaspatana  (Poir.)    N.  0.  Composite 

Mashiputri,  Tam.    Nelampata,  Mal.    Mustaril^  Tjel.    Namuti,  Benq. 

Description. — Stems  procumbent  or  di£fuse,  villous ;  leaves 
sinuately  piimatifid,  lobes  obtuse ;  peduncles  terminal  or  leaf- 
opposed  ;  heads  of  flowers  sub-globose,  solitary,  yellow.  FL 
Dec. — Jan.  —  Dec.  Prod.  v.  373. —  Wight  Contrib,  p.  12. — 
Artemisia  Maderaspatana,  Roxb.  —  Wight  Icon,  t  1097. — 
RheedCy  x.  t  49.     Eice-fields  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves  are  used  medicinally  as  a  stomachic. 
The  Yytians  also  consider  them  to  have  deobstruent  and  antispaB- 
modic  properties.  They  are  used  also  in  the  preparation  of  antiseptic 
and  anodyne  fomentations. — Ainslie, 

(305)  Grewia  oppositifolia  {Buck,)    N.  0.  Tiliaoea. 

Description.  —  Tree ;  leaves  bifarious,  alternate,  short- 
petioled,  from  ovate  to  rhomb  -  shaped,  3  -  nerved,  serrate^ 
serratures  obtuse  and  glandular,  rather  harsh  on  both  sides ; 
peduncles  leaf-opposed,  solitary,  longer  than  the  petioles,  3-5 
flowered;  flowers  large,  yellowish;  calyx  3-ribbed  at  the  back; 
sepals  5,  linear;  petals  lanceolate;  drupe  smooth,  olive-coloured, 
fleshy;  nut  1- celled.  Fl.  March — June. — Roxb,  Fl.  Ind.  ii. 
583. —  Wight  Icon,  t,  82. Kheree  Pass,    Dheyra  Dhoon. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  inner  bark  is  used  for  cordage  and  coarse 
cloth.  The  former  much  used  for  agricultural  purposes,  and  for  rigging 
boats.  A  kind  of  paper  is  also  made  from  ii.-—(Royle,)  It  attains  its 
full  size  in  about  15  years.  The  wood  is  straw-coloured,  soft,  elastic, 
and  durable;,  and  is  well  adapted  for  handles  of  axes  and  other 
tools,  and  cot^frames. — {PowelVs  Punj,  Prod.)  The  chief  value  of  the 
tree  is  on  account  of  the  leaves,  which  largely  serve  as  fodder,  and 
are  said  to  increase  the  quantity  of  milk.  The  bark  is  made  into 
sandals.  A  fair  paper  has  been  manufactured  from  the  bark  by 
Europeans  in  the  Kangra  valley. — (Stewards  Punj,  Plants.)  The 
timber  of  another  species,  the  O,  elastica,  is  highly  esteemed  for  its 
strength  and  elasticity,  and  is  much  used  for  bows,  buggy-shafts, 
and  sticks.  The  berries  have  a  pleasant  acid  taste,  and  are  used  for 
making  sherbet. — Royle, 

(306)  Chrifllea  tomentosa  (Roxb,)    K  0.  Ltthbacba 

Sirligie,  Tel.    Dhaee-phool,  Beno. 

Descbiftion. — Shrub  or  small  tree ;  branchlets  pubescent ; 


236  GUAZUMA. 

leaves  opposite,  entire,  lanceolate,  somewhate  cordate  at  the 
base,  sessile,  under  side  hairy,  smoothish  above ;  petals  usually 
6,  scarcely  conspicuous;  stamens  declinate;  capsule  oblong; 
calyx  tubular,  sharply  toothed ;  seeds  numerous ;  pedimcles 
axillary,  many-flowered ;  flowers  red.  FL  Dec. — April. — W. 
&  A.  Prod.  i.  Zm,—Roxh.  Flor,  Ind.  ii  233.— (7or.  i.  t.  31. 

— Ly  thrum  fruticosum,  Linn. Peninsula.    Bengal.    Oude. 

Dheyra  Dhoon. 

Economic  Uses. — The  petals  are  used  as  a  red  dye  as  well  as  in 
medicine.  An  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  employed  as  a  substitute  for 
tea  by  the  hill  tribes  near  EUichpoor,  where  the  shrub  grows.  Dr 
Gibson  remarks  that  it  is  a  very  common  shrub  throughout  the 
forest  of  the  Concan,  and  along  the  Ghauts.  It  has  rather  pretty 
red  flowers,  appearing  from  December  to  February;  and  in  Candeish, 
where  the  plant  grows  abundantly,  forms  a  considerable  article  of 
commerce  inland  as  a  dye. — {Dr  Gibson.)  There  are  two  varieties 
of  this  tree,  the  white  and  black,  distinguished  by  the  colour  of  the 
bark,  fruit,  and  shape  of  the  leaves.  The  wood  is  hght  yellow,  hard, 
smooth,  and  tough.  It  yields  good  material  for  ploughs,  and  attains 
its  full  size  in  30  years. — (PowelVs  Punj.  Prod.)  In  the  Northern 
Circars,  where  it  is  known  under  the  name  of  godari  and  reyya 
manu,  the  leaves  are  employed  in  dyeing  leather.  Sheep -skins 
steeped  in  an'  infusion  of  the  dried  leaves  become  a  fine  red,  of 
which  native  slippers  are  made.  The  dried  flowers  are  employed  in 
Northern  India,  under  the  name  of  dkouri,  in  the  process  of  dyeing 
with  the  Monnda  bark,  not  so  much  for  their  colouring  as  their 
astringent  properties.  The  shrub  is  abundant  in  the  hilly  tracts  of 
the  Northern  Circars. — Jury  Rep,  Mad,  Exhib, 

(307)  Guaznma  tomentosnm  {H.  B.  ^  Kth.)    N.  0.  Byttnemacejb. 

Bastard  Cedar,  Eno.    Oodrick,  Tel. 

Description. — Tree,  40-60  feet ;  leaves  alternate,  ovate  or 
oblong,  unequal  at  the  base,  toothed,  acuminate  at  the  apex, 
stellately  puberulous  on  the  upper  side,  tomentose  beneath ; 
petals  5,  yellow,  with  two  purple  awns  at  the  apex ;  capsules 
5-celled,  many-seeded ;  seeds  angular ;  peduncles  axillary  and 
terminal.  Fl.  Aug.— Sept.— F.  <fe  A.  Prod.  i.  Q^— Wight 
III.  t.  31. — G.  ulmifolia,  Wall. Cultivated. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^A  decoction  of  the  inner  bark  is  very  glutinous, 
and  besides  being  employed  to  clarify  sugar,  is  said  to  be  of  use  in 
Elephantiasis ;  while  the  older  bark  is  used  as  a  sudorific,  and  is 
given  in  diseases  of  the  chest  and  cutaneous  complaints. — Lindley, 


GUETTARDA — GUILANDINA.  237 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  tree  has  been  introduced  from  the  West 
Indies,  but  is  now  common  in  India ;  it  is  not  unlike  the  English 
elm,  with  leaves  that  droop  hanging  quite  down  whilst  the  petioles 
remaiii  stiff  and  straight.  The  &iiJt  is  filled  with  mucilage,  which 
is  very  agreeable  to  the  taste.  The  wood  is  light  and  loose-grained, 
and  IB  much  used  in  making  furniture,  especially  by  coachmakers 
for  panels.  A  fibre  was  prepared  from  the  young  shoots  which  was 
submitted  to  experiments  by  Dr  Eoxburgh,  and  found  to  be  of  con- . 
siderable  strength,  breaking  at  100  lb.  when  dry,  and  140  lb.  when 
wet. — (Don.  Royle  Fib,  Plants,)  It  grows  quickly,  and  is  suited  for 
avenues.  In  Coorg  and  the  western  forests  it  grows  to  a  large  size. 
Its  leaves  afford  excellent  fodder  for  cattle. 

(308)  Gnettarda  speciosa  {Linn.)    K.  0.  Cinchonacels. 

Puneer-mamm,  Tam.    Ravapoo,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree ;  leaves  ovate  or  obovate,  often  slightly 
cordate  at  the  base,  obtuse  at  the  apex,  pubescent  on  the*under 
side ;  cymes  peduncled,  axillary,  velvety,  much  shorter  than 
the  leaf ;  corolla  hypocrateriform,  with  cylindrical  tube ;  flowers 
4-9  cleft ;  anthers  sessile  in  the  throat  of  the  corolla ;  calyx 
limb  deciduous  ;  stamens  4-9  ;  drupe  depressed,  marked  by  the 
traces  of  the  calyx ;  cells  of  the  nut  curved,  1-seeded ;  flowers 
white,  very  fragrant  Fl,  April — May. —  W,  &  A,  Prod.  i. 
422.—  Wight  Icon.  i.  t  ^Q.-^Roai).  Fl.  Ind.  i.  686.— -Nyctan- 

thes  hirsuta,    Linn. — BJieede,  iv.   t.  47,   48. Travancore. 

Coromandel  in  gardens. 

Economic  Uses. — The  flowers  of  this  tree  are  exquisitely  fragrant. 
They  come  out  in  the  evening,  and  have  all  dropped  on  the  ground 
by  the  morning.  The  natives  in  Travancore  distil  an  odonferous 
water  from  the  corollas,  which  is  very  like  rose-water.  In  order  to 
procure  it  they  spread  a  very  thin  muslin  cloth  over  the  tree  in  the 
evening,  taking  care  that  it  comes  well  in  contact  with  the  flowers 
as  much  as  possible.  During  the  heavy  dew  at  night  the  cloth  be- 
comes saturated,  and  imbibes  the  extract  from  the  flowers.  It  is 
then  wrung  out  in  the  morning.  This  extract  is  sold  in  the  bazaars. 
— Pera.  Obs. 

(309)  Oxiflandina  bondnc  (Linn.)    K  O.  Leoumino&£. 

Knlonje,  Caretti,  Mal.  Ealichikai,  Tam.  Getsakaia,  Tel.  Nata-carai\ja,  Hind. 
Gatchka,  DuK.    Nata,  Beno. 

Description. — Climbing  shrub ;  leaves  abruptly  bipinnated, 
more  or  less  pubescent,  3-8  pair,  with  1-2  small  recurved 
prickles  between  them ;  leaflets  oval  or  ovate ;  prickles  soli- 


238  GUIZOTIA — GYNANDROPSIS. 

tary ;  flowers  yellow  ;  sepals  5,  nearly  equal ;  petals  5,  sessile ; 
flowers  lai^ish,  sulphur-coloured,  spicately  racemose ;  legume 
ovate,  2-valved,  1-2  seeded,  covered  with  straight  prickles ; 
seeds  long,  nearly  globose.  Fl,  Aug. — Oct. — W,  &  A,  Prod,  i. 
280. — G.   bonducella,  Linn. — Csesalpinia  bonduc,  Roxb.  FL 

Ind.  iL  862. — Eheede,  ii  t  22. Coromandel.    Travancore. 

Bombay.    Bengal. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^The  kernels  of  the  nuts  are  very  bitter,  and  said 
by  the  native  doctors  to  be  powerfully  tonic.  They  are  given  in 
cases  of  intermittent  feveis  mixed  with  spices  in  the  form  of  powder. 
Pounded  and  mixed  with  castor-oil,  they  are  applied  externally  in 
hydrocele.  At  Amboyna  the  seeds  are  considered  as  anthelmintic, 
and  the  root  tonic  in  dyspepsia.  In  Cochin  China  the  leaves  are 
reckoned  as  deobstruent  and  emmenagogue,  and  the  root  astringent. 
The  oil  from 'the  former  is  useful  in  convulsions,  palsy,  and  similar 
complaints.  In  Scotland,  where  they  are  frequently  thrown  upon 
the  sea-shore,  they  are  known  as  Molucca  beans.  Fiddington  has 
detected  in  the  nuts,  oil,  starch,  sugar,  and  resin. — Ainslie,  Lour, 
Rumph, 

(310)  Guizotia  oleifera  {Dec)    K  0.  Cohpositje. 

Ramtil,  Beno.    Ramtilla,  Duk.    Kalatill,  Hind.    Valesoloo,  Tel. 

Desceiption. — Annual,  herbaceous,  erect ;  leaves  opposite, 
long  lanceolate,  coarsely  serrated ;  peduncles  elongated,  sub- 
corymbose  ;  flowers  large,  bright  yellow.  Fl.  Nov. — Dec. — 
Verbesina  sativa,  Roxh.  FL  Ind,  iii.  441. — ^Eamtilla  oleifera, 
Lee. Madras.     Cultivated  in  the  Deccan.     Lower  Bengal 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — Commonly  cultivated  in  Mysore  and  the 
Deccan,  for  the  sake  of  the  oil  yielded  by  its  seeds.  The  Eamtil 
oU  is  sweet-tasted,  and  is  used  for  the  same  purposes  as  the  gingely- 
oil,  though  an  inferior  oiL  The  oil  expressed  from  the  larger  seeds 
is  the  common  lamp-oil  of  Upper  India,  and  is  very  cheap.  In 
Mysore  the  seed  is  sown  in  July  or  August  after  the  first  heavy 
rains,  the  fields  being  simply  ploughed,  neither  weeding  nor  manure 
being  required.  In  three  months  from  the  sowing,  the  crop  is  cut, 
and  after  being  placed  in  the  sun  for  a  few  days,  the  seeds  are 
thrashed  out  with  a  stick.  The  produce  is  about  two  bushels  an 
acre.  In  Mysore  the  price  is  about  Es.  3-8  a  maund. — Ainslie. 
Jury  Rep.  Mad.  Exhib.     Heyne^s  Tracts.     Simmonds. 

(311)  Gynandropsis  pentaphylla  (Dec.)    K  0.  Capparidaokb. 

Caat-kodokoo.    Cara-vella,  Mal.     Eanala,  Shada  floorhooreeja,  Bsiro.    Nai- 
kadaghoo,  Nai  Vaylla,  Tam. 

Description. — ^Annual,  1  foot ;  calyx  sepc^  4,  spreading ; 


GYROCARPUS.  239 

petals  4  open,  not  covering  the  stamens ;  stem  more  or  less 
covered  with  glandular  pubescence  or  hairs ;  middle  leaves  5- 
foliolate,  lower  and  floral  leaves  trifoliolate ;  leaflets  obovate, 
puberulous,  entire,  or  slightly  serrulate ;  flowers  white  or  flesh- 
coloured,  with  pink  stamens  and  brown  anthers ;  siliqua  stalked. 
Fl.  July — ^Aug. —  W,  Jk  A.  Prod.  L  21. — Cleome  pentaphylla, 

Linn. — Boxb,  FL  Ind.  iii  126. — RJieede,  ix.  t.  24. Common 

everywhera    BengaL    Nepaul. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves  bruised  and  applied  to  the  skin  act 
as  a  rubefacient,  and  produce  abundant  serous  exudation,  answering 
the  purpose  of  a  blister.  The  seeds  are  given  internally,  beaten  to 
a  paste,  in  fever  and  bilious  affections;  and  the  juice  of  leaves,  beaten 
up  with  salt,  in  ear-ache.  The  whole  plant  made  into  an  ointment 
with  oil  is  appHed  to  pustular  eruptions  of  the  skin,  and  simply 
boiled  in  oil  is  efficacious  in  cutaneous  diseases,  especially  leprosy. 
— (Bheede,  Ainslie,  Wight)  Sir  W.  Jones  remarked  that  its  sen- 
sible qualities  seemed  to  promise  great  antispasmodic  virtues,  it 
having  a  scent  resembling  Assafoetida.  The  seeds  are  used  as  a 
substitute  for  mustard,  and  yield  a  good  oil — Pharm.  of  India, 

(312)  Qyrocarpns  Asiaticns  (WUld,)    K  0.  CoHBRETACEiE.  ^ 

Tanukoo,  Tel.  /^  >  ^  .)  - 

Description. — ^Large  tree ;  leaves  crowded  about  the  extre- 
mities of  the  branchlets,  broad  cordate,  3-nerved,  often  slightly 
lobed,  above  smooth,  below  downy,  with  two  pits  on  the  upper 
side  of  the  base ;  petioles  downy ;  panicles  terminal,  divisions 
2-forked ;  hermaphrodite  flowers  solitary,  sessile  in  the  division 
of  the  panicle;  calyx  5-sepalled,  segments  unequal,  interior 
pairs  large,  wedge-shaped,  3-toothed,  expanding  into  two  long 
membranaceous  wings ;  flowers  small,  yellow ;  capsule  globular, 
wrinkled,  1-celled,  1-valved,  size  of  a  cherry,  ending  in  two 
long  lanceolate  membranaceous  wings.  Fl.  Dec. — Jan. — G. 
Jacquini,  Eoai.  Fl.  Ind.  I  445. — Cor.  i.  t.  !•— — Coromandel 
mountains.    Banks  of  the  Krishna. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  wood  of  this  tree  is  very  lights  and  when 
procurable  is  preferred  above  all  others  in  the  construction  of  Cata- 
marans. It  is  also  used  for  making  cowrie-boxes  and  toys,  and 
takes  paint  and  varnish  welL — Boxb. 


240 


H 

(313)  Hardwidda  binata  (Roxb.)    K  0.  LBGUMiKfa^.  /  /     y* 

AcM  Karachi,  Kat-udugu,  Tam.    Nar-yepi,  Tkl.    JltXAtff^     V  <^p^ 

Description. — ^Tree,  bark  deeply  cracked,  branches  spread- 
ing ;  leaves  alternate,  petioled,  leaflets  1  pair,  opposite,  sessile, 
with  a  bristle  between  them,  between  semi-cordate  and  rehi- 
form,  obtuse,  entire,  very  smooth  on  both  sides,  3-6  veined  at 
the  base,  when  young  tinged  with  red,  stipules  small,  cordate, 
caducous;  panicles  terminal  and  from  the  exterior  axils; 
flowers  pedicelled,  scattered,  small,  bracts  minute,  caducous  ; 
calyx  somewhat  hoary  outside,  often  dotted,  yellowish  within, 
filaments  usually  10,  rarely  6-8,  anthers  with  or  without  an 
acute  point  between  the  lobes ;  style  filiform,  stigma  large, 
peltate ;  legume  lanceolate,  2-3  inches  in  length,  2-valved,  . 
striated  lengthwise,  opening  at  the  apex  ;  seed  solitary  in  the  )>j 
apex  of  the  legume. — Roodb,  Flor.  Ind,  ii.  423. — TT.  &  A.     ^^ 

Prod.  i.  284.--l?edd  Flor.  Sylv.  t  26. Banks  of  the  Cauvery.     ^ 

Salem  and  Coimbatore   districts.      Western    slopes  of   the     ^ 
Neilgherries.    Mysore.     Godavery  forests.    Bombay. 

Economic  Uses. — This  is  a  valuable  tree,  but  cattle  being  very  ^ 
fond  of  its  leaves,  it  is  pollarded  to  a  great  extent.     The  timber  is 
of  a  reddish  colour,  very  hard,  strong,  and  heavy,  and  of  an  excellent 
quality.     It  is  a  first-rate  building  and  engineering  timber.     Its  bark  i 
yields  a  strong  fibre  much  used  by  the  natives.     It  is  easily  raised 
from  seed,  and  grows  to  3500  feet  elevation. — Beddomen 

(314)  Hedyotis  mnbellata  {Lam.)    K.  0.  Cinchonace^. 

Indian  Madder,  Enq.    Saya  or  Emboorel  cheddie,  Tam.    Cheriveloo,  Tel. 

Description. — Small  plant,  suffruticose,  erect  or  diff'use, 
slightly  scabrous ;  calyx  4-parted ;  corolla  rotate,  4-cleft ; 
leaves  opposite  or  verticillate,  linear,  paler  on  the  under  side, 
margins  recurved ;  stipules  ciliated  with  bristles ;  peduncles 
alternate,  axillary,  bearing  a  short  raceme ;  partial  peduncles 
1-3  flowered ;  capsule  globose  with  a  wide  dehiscence ;  flowers 
white. —  W.  &  A.  Prod,  i.  413. — Oldenlandia  umbellata,  Linn. 


HEMIDESMUS.  241 

— Roxb.  Cor,  i.  1 3. — FL  Ind.  i  421. CoromandeL   Concans. 

Cultivated  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves  are  considered  expectorant.  Dried 
and  powdered  they  are  mixed  with  flour  and  made  into  cakes,  and 
given  in  asthmatic  complaints  and  consumption,  an  ounce  daily  of 
decoction  heing  the  dose  given. — Ainalie, 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — This  is  much  cultivated  in  sandy  situations  on 
the  Coromandel  coast,  especially  at  Nellore,  Masulipatam,  and  other 
places.  The  root,  which  is  long  and  orange-coloured,  gives  the  hest 
and  most  durahle  red  dye  for  cotton  cloth.  A  purple  and  brown-orange 
dye  is  also  procured  from  it.  It  is  often  called  by  the  Tamulians 
the  Ramiseram  Vayr^  from  its  growing  plentifully  on  that  island. 
Among  Europeans  it  is  known  as  the  diay  root.  Simmonds  says 
the  outer  bark  of  the  roots  furnishes  the  colouring  matter  for  the 
durable  red  for  which  the  chintzes  of  India  are  famous.  Chay  root 
forms  a  considerable  article  of  export  from  Ceylon.  The  wild  plant 
there  is  considered  preferable ;  the  roots,  which  are  shorter,  yielding 
one-fourth  part  more  colouring  matter ;  and  the  right  to  dig  it  is 
farmed  out.  It  grows  spontaneously  on  light,  dry,  sandy  ground  on  the 
sea-coast  The  cultivated  roots  are  slender,  with  a  few  lateral  fibres, 
and  from  one  to  two  feet  long.  The  dye  is  said  to  have  been  tried 
in  Europe,  but  not  with  much  advantage.  This  red  dye,  similar  to 
Munjeet,  \a  used  to  a  great  extent  in  the  southern  parts  of  Hindo- 
Stan  by  the  native  dyers.  It  is  not  held  in  very  good  estimation  in 
Europe,  but  seems  to  deserve  a  better  reputation  than  it  at  present 
possesses.  Specimens  of  the  dye  were  forwarded  to  the  Madras 
Exhibition,  upon  which  the  Jurors  reported  as  follows :  The 
colouring  matter  resides  entirely  in  the  bark  of  the  root ;  the  inner 
portion  is  white  and  useless.  The  root  is  of  great  importance  to  the 
Indian  dyer,  yielding  a  red  dye  similar  to  Munjeet,  which  is  used  to 
a  great  extent  in  the  southern  parts  of  Hindostan.  The  celebrated 
red  turbans  of  Madura  are  dyed  with  the  Chay  root,  which  is  con- 
sidered superior  of  its  kind,  but  this  is  probably  owing  to  some  chemi- 
cal effect  which  the  water  of  the  Vigay  river  has  upon  it,  and  not  to 
any  peculiar  excellence  of  the  dye  itself.  Wild  Chay  is  considered 
to  yield  one-third  more  colouring  matter  than  the  cultivated  root ; 
this  probably  arises  from  too  much  watering,  as  much  rain  injures 
the  quality  of  the  root  Eoots  of  two  years'  growth  are  preferred 
when  procurable.  It  is  currently  reported  that  Chay  root  rapidly 
deteriorates  by  being  kept  in  the  hold  of  a  ship,  or  indeed  in  any 
dark  place.* — Simmonds.     Jury  Rep.  Mad.  Exhih.    Ainalie. 

(315)  Hemidesmns  Indicns  (R.  Br.)    K  0.  Asclepiaoks. 

Countrj  SaraapariUa,  Eno.  Narooneendee,  Mal.  Nannari,  Tah.  Soogundapala, 
TsL.    Mugraboo,  Hutd.    Unanto-mool,  Beno. 

Description. — ^Twining ;  stem  glabrous ;  leaves  from  cordate 

*  For  accoimt  of  the  cultiration  and  produce  of  the  Chay  root,  see  Appendix  D. 

16 


242  HERPESTIS. 

to  ovate,  cuspidate,  passing  into  narrow  linear,  acute,  often 
oblong -lanceolate  cymes,  often  sub-sessile,  sometimes  pe- 
duncled;  scales  of  the  corolla  obtuse,  cohering  the  whole 
length  of  the  tube ;  follicles  slender,  straight ;  flowers  on  the 
outside,  pale  green,  on  the  inside,  dark  blood-coloured.  Fl. 
June — Aug. — Wight  Contrib.  p.  63. — Icon,  t  p.  594. — Peri- 
ploca  Indica,  Willd. — Asclepias  pseudosarsa.  Var.  latifolia» 
Itoxb.  M.  Ind.  ii.  39. — Rheede,  x.  t  34. CoromandeL  Bom- 
bay.   Bengal    Very  common  in  Travancore. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  root  is  an  excellent  substitute  for  sarsa- 
parilla,  and  much  used  among  the  natives,  being  sold  in  the  bazaars 
for  this  purpose.  They  employ  it  particularly  for  the  thrush  in 
children,  giving  about  a  drachm  every  morning  and  evening  of  the 
powder  &ied  in  butter.  Dried  and  reduced  to  powder,  and  mixed 
with  honey,  it  is  reckoned  a  good  specific  in  rheumatic  pains  and 
boils ;  and,  in  decoction  with  onions  and  cocoanut-oil,  is  internally 
recommended  in  haemorrhoids,  and  simply  bruised  and  mixed  with 
water  in  diarrhoea.  Ainslie  states  that  the  root  is  mucilaginous  and 
slightly  bitter,  and  is  recommended  by  the  Tamool  doctors  in  cases 
of  strangury  and  gravel,  being  pulverised  and  mixed  with  cow's 
milk ;  they  also  give  it  in  decoction  with  cummin-seeds  to  purify 
the  blood  and  correct  the  acrimony  of  the  bile.  A  decoction  of  it  is 
also  prescribed  by  European  practitioners  in  cutaneous  diseases, 
scrofula,  and  venereal  affections.  Dr  O'Shaughnessy  repeatedly 
experimented  upon  the  roots,  and  foimd  their  diuretic  properties 
very  remarkable.  Two  ounces  infused  in  a  pint  of  water,  and 
allowed  to  cool,  was  the  quantity  usually  employed  daily ;  and  by 
such  doses  the  discharge  of  urine  was  generally  trebled  or  quad- 
rupled. It  also  acted  as  a  diaphoretic  and  tonic,  greatly  increasing 
the  appetite.  Dr  Pereira  says  the  root  is  brownish  externally,  and 
has  a  peculiar  aromatic  odour,  somewhat  like  that  of  sassafras.  It 
has  been  employed  as  a  cheap  and  efficacious  substitute  for  sarsa- 
pariUa  in  cachectic  diseases,  increasing  the  appetite  and  improving 
the  healtL  In  some  cases  it  has  succeeded  where  sarsapanlla  has 
failed,  and  in  others  failed  where  sarsaparilla  proved  successful. — 
Ainslie.    Boxb, 

(316)  Herpestia  monniera  {H.  B,  ^  Kth,)  K  0.  Scrophulariacea. 

Beami,  Mal.  Neerpirimie,  Tah.    Sambronicliittoo,  Tel.    Sheyet-chamni,  Hnro. 
Adh-bimi,  BENO.  ^^   ^^^ 

Description. — Annual,  creeping;  leaves  opposite,  sessile, 
obovate,  wedge-shaped  or  oblong,  smooth,  entire,  fleshy,  dotted 
with  minute  spots ;  peduncles  axillary,  alternate,  solitary, 
shorter  than  the  leaves,  1-flow^ered;  flowers  blue;  calyx  5-cleft, 


HIBISCUS.  243 

exterior  3  segments  larger  than  the  others;  corolla  campanulate, 
5-parted,  divisions  equal;  capsule  ovate,  2-celled,  2-valved; 
seeds  numerous.  Fl.  Nearly  all  the  year. — Roxb,  Fl.  Ind,  i. 
141. — Cor.  ii.  t  178. — Qratiola  monniera,  Linn, — Bfieede,  x.  t 

14. Moist  situations  near  streams  or  on  the  borders  of 

tanks. 

Medical  Uses. — The  root,  stalks,  and  leaves  are  used  by  the 
Hindoos  medicinally  as  diuretic  and  aperient.  Boxburgh  says  that 
the  expressed  juice  mixed  with  petroleum  is  rubbed  on  parts  affected 
with  rheumatism. — Ainslie.    Roxh, 

(317)  Hibiscus  cannabinns  (Lijiju)    K  0.  Malvace^. 

Deckanee  Hemp,  Esq,     Pftlnngoo,  Tam.    Gongkura,  Tbl     Axnbaree,  DuR. 
Maesta-paut^  Beno. 

Description. — Stem  herbaceous,  prickly;  leaves  palmately 
5-partite,  glabrous,  segments  narrow  lanceolated,  acuminated, 
serrated ;  flowers  almost  sessile,  axillary,'  solitary ;  leaves  of 
the  involucel  about  9,  subulate,  prickly  with  rigid  bristles, 
shorter  than  the  undivided  portion  of  the  calyx;  calyx  divided 
beyond  the  middle,  segments  slightly  prickly,  1  -  nerved  ; 
corolla  spreading;  fruit  nearly  globose,  acuminated,  very  hairy; 
seeds  few,  glabrous ;  flowers  pale  sulphur,  with  a  deep  purple 
centre;  carpels  joined  into  a  5-celled,  5-valved  capsule.  Fl. 
June— July.— IT.  <fe  A.  Prod.  i.  50,— Eoxb.  Fl.  Ind,  iii  208.— 
Cor.  ii.  1. 190. Negapatam.     Cultivated  in  Western  India. 

EcoNOif  10  Uses. — The  bark  of  this  species  is  full  of  strong  fibres 
which  the  inhabitants  of  the  Malabar  coast  prepare  and  make  into 
cordage,  and  it  seems  as  if  it  might  be  worked  into  strong  fine  thread 
of  any  size.  In  Coimbatore  it  is  called  Pooley-munjee,  and  is  culti- 
vated in  the  cold  season,  though  with  suflicient  moisture  it  will 
thrive  all  the  year.  A  rich  loose  soil  suits  it  best.  It  requires  about 
three  months  from  the  time  it  is  sown  before  it  is  fit  to  be  pulled 
up  for  watering,  which  operation,  with  the  subsequent  dressing,  is 
similar  to  that  used  in  the  preparation  of  the  Sunn  fibre.  Dr  Buch- 
anan observed  that  it  was  sown  by  itself  in  fields  where  nothing  else 
grew.  It  goes  by  various  names  in  different  parts  of  the  country. 
The  fibres  are  harelh,  and  more  remarkable  for  strength  than  fineness, 
but  might  be  improved  by  care.  It  is  as  much  cultivated  for  the 
sake  of  its  leaves  as  its  fibres,  which  former  are  acidulous,  and  are 
eaten  by  the  natives.  In  Dr  Roxburgh's  experimenta  a  line  broke  at 
115  lb.,  Sunn  under  the  same  circumstances  at  160  lb.  But  in  Pro- 
fessor Royle's  experiments  this  broke  at  190  lb.,  Sunn  at  150  lb. 


244  HIBISCUS. 

Dr  Gibson  states  that  in  Bombay  it  is  cut  in  November,  and  kept 
for  a  short  time  till  ready  for  stripping  the  bark.  The  length  of 
these  fibres  is  usually  from  5  to  10  feet. — {Boyle,  Eoxb.)  The  bark 
of  the  H.  furcatus  yields  a  good  strong  white  fibre.  A  line  made 
from  it  broke  at  89  lb.  when  dry,  and  at  92  lb.  when  wet.  It  is 
cut  while  the  plant  is  flowering  and  steeped  at  once. — Boyle. 

(318)  Hibiscns  Bosa  sinenBis  (Linn,)    Do. 

\f7/)\A/  OlRie- flower  plant,  or  China  Rose,  Esq.    Schempariti,  IfAL.     Sapatoo  cheddie, 

yjfi^rv  Tam.    Dasauie,  Tel.    Jasoon,  Duk.    Juva,  Benq. 

Description. — Shrub,  12-15  feet;  stem  arborescent,  without 
prickles ;  leaves  ovate,  acuminated,  coarsely  toothed,  and 
slightly  cut  towards  the  apex,  entire  at  the  base;  pedicels 
axillary,  as  long  as,  or  longer  than,  the  leaves,  jointed  above  their 
middle ;  involucel  6-7  leaved ;  calyx  tubular,  5-cleft ;  flowers 
large,  single  or  double,  crimson,  yellow,  or  white ;  seeds  un- 
known.   M,  All  the  year. —  W,  &  A,  Prod.  i.  49. — Rheede,  ii. 

t.  16. — Boxb.  FL  Ind.  Hi.  194. Peninsula.    Cultivated  in 

gardens. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  leaves  are  considered  in  Cochin  China  as 
emollient  and  slightly  aperient.  The  flowers  are  used  to  tinge 
spirituous  liquors,  and  the  petals  when  rubbed  on  paper  commimi- 
cate  a  bluish-purj^e  tint,  which  forms  an  excellent  substitute  for 
litmus-paper  as  a  chemical  test.  The  leaves  are  prescribed  by  the 
natives  in  smallpox,  but  are  said  to  check  the  eruption  too  much. — 
(Don.  Ainslie.)  An  infusion  of  the  petals  ia  given  as  a  demulcent 
refrigerant  drink  in  fevers. — Pharm.  of  India. ' 

Economic  Uses. — In  Chin^  they  make  these  handsome  flowers 
into  garlands  and  festoons  on  all  occasions  of  festivity,  and  even  in 
their  sepulchral  rites.  The  petals  of  the  flowers  are  used  for  black- 
ing shoes,  and  the  women  sdso  employ  them  to  colour  their  hair  and 
eyebrows  black.     They  are  also  eaten  by  the  natives  as  pickles. 

(319)  Hibiscns  snbdariffa  (Linn.)    Do. 

Roselle,  or  Red  Sorrel,  Eno.    Mesta,  BSNG.    Polechee,  Mal. 

Description. — Annual,  glabrous,  1-3  feet ;  lower  leaves  un- 
divided, upper  palmately  3-5  lobed,  cuneate  and  entire  at  the 
base,  lobes  oblong  -  lanceolate,  acuminated,  toothed  ;  flowers 
axillary,  solitary  on  very  short  pedicels ;  involucel  segments 
about  12  ;  stems  unarmed  ;  capsule  many  -  seeded  ;  seeds 
smooth ;  flowers  pale  sulphur,  with  dark-brown  eye.  Fl.  Oct. — 
Dec. —  W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  52. Common  in  gardens. 


HOLABRHENA.  245 

Economic  Uses. — The  fleshy  calyx  and  capsule,  freed  from  the 
seeds,  make  excellent  tarts  and  jellies.  A  decoction  of  them  sweet- 
ened and  fermented  is  commonly  called  in  the  West  Indies  Sorrel- 
drink.  The  leaves  are  used  in  salads.  Sahdariffa  is  the  Turkish 
name  for  the  plant.  The  stem  is  cut  when  in  flower,  and  a  fibre  got 
from  the  bark  which  is  rather  flne  and  silky.  In  Kajahmundry 
they  are  planted  for  this  purpose.  The  stems  are  left  to  rot  in  fresh 
water,  "but  spoil  if  put  in  salt  water.  Excellent  tow  and  hemp  might 
be  made  from  several  species  of  Hibiscus,  the  staple  being  long,  fibre 
uniform,  silky,  and  fine.  Cordage  of  greater  compactness  and  density 
could  therefore  be  made  from  them  than  from  many  of  the  coarser 
fibres.  All  plants  of  the  kind  should  be  sown  thick,  for  the  simple 
reason  that  they  will  grow  tall  and  slender,  thus  giving  a  greater 
length  of  straight  fibre  yielding  stem.  No  plant  yielding  fibres 
should  be  gathered  for  more  than  one  or  two  days  before  being  pre- 
pared, as  the  drying  up  of  the  sap  stains  the  fibres,  and  the  sooner  the 
fibre  is  cleaned  the  stronger  and  whiter  it  will  be;  and  newly- 
cleaned  fibres  must  not  be  exposed  to  the  sun,  as  they  acquire  a  brown 
tinge.  It  must  be  recollected  that  all  plants  are  usually  in  greatest 
vigour  when  in  flower  or  fruit,  and  at  that  time  they  yield  the  greatest 
amount  of  fibre. — Beport  on  Fibres,    Ainslie. 


(320)  Holarrhena  aatidysenterica  (Wall)    N.  0.  ApocTNACEie. 

Description. — Shrub;  leaves  opposite,  entire,  elliptic,  very 
obtuse  at  the  base,  acute  or  abruptly  acuminated  at  the  apex; 
calycine  lobes  lanceolate;  corolla  cup -shaped,  tube  dilated 
between  the  base  and  the  middle,  throat  contracted ;  stamens 
inserted  between  the  base  and  middle  of  the  tube;  cymes 
many-flowered,  terminal ;  flowers  puberulous,  white ;  follicles 

afoot  long.    Fl.  Feb.— MB.y.— Wight  Icon,  t  439. Chitta- 

gong.    Malabar.     Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — The  bark  of  this  shrub  was  formerly  imported 
into  Europe  under  the  names  of  Conesd  bark,  Codaga  paJa,  Corte 
de  pdla,  and  Tdlicherry  bark.  It  has  a  bitter  taste.  It  has  astrin- 
gent and  tonic  properties,  but  has  obtained  its  chief  repute  as  a 
remedy  in  dysentery.  Cases  have  occurred  of  its  having  succeeded  as 
a  remedy  in  that  complaint  when  Ipecacuanha  and  other  remedies 
had  failed.  It  has  also  been  extensively  employed  as  an  anti-periodic. 
The  seeds  are  also  highly  valued  by  the  natives  in  dysenteric  afiec- 
tions.  They  are  narrow,  elongated,  about  half  an  inch  long,  of  a 
cinnamon-brown  colour,  convex  on  one  side,  and  concave  and  marked 
with  a  longitudinal  pale  line  on  the  other,  easily  broken,  bitter  to 
the  taste,  and  of  a  heavy  unpleasant  odour.  They  are  often  con- 
founded with  the  seeds  of  Wrigktia  tinctoria,  to  which  they  bear  a 


246  HOLIGARNA — HOLOSTEMMA. 

geiieral  resemblance.  An  infusion  of  the  toasted  seeds  is  a  gentle 
and  safe  astringent  in  bowel-complaints,  and  is  given  to  allay  the 
vomiting  in  cholera.  —  (AinsUe,)  Anthelmintic  virtues  are  also 
assigned  to  theuL  During  the  last  cattle-plague  epidemic  in  Bengal 
they  were  extensively  employed,  being  regarded  as  possessing  certain 
specific  virtues. — {Indian  Med,  Gazette,  Pharm,  of  India,)  A 
variety  of  the  above,  the  H,  pubescens,  is  also  an  esteemed  remedy 
for  dysentery  and  bowel-complaints,  the  seeds  being  the  parts  used. 
The  bark  also  possesses  astringent,  tonic  properties,  and  is  employed 
in  fevers, — Wight. 

(321)  Holigama  longifolia  {Moxb.)    N.  O.  Anacardiacea. 

Cattu  Tsjeru,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree,  60  feet ;  leaves  alternate,  cuneate,  ob- 
long or  ^cute ;  petioles  usually  with  a  soft,  incurved,  thom-like, 
deciduous  process  on  each  side  about  the  middle ;  panicles 
terminal  and  axillary ;  styles  recurved ;  calyx  5-toothed ;  petals 
5,  oblong,  spreading ;  stamens  5,  shorter  than  the  corolla ;  nut 
ovate,  with  a  fleshy  pericarp;  flowers  small,  whitish.  Fl. 
Jan.— Feb.— TT.  <fe  A.  Prod,  i.  1%9,—Roxb.  Fl,  Ind,  ii  80.— 

Cor.  iii.  t  282. — Bheede,  iv.  t.  9. Travancore.     Concans. 

Chittagong. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  is  a  tall  tree  found  on  the  mountains  of 
Malabar.  The  natives  by  incision  extract- an  exceedingly  acrid  juice 
from  the  stem,  which  they  use  as  varnish.  The  nut  is  about  the 
size  of  an  olive,  containing  between  the  laminae  numerous  cells  filled 
with  black,  rather  thick,  acrid  fluid.  The  fruit  ia  like  a  prune,  at 
first  glaucous  and  downy,  when  ripe  dark  blue  and  glabrous.  The 
juice  is  succulent  and  glutiuous.  There  is  another  variety  with  a 
round  dark  fruit.  Small  boats  are  made  from  the  timber.  The 
bark,  when  wounded,  gives  out  tears  acrid  and  glutinous.  The  juice 
of  the  fruit  is  used  by  painters,  and  also  for  fixing  indelible  colours 
figured  on  linen  cloths. — Don, 

(322)  Holostemxna  Bheedii  (Spr,)    K  0.  Asclefiacbje. 

Ada-kodien,  Mal.    Palla-gurgi,  Tel. 

Desckiption. — Stems  twining,  perennial ;  leaves  broad  cor- 
date, opposite ;  corolla  subrotate,  5-cleft ;  stamineous  corona 
inserted  below  the  gynostegium, -simple,  annular,  obsoletely 
5-lobed ;  follicles  ventricose,  smooth ;  seeds  comose ;  flowers 
largish,  thick  and  fleshy,  purplish  green,  Fl.  Sept. — Oct. — 
tVight    Contrib.  p.   55. — Icov,,    t  597. — Asclepias  annularia, 


HOMALOITEMA — HOPEA.  247 

Roocb.  Fl.  Ind,  ii.  37. — Bheede,  ix.  t,  7. Malabar.    Covalum 

jungles  near  Trevandram.    Mysore.     Circars. 

Medical  Uses. — The  flowers  of  this  creeper  are  remarkably 
pretty,  and  would  answer  well  for  trellis-work  in  gardens.  The 
medical  virtues  of  the  plant  are  given  by  Rheede,  who  states  that 
the  root  pulverised  and  applied  to  the  eyes  will  remove  dimness  of 
vision.  Mixed  with  other  ingredients  it  is  also  used  in  ophthalmia — 
for,  says  that  author,  "  vires  hujus  plantae  plan^  ophthalmicse  sunt." 
It  has  an  extensive  distribution,  being  found  from  the  southernmost 
province  to  the  base  of  the  Himalaya.  The  plant  yields  a  toler- 
able fibre,  which  is  said  to  be  in  its  best  condition  after  the  rains.— ^ 
Wight     Rheede,     Pers,  Obs, 


(323)  Homalonema  aromaticnm  {Scliott)    iN".  O.  Abace^. 

Description.— Perennial ;  caulescent  leaves  sub-sagittate, 
cordate,  acuminate,  lobes  rounded  and  divaricate;  spadix 
cylindric,  obtuse,  equalling  the  spathe,  above  male,  below 
female  with  abortive  stamens  intermixed ;  anthers  many-celled. 
Fl.  Jan. — ^Feb. —  Wight  Icon.  t.  805. — Calla  aromatica,  JRoai}. 
FL  Ind.  iii  513. Chittagong. 

Medical  Uses. — ^A  native  of  Chittagong :  when  cut  it  difPoses  a 
pleasant  aromatic  scent  The  natives  hold  the  medical  virtues  of 
the  root  in  high  estimation. — Moxb. 


(324)  Hopea  parviflora' (^ec^iome).     N.  0.  DiPTBROCARPEie. 

Inibogam,  Mal. 

Description. — Large  tree;  petioles,  panicles,  and  calyx  hairy ; 
leaves  short-petloled,  glabrous,  ovate  to  oblong,  furnished  with 
glands  in  the  axils  of  the  veins  beneath ;  flowers  secund,  sub- 
sessile,  numerous,  very  minute,  fragrant ;  stamens  1 5,  alter- 
nately single  and  in  pairs  ;  stigma  3-cleft. — Bedd.  Flor.  Sylv.  t. 
6. Malabar  and  Ganara,  in  moist  and  dry  forests. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — ^Thia  tree  grows  to  an  elevation  of  3500  feet 
It  is  hitherto  unknown  commercially,  but  promises  to  be  a  very 
serviceable  timber  for  gun-carriages  and  similar  purposes,  and  espe- 
cially for  railwaynsleepers.  In  south  Ganara  it  is  much  valued  for 
temple  buildings.— (Bc^c^cwie.)  It  produces  a  gum,  the  uses  of 
which  are  hitherto  unknown.  At  the  coast  it  costs  about  10 
rupees  a  maund.     A  considerable  amount  is  annually  available. 


248  HOPEA — ^HOYA. 

(325)  Hopea  Wightiana  (Wall)    Do. 

Kong  or  Kongoo,  Tail 

Description. — Large  tree;  young  branches  and  petioles 
densely  pubescent ;  leaves  ovate-oblong,  rounded  at  the  base 
and  attenuated  towards  the  apex  into  a  very  obtuse  point, 
glabrous  except  on  the  rib  above ;  panicles  axillary,  generally 
three  together,  shorter  than,  or  as  long  as,  the  leaves ;  flowers 
pink,  secund,  bracteolate  at  the  base  of  their  very  short  pedi- 
cels ;  calyx  glabrous  ;  corolla  hairy  on  the  outside ;  stamens  15, 
alternately  single  and  double ;  anthers  terminated  by  a  long 
bristle ;  fruit  and  calycine  wings  glabrous,  bright  crimson. — 
W.(&A.  Prod.  i.  85.-111,  t.  S7.—JBedd.  Flor.  Sylv.  t.  96. 

Var.  6.  Glabra. — ^Young  petioles  and  branches  glabrous. 

Common  in  the  western  forests.    Tinnevelly. 

Economic  Uses. — The  timber  is  very  valuable,  and  similar  to  that 
of  H.  parvijlora.  The  variety  b.  is  the  Kongoo  of  Tinnevelly,  and  is 
much  used  in  that  district. — Beddome. 

(326)  Hoya  pendula  (TT.  ^  A.)    K  0.  Asclbpiaorb. 

Nansjera-patsja,  Mal. 

Desceiption. — Stem  woody,  twining ;  leaves  fleshy,  glabrous, 
from  oblong-oval  acute  to  broadly  ovate,  acuminate,  revolute 
on  the  margins  ;  peduncles  somewhat  longer  than  the  petioles, 
pendulous,  many-flowered ;  corolla  downy  inside  ;  leaflets  of 
stamineous  corona  oboval,  very  obtuse,  depressed,  having  the 
inner  angles  short  and  truncate  at  the  apex ;  stigma  apiculated; 
flowers  white,  fragrant.  Fl.  March — May. — WigM  Contrib.  p. 
36. — Icon,  t,  474. — H.  Eheedii,  W.  &  A. — Asclepias  pendula, 

Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  36. — Bheede,  ix.  t  13. Circar  mountains. 

Malabar.    Neilgherries. 

Medical  Uses. — This  plant  is  emetic  and  alexipharmic.  Kheede 
gives  many  uses  for  it  when  mixed  with  other  ingredients.  There 
are  two  varieties  of  the  plant,  differing  in  the  shape  of  the  leaves. — 
(liheede.)  The  leaves  of  H.  viridlflora  are  much  employed  by  the 
natives  as  an  application  to  boils  and  abscesses.  The  plant  has  the 
same  emetic  and  expectorant  virtues  as  Dcemia  externa, — Pharm.  of 
India, 


HUGONIA — HYDNOCARPUS.  249 

(327)  Hngonia  mystaz  (Linn.)     K  0.  Hugoniaorb. 

Modera  canni,  Mal.    Agoore,  Tam. 

Description. — Shrub,  10-15  feet;  leaves  alternate,  or 
crowded  at  the  ends  of  the  branches,  oval,  glabrous,  entire ; 
sepals  distinct^  acute,  unequal ;  petals  5,  alternate  with  the 
sepals ;  styles  5,  distinct ;  ovary  roundish,  5-celled ;  fruit  a 
drupe,  enclosing  5  distinct  one  -  seeded  caipels ;  peduncles 
axillary,  1-flowered;  spines  circinate,  opposite ;  flowers  yellow. 
Fl,  Feb.— May.— JT.  &  A.  Prod,  i.  12.-^  Wight  111.  i.  t  32.— 
Bheede,  ii.  t.  19. Tmvancore.     CoromandeL    Malabar. 

Medical  TJsbs. — This  is  a  handsome  shrub  when  in  flower,  com- 
monly met  with  in  Travancore.  Its  blossoms  are  of  a  beautiful 
golden-yellow  colour.  The  bruised  roots  are  used  in  reducing  in- 
flammatory tumours  j  also  in  the  bites  of  serpents,  and  as  a  febrifuge 
and  anthelmintic,  especially  for  children.  The  bark  of  the  root  is 
employed  as  an  antidote  to  poisons. — Bheede. 

(328)  Hydnocarpus  inebrians  (Vahl.)    K  0.  Pangiagrs. 

Morotti,  Mal.    Maravuttie,  Tau. 

Description. — Tree,  50  feet ;  leaves  glabrous,  crenately 
serrated,  alternate ;  sepals  5,  two  outer  ones  ovate,  3  inner  ones 
larger,  very  concave ;  petals  5,  fringed  with  soft  white  hairs ; 
fruit  globose,  very  hard,  as  large  as  an  apple,  crowned  with  the 
undivided  portion  of  the  stigma ;  seeds  numerous ;  flowers 
smaU,  white.  Fl.  Oct.  —  Feb.  —  PT.  &  A.  Prod.  I  30.— 
Wight  III.  i.  t.  16.— Icon.  t.  94^2.— Bheede,  i.  t  36. Com- 
mon in  Travancore.    Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — The  fruit,  if  eaten,  occasions  giddiness,  and  is 
greedily  devoured  by  fishes,  but  fish  taken  by  these  means  are  not 
tit  to  be  eaten,  occasioning  vomiting  and  other  violent  symptoms. 
On  the  Malabar  coast  an  oil  is  extracted  from  the  seeds  given  in 
cutaneous  diseases  and  ophthalmia,  causing  an  excessive  flow  of 
tears. — (Bheede.)  The  seeds,  the  Neeradimootoo  of  Ainslie,  have  a 
nauseous  smell  and  unctuous  sUghtly  acrid  taste.  The  expressed  oil 
is  in  much  repute  among  the  natives  as  a  remedy  in  leprosy.  The 
dose  recommended  by  Ainslie  is  half  a  teaspoonful  twice  daily. — 
Pharm.  of  India.     Ainslie. 

Egoxohig  Uses. — In  Ceylon  the  seeds  are  used  for  poisoning  fish. 
The  tree  is  very  common  on  the  western  coast  It  is  generally 
found  overhanging  tanks,  and  is  usually  laden  with  fruit  which  is 
excessively  hard.     The  oil  from  the  seeds  is  used  as  a  sedative,  and 


250  HYDNOCABPUS — HYDKOCOTTLE. 

as  a  remedy  in  scabies  and  ulcers  on  the  feet.  The  H,  alpintis, 
common  on  the  Neilgherries,  is  a  good  timber-tree,  and  much  used 
for  building  purposes. — Rheede.     Wight. 

(329)  Hydnocarpus  odoratns  {Liivdl)    Do. 

Chaulmoogra,  Beno. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  leaves  lanceolate,  entire,  acumi- 
nate ;  petals  oblong ;  scales  ciliated.  Male,  calyx  4-5  cleft. 
Female,  peduncles  1-flowered,  flowers  larger  than  the  males ; 
styles  5,  stigmas  large,  sagittate-cordate,  and  berry  globular ; 
seeds  numerous,  immersed  in  pulp  ;  flowers  large,  pale  yellow, 
fragrant  —  Wight  III.  L   37. — Gynocardia  odorata,  Roxh, — 

Chaulmoogra  odorata,  do. — Roxb.    Cor,    t.    299. Assam. 

Silhet. 

Medical  Uses. — The  seeds  are  used  by  the  natives  in  Silhet  in 
the  cure  of  cutaneous  disorders,  especially  leprosy.  When  freed  from 
their  integuments,  they  are  beaten  up  with  clarified  butter  into  a 
soft  mass,  and  in  that  state  applied  thrice  a-day  to  the  parts  affected. 
— Roxb. 

(330)  Hydrocotyle  Asiatica  (Linn,)    N.  0.  Apiacbjs. 

Asiatic  Penny-wort,  Eno.     VuUarei,  Tam.     Codagam,  Mal.     Babaasa,  TsL. 

Description. — Herbaceous ;  leaves  attached  by  the  margin,  ^ '  ^^ 
orbicular- reniform,  equally  crenated,  7-nerved,  glabrous  or 
slightly  villous  below  when  young;  petioles  and  peduncles 
fascicled,  sprinkled  with  soft  hairs ;  umbels  capitate,  short- 
peduncled,  few -flowered;  calyx  tube  slightly  compressed; 
petals  ovate,  acute,  spreading ;  fruit  orbicular,  reticulated,  with 
4  ribs  on  each  of  the  flat  sides ;  flowers  whitish  or  purplish 
red.  Fl  July— Aug.— TF.  &  A.  Prod.  I  Z&&.—Roxb.  FL  Ind. 
ii.  88. — Wight  Icon.  t.  565. — Rheede,  x.  t  46. Travancore. 

Medioal  Uses. — ^A  widely-distributed  plant,  growing  in  moist 
shady  places  near  hedges  or  tanks.  The  leaves,  which  are  bitter, 
are  toasted  and  given  in  infusion  to  children  in  bowel-complaints 
and  fevers.  They  are  also  applied  to  parts  that  have  suffered  from 
blows  or  bruises  as  anti-inflammatory.  In  Java,  according  to  Hors- 
field,  they  are  considered  as  diuretic.  The  plant  is  one  of  the 
remedies  for  leprosy  on  the  Malabar  coast,  and  one  which  is  worthy 
of  more  attention  than  has  hitherto  been  bestowed  upon  it. — (Roxb. 
Rheede.)  In  non-specific  ulcerations  and  in  skin  diseases  it  is  of 
value  both  as  an  internal  and  as  a  local  remedy. — Fharm.  of  India. 


HYDROLEA — HYMENODYCTION.  251 

(331)  Hydrolea  Zeylanica  (Vahl)    K.  O.  Htdroleagei£. 

Kauchra  luhalangulya,  Benq.    T^era-vallel,  Mal. 

Description. — Annual,  herbaceous;  stems  erect,  variously 
bent  towards  the  extremities ;  leaves  short,  lanceolate,  rather 
obtuse,  marked  below  with  numerous  prominent  parallel  veins; 
racemes  axillary,  spreading,  few-flowered,  and  with  the  pedi- 
cels and  calyx  pubescent ;  pedicels  1-flowered,  usually  opposite 
to  a  small  bracted  leaf;  flowers  deep  blue,  with  a  white  spot 
in  the  centre;  calyx  5-parted,  divisions  lanceolate,  thickly 
covered  with  glandular  hairs ;  corolla  wheel-shaped,  tube 
short,  5-cleft,  petals  spreading,  or  even  reflexed  when  fully 
open.  FL  Dec. — Jan. —  W,&A,  in  Bot  Mag,  ii.  103. — Kama 
zeylanica,  Linn. — Rovh,  Fl.  Ind,  ii.  73. —  Wight  Icon,  t  601. — 

Rheede,  x.  1 28. Marshy  places  in  the  Peninsula.    Alwaye, 

near  Cochin. 

Medical  Uses. — The  leaves  beaten  into  a  pulp  and  applied  as  a 
poultice  are  considered  efficacious  in  cleaning  and  healing  bad  ulcers, 
particularly  those  in  which  maggots  have  begun  to  breed. —  Wight 

(332)  Hymenodyction  ezcelsnm  (Wall)    K  0.  CiKCHONACEiB. 

Pundaioo,  Tel.    Kala  Buchnal,  DuK. 

Description. — Tree,  50  feet ;  leaves  from  oblong  to  roundish 
ovate,  pubescent;  stipules  cordate;  floral  leaves  oblong, 
coloured,  bullate ;  panicles  terminal  and  axillary ;  anthers 
nearly  sessile  in  tube  of  the  corolla ;  calyx  5-toothed ;  corolla 
infundibuliform,  5-parted  ;  capsule  2-celled,  many  -  seeded ; 
seeds  girded  by  a  membranous  reticulated  border;  flowers 
small,  greenish ;  the  lower  pairs  on  two  of  the  ramifications 
of  the  panicle  are  ornamented,  each  with  a  pair  of  coloured 
floral  leaves.  Fl.  July— Aug.— IT.  &  A.  Prod.  L  392.— 
Roaib.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  149. — Cinchona  excelsa,  Boxb.  Cor.  ii  t.  106. 
—Fl.  Ind.  L  529.— Wight  Icon.  p.  79, 1159. Circars.  Pen- 
insula. 

Medical  Uses. — The  two  inner  coats  of  the  bark  of  this  tree 
possess  aU  the  bitterness  and  astringency  of  Peruvian  bark,  and 
when  fresh,  in  a  stronger  degree. — Boxb. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  wood  is  fine  and  close-grained,  of  a  pale 
mahogany  colour,  and  is  useful  for  many  purposes. — (Boxb.)  Another 
species,  the  H.  utile,  is  common  in  the  Palghaut  jungles.     The  wood 


252  HYOSCYAMUS. 

is  also  of  makogany  colour,  but  is  of  a  loose  texture,  soft,  and  hygro- 
metric. — WigM. 

(333)  HyoBcyamus  niger  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Solanaoele. 

Common  Henbane,  Eno.  • 

Description. — Stem  viscous,  branched ;  leaves  oblong,  sinu- 
ately  toothed,  or  sinuate-pinnatifid,  viscously  pubescent,  lower 
ones  petioled,  the  rest  half  stem-clasping,  sub-decurrent;  flowers 
sub-sessile,  erect,  arranged  on  simple,  unilateral,  recurved,  leafy, 
terminal  spikes,  the  corolla  minutely  reticulated  with  purple 
veins  on  a  pale  rose-coloured  and  yellowish  ground,  marked 
with  a  dark-purple  throat.  Fl,  Feb. — March. — Linn.  Spec. 
p.  257. — Dec.  Prod.  xiiL  s.  1,  p.  546. — H.  agrestis.  Ait. — Siveet 

FL  Oard.  i.  t.  27.—Bot.  Mag.  t  2394 Eocky  places  in 

Northern  India.     Cultivated. 

Medical  Uses. — The  medicinal  properties  of  Henbane  are  too 
weU  known  to  require  any  detailed  account  in  a  work  of  this  kind. 
One  of  its  most  valuable  powers  is  that  of  dilating  the  pupil  in 
diseases  of  the  eye  when  applied  locally.  This  plant  is  cultivated 
in  India  for  medicinal  purposes,  and  thrives  well  at  moderate  alti- 
tudes. In  the  Government  gardens  at  Hewra,  in  the  Deccan,  from 
150  to  200  lb.  of  the  extract  were  annually  supplied  for  the  use  of 
the  Bombay  army.  Large  supplies  have  also  been  prepared  at 
Hoonsoor,  in  Mysore,  and,  on  testing,  proved  equally  efficacious 
with  the  European  articla  Henbane-seeds  are  met  with  in  the 
native  bazaars,  but  they  are  imported  from  Turkey.  Another 
species  (H.  insanus)  is  a  common  plant  in  Beluchistan,  where  it  is 
known  Ijy  the  name  of  Kohl  hung,  or  Mountain  Hemp.  It  has 
powerfully  poisonous  properties.  It  is  smoked  in  small  quantities, 
and  also  employed  for  criminal  purposes. — (Pharm.  of  India.  Stocks 
in  Hooker'a  Joum.  Bot.  1852,  iv.  178.)  Another  plant  of  this 
order  is  the  Scopolia  lurida  (Dunal),  growing  in  NepauL  The 
leaves,  when  bruised,  emit  a  peculiar  tobacco-like  odour.  A  tincture 
prepared  from  them,  in  the  proportion  of  one  ounce  to  eight  ounces  of 
alcohol,  was  found  to  produce  extreme  dilatation  of  the  pupil ;  and 
in  two  instances  it  induced  bUndness,  which  only  disappeared  when 
the  medicine  was  discontinued. — Graz.  Med.  Nov.  1843.  Braith- 
waiters  Metroffp.  ix.  119. 


253 


(334)  Ichnocarpiis  ftntescens  (R  Br.)    K  0.  Apogtnacejb. 

Paal-Yully,  Mal.    Shyama-luta,  Beng.    Nalla-tiga,  Trl, 

Description. — Twining ;  leaves  oblong  or  broad  lanceolate, 
deep  green  above,  pale  below,  glabrous ;  calyx  5-cleft ;  corolla 
salver-shaped,  throat  hairy,  segments  twisted,  hairy;  panicles 
terminal;  follicles  long,  linear;  flowers  greenish  white.  Fl. 
July — Aug. —  Wight  Icon,  t  430. — Echites  frutescens,  JRoxb. 

FL  Ind.  ii.  12. — ^Apocynum  frutescens,  Linn, Peninsula. 

Bengal.    Travancore.     Common  in  hedges. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  plant  is  occasionally  used  as  a  substitute 
for  sarsaparilla.  It  has  purgative  and  alterative  qualities. — 
Lindley. 

(335)  Icica  Indica  {W,  ^  A,)    K  0.  Amtridacea 

Nayor,,  Beng. 

Description. — ^Tree,  70  feet ;  young  shoots,  petioles,  and 
calyx  pubescent;  leaves  unequally  pinnated;  leaflets  7-11, 
petioled,  oblong-lanceolate,  more  or  less  serrulated,  from  almost 
glabrous  to  densely  pubescent ;  panicles  axillary,  solitary,  lax, 
much  shorter  than  the  leaves ;  calyx  small,  5-toothed  ;  petals 
5,  recurved,  sessile;  stamens  inserted  with  the  petals  and 
shorter  than  them;  drupe  globose,  1-3  celled;  seeds  bony, 
very  hard,  solitary  in  each  cell,  covered  with  an  arilliform 
pulp ;  flowers  small,  whitish  green.    Fl,  March — ^ApriL —  W. 

&  A.  Prod,   i.   177. — Bursera  serrata,   Wall, Chittagong. 

Assam. 

Economic  Uses. — The  timber  is  close-grained  and  hard,  is  much 
esteemed,  and  used  for  furniture.  It  is  as  tough  as  oak,  and  much 
heavier. 

(336)  Indigofera  aspalathoides  {VaJil,)    LsauMiNOSiE. 

SheveDar-Vaymboo,  Tam.    ManneU,  Mal. 

% 

Descbiption. — Shrubby,  erect,  young  parts  whitish,  with 


254  INDIGOFERA. 

adpressed  hairs ;  branches  slender,  spreading  in  every  direc- 
tion ;  leaves  sessile,  digitately  3-5  foliolate ;  leaflets  narrow- 
cuneate,  small,  under  side  with  a  few  scattered  hairs ;  peduncles 
solitary,  1-flowered,  about  the  length  of  the  leaves ;  legumes 
cylindrical,  pointed,  straight,  4-6  seeded ;  flowers  rose-coloured. 
Fl  Nearly  all  .the  year.— TT.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  199,— Wight  Icon, 
t  332. — I.  aspalathifolia,  Boxb,  Fl.  Ind.  iil  337. — Aspalathus 

Indicus,  Linn. — Eheede,  ix.  t.  37. Peninsula.     Common  on 

waste  lands. 

Medioal  Uses. — The  leaves,  flowers,  and  tender  shoots  are  said 
to  be  cooling  and  demulcent,  and  are  employed  in  decoction  in 
leprosy  and  cancerous  aflfections.  The  root  chewed  is  given  in 
toothache  and  aphthae.  The  whole  plant  rubbed  up  with  butter  is 
applied  to  reduce  oedematous  tumours.  A  preparation  is  made  from 
the  ashes  of  the  burnt  plant  to  clean  dancbuff  from  the  hair.  The 
leaves  are  applied  to  abscesses ;  and  an  oil  is  got  &om  the  root,  used 
to  anoint  the  head  in  erysipelas. — Avnslie,     Rheede, 

(337)  Indigofera  enneaphylla  (Linn,)    Do. 

Cheppoo-neringie,  Tam.    Cherra-gaddaun,  Tel. 

Description. — Perennial,  procumbent;  young  parts  and 
leaves  pubescent  with  white  hairs;  branches  prostrate  and 
edged  ;  leaves  pinnate,  sessile,  leaflets  3-5  pairs,  obovate- 
oblong ;  racemes  sessile,  short,  dense,  many-flowered ;  legumes 
oval,  pubescent,  not  winged ;  seeds  2,  ovate  and  truncated  at 
one  end ;  flowers  small,  bright  red.  Fl,  Nearly  all  the  year. 
—W.  &  A.  Prod,  L  199.— Wight  Icon,  t.  WS.—Roxb.  Fl,  Ind. 
iii.  376. Dindigul  hills. 

Medioal  Uses. — The  juice  is  given  as  an  antiscorbutic  and 
alterative  in  certain  affections.  An  infusion  of  the  whole  plant 
is  ditbretic,  and  as  such  is  given  in  fevers  and  coughs. — Ainelie, 

(338)  Indigofera  tinctoria  (Linn,)    Do. 

Common  Indigo,  Eno.  Ameri,  Mal.  Ayerie,  Tam.  Neelie,  Tel.  Neel,  Beng. 
and  Hind. 

Description. — Shrub,  2-3  feet,  erect,  pubescent;  branches 
terete,  firm ;  leaves  pinnated ;  leaflets  5-6  pairs,  oblong-ovate, 
cuneate  at  the  base,  slightly  decreasing  in  size  towards  the 
apex  of  the  leaf ;  racemes  shorter  than  the  leaves,  sessile, 
many-flowered ;  flowers  small,  approximated  at  the  base  of  the 


INDIGOFERA.  255 

raceme,  more  distant  and  deciduous  towards  the  apex,  greenish- 
rose  colour;  calyx  5-cleft,  segments  broad,  acute;  legumes 
approximated  towards  the  base  of  the  rachis,  nearly  cylindrical, 
slightly  torulose,  deflexed  and  curved  upwards ;  seeds  about 
10,  cylindrical,  truncated  at  both  enda  Fl,  July — Aug. —  W. 
&  A.  Prod.  I  202.— Wight  Icon.  t.  365.— Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iiL 

379.— L  Indica,  Zam. — RJieede,  i  54. QuUon.     Concans. 

Cultivated  in  Bengal  and  elsewhere. 

Medical  Uses. — ^With  regard  to  the  medical  properties  of  this 
plant,  Ainslie  states  that  the  root  is  reckoned  among  those  medicines 
which  have  the  power  of  counteracting  poisons,  and  that  the  leaf  has 
virtues  of  an  alterative  nature,  and  is  given  in  hepatitis  in  the  form 
of  a  powder  mixed  with 'honey.  The  root  is  also  given  in  decoction 
in  calculus;  and  the  leaves  rubbed  up  in  water  and  applied  to  the 
abdomen  are  efficacious  in  promoting  urine.  Indigo  itself  is  fre- 
quently applied  to  reduce  swellings  of  the  body.  Liman  states  that 
the  negroes  in  Jamaica  use  a  strong  infusion  of  the  root  mixed  with 
rum  to  destroy  vermin  in  the  hair.  Powdered  indigo  has  been  em- 
ployed in  epilepsy  and  erysipelas,  and  sprinkled  on  foul  ulcers  is 
said  to  cleanse  them.  The  juice  of  the  young  branches  mixed  with 
honey  is  recommended  for  aphthas  of  the  mouth  in  children.  The 
wild  indigo,  /.  patLcifolia  (Delile),  is  considered  an  antidote  to 
poisons  of  all  kinds.  The  root  boiled  in  milk  is  used  as  a  purgative, 
and  a  decoction  of  the  stem  is  considered  of  great  efficacy  in  mer- 
curial salivation  used  as  a*  gargle. — Ainslie.     Beng.  Disp.     Lindleg. 

Economic  Uses. — According  to  Loureiro,  the  indigo  plant  is  spon- 
taneous in  China  and  Cochin  China,  and  is  cultivated  all  over  Uiose 
vast  empires.  The  ancients  were  acquainted  with  the  dye  which  we 
call  inddgo,  under  the  name  of  Indicum.  Pliny  knew  that  it  was 
a  preparation  of  a  vegetable  substance,  but  he  was  not  acquainted 
with  the  plant,  nor  with  the  process  of  making  the  dye.  Even  at 
the  close  of  the  sixteenth  century  it  was  not  known  in  England  what 
plant  produced  it.  The  celebrated  traveller  Marco  Polo  thus  men- 
tions indigo  as  one  of  the  products  of  Quilon,  where  the  plant  grows 
wild.  "  Indigo,  also,  of  excellent  quality  and  in  large  quantities,  is 
made  here.  They  procure  it  from  a  herbaceous  plant,  which  is  taken 
up  by  the  root,  and  put  into  tubs  of  water,  where  it  is  suffered  to 
remain  till  it  rots,  when  they  press  out  the  juice.  This,  upon  being 
exposed  to  the  sun  and  evaporated,  leaves  a  kind  of  paste,  which  is 
cut  into  small  pieces  of  the  form  in  which  we  see  it  brought  to  us.'' 
To  the  present  day  indigo  is  manufactured  at  Quilon,  though  pro- 
bably some  hundred  years  ago  it  was  made  in  considerable  quanti- 
ties. The  account  given  above  is  a  tolerably  correct  one  of  the  rude 
process  of  its  manufacture.  It  is  one  of  the  most  profitable  articles 
of  culture  in  Hindostan,  chiefly  because  labour  and  land  are  cheaper 
than  anywhere  else,  and  partly  because  the  raising  of  the  plant  and 


256  INDIGOFERA. 

its  mannfacture  may  be  carried  on  ev^i  without  the  aid  of  a  house. 
It  is  chiefly  cultivated  in  Bengal  in  the  delta  of  the  Ganges,  on  those 
districts  lying  between  the  Hooghly  and  the  main  stream  of  the 
former  river.  The  ground  is  ploughed  in  October  and  November 
after  the  cessation  of  the  rains,  the  seeds  are  sown  in  March  and 
beginning  of  ApriL  In  July  the  plants  are  cut  when  in  blossom, 
that  being  the  time  when  there  is  the  greatest  abundance  of  dyeing 
matter.  A  fresh  moist  soil  is  the  best,  and  about  12  lb.  of  seeds 
are  used  for  an  acre  of  land.  The  plants  are  destroyed  by  the 
periodical  inundations,  and  so  last  only  for  a  single  year.  When 
the  plant  is  cut  it  is  first  steeped  in  a  vat  till  it  has  become  macerated 
and  parted  with  its  colouring  matter,  then  the  liquor  is  let  oS  into 
another  vat,  in  which  it  undergoes  a  peculiar  process  of  beating  to 
cause  the  fecula  to  separate  from  the  water;  the  fecula  is  then  let  off 
into  a  third  vat,  where  it  remains  some  time,'  after  which  it  is  strained 
through  cloth  bags  and  evaporated  in  shallow  wooden  boxes  placed 
in  the  shade.  Before  it  is  perfectly  dry  it  is  cut  into  small  pieces  an 
inch  square ;  it  is  then  packed  up  for  sale.  Indigo,  however,  is  one 
of  the  most  precarious  of  Indian  crops,  being  liable  to  be  destroyed 
by  insects,  as  well  as  inundation  of  the  rivers.  It  ib  generally 
divided  into  two  classes — ^viz.,  the  Bengal  and  Oude  indigo.  Madras 
indigo  is  not  much  inferior  to  that  grown  in  BengaL 

In  the  Jury  Eeport  of  the  Madras  Exhibition  it  is  said,  in  former 
years  the  usual  mode  of  extracting  indigo,  as  practised  in  Southern 
India,  was  from  the  dry  leaf,  a  process  which  will  be  found  i^dnutely 
described  in  the  pages  of  Heyne  and  Hoxbuigh.  But  this  is  now 
almost  entirely  superseded  by  the  better  system  of  the  green  leaf 
manufacture,  which  is  foUowed  in  aU  the  indigo-growing  districts  of 
this  Presidency,  save  the  province  of  South  Arcot.  In  the  latter, 
the  dry  leaf  process  is  still  persevered  in,  but  probably  it  is  so  only 
because  of  the  distance  to  which  the  leaf  has  generally  to  be  carried 
before  it  reaches  the  factory,  and  the  consequent  partial  drying  that 
takes  place  on  the  journey.  Notwithstanding  the  importance  of 
the  traffic,  the  general  manufacture  is  so  indifferently  conducted,  or 
rather  on  so  imperfect  a  system,  that  the  value  of  the  article  pro- 
duced is  seriously  diminished,  and  its  currenqv  injured  as  an  article 
of  trade.  It  is  not  that  the  quality  of  Madras  indigo  is  inferior  to 
the  ordinary  run  of  that  of  Bengcd,  but  indigo  is  commonly  manu- 
factured over  the  Madras  Presidency  in  driblets,  one  vat-owner  often 
not  producing  enough  to  fill  even  a  chest;  and  the  consequence 
is,  that  no  one  can  make  a  purchase  of  a  quantity  of  indigo  in  the 
Madras  market  upon  a  sample,  as  is  commonly  done  in  Bengal, — 
that  every  parcel,  and  often  the  same  chest,  is  of  mixed  qualities, 
and  that  the  value  of  the  dye  becomes  thereby  disproportionately 
depreciated  at  home. 

The  best  indigo  comes  from  the  district  of  Kishnagur,  Jessore, 
Moorshedabad,  and  Tirhoot.  Eoxbuigh  stated  that  he  extracted 
most  beautiful  light  indigo  from  the  /.  ccertdea — (Roxb.),  and  in 


INGA.  257 

greater  quantities  than  he  ever  procured  from  the  common  indigo 
l)lant.* — Roxh,     Simmonds.     Jury  Rep,  Mad.  Exhib, 

(339)  Inga  dulcis  (Willd,)    Do. 

ManiUa  Tamarind,  Eno.    Coorookoo-x>ally,  Tam.    Sima  chinta,  Tel. 

Description. — Tree,  30  feet ;  extreme  branches  pendulous, 
armed  with  short  straight  thorns ;  leaves  bigeminate ;  leaflets 
oblong,  very  unequal-sided  ;  petiole  shorter  than  the  leaflets ; 
pinnae  and  leaflets  each  one  pair ;  flowers  capitate,  heads 
shortly  peduncled,  racemose,  the  racemes  panicled;  legumes 
turgid,  much  twisted ;  seeds  glabrous,  smooth,  imbedded  in  a 
firm  edible  pulp;  flowers  small,  yellowish-greenish.  Fl,  Jan. — 
Feb.— JT.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  269.— Wight  Icon.  t.  198.— Mimosa 

dulcis,  Roxb.  Cor.  i.  t.  99. — Flor.  Ind.  ii.  556. Cultivated. 

Madras. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  tree  makes  an  excellent  hedge-plant,  and 
is  much  used  for  that  purpose  on  the  Coromandel  coast,  especially 
at  Madras.  The  sweet  pulp  in  the  legumes  is  reckoned  wholesome. 
The  timber  is  also  said  to  be  good. — {Roxb.  Pers.  Obs.)  Isolated 
trees  are  found  of  18  inches  diameter.  In  general  appearance  it 
resembles  the  English  hawthorn.  The  wood  is  hard.  Roxburgh 
was  of  opinion  that  it  was  a  native  of  the  Philippines,  but  it  appears 
that  it  had  been  imported  thither  from  Mexico.  It  is  now  frequently 
met  with,  particularly  towards  the  coast.  It  is  easily  raised  from 
seeds,  and  the  hedge  it  forms,  being  occasionally  clipped,  makes  a 
neat  and  serviceable  enclosure.  Inga  has  been  transferred  to  a  new 
genus,  Pithecolobiiim  —  {Benth.  Land.  Joum.  Bot.  ii.  423) ;  and 
another  species,  the  P.  Saman,  a  tree  of  rapid  growth,  from  Central 
America,  has  recently  been  introduced  and  planted  in  the  Cuddapah 
Codoor  plantations.  It  was  forwarded  by  Mr  Thwaites  from  Ceylon, 
who  considered  it  to  be  a  tree  of  great  value  for  railway  fuel  It  is 
known  in  Mexico  as  the  Gemsaro  tree,  and  the  specimen  is  described 
in  Squier's  *  Central 'America'  as  90  feet  high,  with  some  of  the 
»  branches  quite  horizontal,  and  92  feet  long,  and  5  feet  in  diameter ; 
the  stem  at  4  feet  above  the  base  21  feet  in  circumference,  and  the 
head  of  the  tree  describing  a  circle  of  348  feet. — Beddome's  Report 
to  Government^  1870. 

(340)  Inga  xylocarpa  (Dec.)    Do. 

Idou-moullou,  Mal.    Conda-tangheroo,  Tel.    Jamba,  Ddk. 

Description. — Tree,  60  feet,  unarmed;  leaves  conjugately 

*  For  a  detailed  account  of  the  process  of  planting  and  preparing  Indigo,  see 
Appendix  £. 

17 


258  lONIDIUM — ^IPOMCEA. 

pinnated ;  leaflets  2-4  pairs,  with  an  odd  one  on  the  outside 
below  the  pairs,  ovate  -  oblong,  acute;  peduncles  in  pairs, 
axillary,  long ;  flowers  globose-capitate ;  legumes  ovate-oblong, 
hatchet -shaped,  woody,  many-seeded;  flowers  small  white. 
Fl,  April — May. —  W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  269. — Mimosa  xylocarpa, 

Boxb,  Cor.  t  100. — FL  Ind.  il  543. Coromandel.     HiUs  of 

the  Ooncans. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  wood  of  this  tree  is  chocolate-coloured 
towards  the  centre.  It  is  esteemed  useful  by  the  natives  for  its 
extreme  hardness  and  durability,  especially  for  plough-heads,  as  weU 
as  for  knees  and  crooked  timbers  in  shipbuilding. — Roxb. 

(341)  lonidiom  saffiraticosum  (Ging,)    N.  0.  Yiolace^. 

Orala-tamaray,  Tam.    Oorelatamara,  Mal.    Pooroosbaratanum,  Tel.    Ruttun- 
puruss,  DuK.    Noonboia,  Benq. 

Description. — Perennial ;  stem  scarcely  any ;  leaves  alter- 
nate, sub-sessile,  lanceolate,  slightly  serrate,  smoothish ;  peduncles 
axillary,  solitary,  l-flowered,  shorter  than  the  leaves,  jointed 
above  the  middle,  with  2  bracts  at  the  joints ;  calyx  5-cleft ; 
petals  5,  two  upper  ones  smallest,  linear-oblong,  two  lateral 
ones  sub-ovate,  with  long  recurved  apices,  lower  one  largest, 
broad-cordate,  supported  on  a  claw ;  capsules  round,  1-celled, 
3-valved;  seeds  several;  flowers  small,  rose-coloured.  FL 
Nearly  all  the  year. —  W.  &  A,  Prod,  p.  32,  33. — Wight  Icon,  t 
308. — ^Viola  suffruticosa,  Linn, — Roocb.  FL  Ind,  i  649. — Rheede, 
ix.  t  60. Peninsula.    Travancora 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  root  in  infusion  is  diuretic,  and  ia  a  remedy 
in  gonorrhoea  and  affections  of  the  urinary  organ&  The  leaves  and 
tender  stalks  are  demulcent,  and  are  used  in  decoction  and  electuary, 
and  also  employed,  mixed  with  oil,  as  a  cooling  liniment  for  the 
head. — (Alnslie.)  It  may  not  be  unworthy  of  remark  that  a  species 
of  this  family  of  plants,  the  /.  parviflorum  (Viola  pannjlora,  Linn.), 
is  used  as  an  undoubted  specific  in  Elephantiasis  in  South  America. 
It  is  there  known  as  CuichanchuUi.  For  instances  of  its  eflects  see 
Curtis  (Comp.  to)  Bot,  Mag.  i.  278. 

(342)  Ipomoda  pes-caprsd  (Sweet)    N.  0.  Convolvulacejk. 

Goat's-foot  Creeper,  Eno.  Schovanna-adamboe,  Mal.  Chagul  Khooree,  Beno. 
Dopate-luta,  Hind. 

Description. — Perennial;  creeping  but  never  twining; 
leaves  long-petioled,  roundish,  deeply  2-lobed,  smooth;  ped- 


IPOMCEA.  259 

uncles  axillary,  solitary,  2-flowered ;  sepals  oblong,  acute;  seeds 
covered  with  a  brownish  pubescence;  flowers  large,  reddish 
purple.  FL  Nearly  all  the  year. — Convolvulus  pes-capraj, 
Linn. — Roid),  FL  Ind.  i.  486. — C.  bilobatus,  Roxb, — C.   Bra- 

siliensis,  Linn, — Rheede,  xi.  t  57. Peninsula.     Common  on 

sea-shores. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  plant  is  found  on  q^ndy  beaches,  where  it 
is  of  great  use  in  helping  to  bind  the  loose  soil,  and  in  time  rendering 
it  sufficiently  stable  to  bear  grass.  Groats,  horses,  and  rabbits  eat  it. 
The  natives  boil  the  leaves  and  apply  them  externally  as  an  anodyne 
in  cases  of  colic,  and  in  decoction  they  use  them  in  rheumatism. 
Another  species,  according  to  Ainslie  (the  /.  gemella),  has  its  leaves, 
which  are  mucilaginous  to  the  taste,  toasted  and  boiled  with  clarified 
butter,  and  thus  reckoned  of  value  in  aphthse. 

(343)  Ipomcaa  turpethnm  {R,  Br,)    Do. 

Indian  Jalap,  Bkno.    Shevadie,  Tau.    TeUa-tegada,  Tel.    Doodh-kulniee,  Beng. 
Teoree,  Bkng. 

Description. — Perennial,  twining;  stem  angular,  winged, 
glabrous  or  a  little  downy;  leaves  alternate,  cordate,  ovate, 
acuminated,  sometimes  entire  or  angularly  sinuated  or  crenated ; 
peduncles  axillary,  1-4  flowered,  bracteate  at  the  apex ;  outer 
sepals  the  largest,  ovate-roundish ;  corolla  twice  as  long  as  the 
calyx,  white ;  capsule  4-sided,  4-celled ;  seeds  round,  black,  1 
in  each  cell ;  flowers  white,  with  a  tinge  of  cream  colour.  FL 
Nearly  all  the  year. — Convolvulus  turpethum,  Linn. — Roxb. 
Fl.  Ind.  i.  476. Malabar.     Coromandel. 

Medical  Uses. — The  bark  of  the  root  is  employed  by  the  natives 
as  a  purgative,  which  they  use  fresh  rubbed  up  with  milk.  About 
6  inches  in  length  of  the  root  is  reckoned  a  dose.  Cattle  do  not 
eat  the  plant.  The  root,  being  free  from  a  nauseous  taste  and  smell, 
possesses  a  decided  superiority  over  jalap,  for  which  it  might  be  sub- 
stituted. Turpethum  is  derived  from  its  Arabic  name.  A  resinous 
substance  exudes  from  the  root  when  wounaed,  which  might  probably 
be  turned  to  some  account ;  it  is  merely  the  milky  juice  of  the  fruits 
dried.  Eoxburgh  has  a  long  note  upon  this  plant,  wherein  he  com- 
municates the  following  information  on  the  subject  of  its  medical 
virtues,  as  received  from  Dr  Gordon  of  the  Bengal  establishment : 
"  The  drug  which  this  plant  yields  is  so  excellent  a  substitute  for 
jalap,  and  deserves  so  much  the  attention  of  practitioners,  that  1 
doubt  not  the  following  account  will  prove  acceptable.  It  is  a 
native  of  all  parts  of  continental  and  probably  of  insular  India  also, 
as  it  is  said  to  be  found  in  the  Society  and  Friendly  Isles  and  the 


260  ISONANDRA. 

New  Hebrides.  It  thrives  best  in  moist  shady  places  on  the  sides 
of  ditches,  sending  forth  long  climbing  quadrangular  stems,  which 
in  the  rains  are  covered  with  abundance  of  large,  white,  bell-shaped 
flowers.  Both  root  and  stem  are  perennial.  The  roots  are  long, 
branchy,  somewhat  fleshy,  and  when  fresh  contain  a  milky  juice 
which  quickly  hardens  into  a  resinous  substance,  altogether  soluble 
in  spirits  of  wine.  The  milk  has  a  taste  at  flrst  sweetish,  afterwards 
slightly  acid ;  the  dried  root  has  scarcely  any  perceptible  taste  or 
smell.  It  abounds  in  woody  fibres,  which,  however,  separate  from 
the  more  resinous  substance  in  pounding,  and  ought  to  be  removed 
before  the  trituration  is  completed.  It  is,  in  fact,  in  the  bark  of  the 
root  that  all  the  purgative  matter  exists.  The  older  the  plant  the 
more  woody  is  the  bark  of  the  root ;  and  if  attention  be  not  paid  in 
trituration  to  the  removal  of  the  woody  fibres,  the  quality  of  the 
powder  obtained  must  vary  in  strength  accordingly.  It  is  probably 
from  this  circumstance  that  its  character  for  uncertainty  of  operation 
has  arisen,  which  has  occasioned  its  disuse  in  Europe.  An  extract 
which  may  be  obtained  in  the  proportion  of  one  ounce  to  a  pound 
of  the  dried  root  would  not  be  liable  to  that  objection.  Both  are 
given  in  rather  larger  proportion  than  jalap.  Like  it,  the  power  and 
certainty  of  its  operation  are  very  much  aided  by  the  addition  of 
cream  of  tartar  to  the  powder,  or  of  calomel  to  the  extract  I  have 
found  the  powder  in  this  form  to  operate  with  a  very  small  degree  of 
tenesmus  and  very  freely,  producing  three  or  four  motions  within 
two  to  four  hours.  It  is  considered  by  the  natives  as  possessing 
peculiar  hydragogue  virtues,  but  I  have  used  it  also  with  decided 
advantage  in  the  first  stages  of  febrile  affections." 

According  to  the  Kaja  Nirghaunta,  the  Teoree  is  dry  and  hot ; 
a  good  remedy  against  worms ;  a  remover  of  phlegm,  swellings  of 
the  limbs,  and  diseases  of  the  stomach.  It  also  heals  ulcers,  and  is 
useful  in  diseases  of  the  skin.  It  is  known  to  be  one  of  the  best 
purgatives. 

The  Bhavaprukasha  has  the  following  observation :  "  The  white 
Teoree  is  cathartic ;  it  is  pungent ;  it  increases  wind,  is  hot  and 
efficacious  in  removing  cold  and  bile ;  it  is  useful  in  bilious  fevers 
and  complaints  of  the  stomacL  The  black  sort  is  somewhat  less 
efficacious ;  it  is  a  violent  purgative,  is  good  in  faintings,  and  dimin- 
ishes the  heat  of  the  body  in  fevers  with  delirium." — {Ainslie,  Eoxb, 
WallicKa  Ohs.)  It  should  be  here  added  that  it  has  entirely  fallen 
into  disuse  in  European  practice ;  and  Sir  W.  O'Shaughnessy  found 
it  so  uncertain  in  its  operation,  that  he  pronounced  it  as  unworthy  of 
a  place  in  the  pharmacopoeia. — Pharm,  of  India, 

(344)  Isonandra  acnniiiiata  (Lindl)    K  0.  Sapotagea. 

Indian  Gutta-tree,  Eno.    Pauchoontee  or  Pashonti,  Mal.    Pauley  or  Pali,  Tam. 

Description. — Large  tree,  80-90  feet ;  leaves  fascicled  at  the 


ISONANDRA.  261 

extremities  of  the  branches,  somewhat  coriaceous,  dark  green 
above,  paler  beneath,  entire,  long-petioled,  oblong  -  obovate, 
tapering  at  the  base,  terminating  in  a  sudden  blunt  acumin- 
ation ;  flowers  axillary,  generally  solitary,  occasionally  2-3 
•  together ;  calyx  biserial, — outer  deeply  3-cleft,  segments  broad, 
acute  at  the  apex,  leathery,  valvate, — inner  of  3  distinct  sepals 
attached  to  the  base  of  the  outer  calyx,  alternate  with  its 
divisions,  smaller,  longer,  equal,  acuminated  at  the  apex,  of 
dirty  white  colour,  imbricated  in  estivation;  corolla  deeply 
6-cleft,  occasionally  5-cleft,  deciduous,  tomentose  at  point  of 
insertion  at  the  stamens,  colour  darkish  red;  stamens  12-18, 
usually  16,  inserted  into  the  throat  of  the  coroUa,  shorter  than 
the  corolla,  sessile,  extrorse,  2-ceUed,  aU  perfect,  alternate  in 
two  rows ;  ovary  tomentose,  superior,  6-celled,  each  cell  with 
one  ovule;  style  nearly  3  times  the  length  of  the  ovary; 
stigma  simple ;  fruit  chartaceous,  size  of  an  almond ;  seed 
exalbuminous,  erect ;  flowers  dullish  red.  Fl.  Jan. — April. — 
Bassia  eUiptica. — Dalz.  Bomb.  Flor, — Dr  Cleghom's  Report. 

Wynaad.      Coorg.      Travancore    forests.      Annamallay 

mountains. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  tree,  which  promises  to  be  of  some  import- 
ance among  the  vegetable  products  of  the  Peninsula,  has  only  been 
discovered  of  late  years.  Although  first  actually  noticed  by  Mr 
Lascelles  in  the  Wynaad  forests  in  1850,  yet  the  great  attention 
paid  to  its  locality  and  extensive  distribution  among  the  forests  of 
the  Western  Ghauts  by  General  CuUen,  entitles  the  latter  officer  to 
an  equal  share  in  the  merit  of  its  discovery.  ''  I  feel  bound  to 
mention,"  says  Dr  Cleghom,  in  his  report  to  Government,  "  the  con- 
tinued exertions  of  General  Cullen,  who  has  done  more  to  introduce 
this  interesting  tree  and  its  useful  product  to  public  notice  than  any 
other  individual."  The  tree  has  an  extensive  range,  being  found  at 
the  foot  of  the  Ghauts  as  well  as  at  elevations  of  about  3000  feet 
above  the  sea.  It  is  so  lofty  a  tree,  and  runs  to  such  an  immense 
height  without  giving  off  any  branches,  that  the  naked  eye  is  unable 
to  distinguish  the  forms  of  the  leaves,  and  it  is  generally  recognised 
by  the  fruit  and  flowers  found  fallen  at  the  base.  The  bark  is  rusty, 
often  whitish  from  the  presence  of  numerous  lichens  ;  and  a  section 
of  the  trunk  shows  a  reddish  and  sometimes  mottled  wood.  The 
timber,  when  fully  grown,  is  moderately  hard,  but  does  not  appear  to 
be  much  sought  after  by  the  natives.  The  exudation  from  the  trunk, 
which  has  some  similarity  to  the  gutta-percha  of  commerce,  is  pro- 
cured by  tapping,  and  the  quantity  is  not  inconsiderable;  but  it 
would  appear  that  the  tree  requires  an  interval  of  rest,  of  some  hours, 


262  ISONANDRA. 

if  not  days,  after  frequent  incision.  "  In  five  or  six  hours,"  says 
General  Cullen,  "upwards  of  IJ  lb.  (more  than  a  catty)  was  col- 
lected from  4  or  5  incisions  in  one  tree."  Again  he  writes  in  the 
same  month  (April) :  "  Incisions  were  made  in  forty  places,  at  distances 
nearly  3  feet  apart,  along  the  whole  trunk.  The  quantity  produced 
was  2 1  dungalies  (a  dungaly  is  about  half  a  gallon),  the  reeds  were 
placed  again,  but  in  the  evening  no  more  milk  was  found ;  but  the 
bark  is  thin,  and  the  juice  soon  ceases  to  flow,  although  there. is 
plenty  of  it  in  the  tree.''  The  gum  when  fresh  is  of  a  milky  white 
colour,  the  larger  lumps  being  of  a  dullish  red.  Specimens  of  the 
gum  were  forwarded  to  England,  to  be  reported  on  by  competent 
persons,  and  on  an  analysis  of  its  properties,  Messrs  Teschemachar 
&  Smith  stated :  "  It  is  evident  that  this  substance  belongs  to  the 
class  of  the  vegetable  products  of  which  caoutchouc  and  gutta-percha 
are  types,  and  that  it  greatly  resembles  *  bird-lime '  in  its  leading 
characteristics,  but  in  a  higher  degree.  It  is  evident  that  for  water- 
proofing purposes  it  is  (in  its  crude  state)  unfit ;  for  although  the 
coal-tar,  oil  of  turpentine  paste,  might  be  applied  to  fabrics,  as  similar 
solutions  of  caoutchouc  now  are,  and  a  material  obtained  impervious 
for  a  time  to  wet,  yet,  that  owing  to  the  capacity  of  this  substance  to 
combine  with  water,  and  become  brittle  in  consequence  at  ordinary 
temperatures,  such  a  waterproofed  fabric  would  become  useless  very 
quickly.  "We  do  not,  of  course,  in  any  way  imply,  that  in  the  hands 
of  some  inventors  this  and  other  difficulties  to  its  useful  application 
may  not  be  overcome.  Although  unfit  for  waterproof  clothing, 
movable  tarpauling,  and  its  like,  yet  it  might  be  usefully  employed 
to  waterproof  fixed  sheds,  or  temporary  erections  of  little  cost, 
covered  with  calico  or  cheap  canvas ;  but  there  are  already  a  numer- 
ous class  of  cheap  varnishes  equally  adapted  for  such  a  purpose,  so 
that,  as  a  waterproofing  material,  it  is  but  advisable  for  the  present 
to  look  upon  it  as  useless. 

"  Its  perfimie,  when  heated,  might  possibly  render  it  of  some  value 
to  the  pastille  and  incense  makers. 

"Its  bird-lime  sticky  quality  might  be  made  available  by  the 
gamekeeper  and  poacher  in  this  country  for  taking  vermin  and 
small  birds ;  we  almost  doubt  whether  a  rabbit,  hare,  or  pheasant, 
could  free  itself,  if  hair,  feathers,  or  feet,  came  in  contact  with  it 
We  think  it  might  be  useful  and  more  legitimately  employed  by  the 
trapper  for  taking  the  small  fur-bearing  animals  ;  turpentine  would 
cleanse  the  soiled  furs.  The  only  extensive  and  practical  use,  how- 
ever, in  this  country,  to  which  we  at  present  think  it  may  probably 
be  with  advantage  applied,  is  as  a  subaqueous  cement  or  glue.  We 
beg  to  forward  you  some  deal-wood  glued  together  with  this  sub- 
stance melted  and  applied  hot,  which  we  have  now  kept  under  water 
for  several  days,  and  two  fragments  of  glasses  which  have  been 
similarly  treated.  You  will  observe  that  the  cement  has  hardened 
at  the  edges,  but  probably  without  injury  to  its  cementing  propeiv 
ties.     We  have  no  reason  to  think  that  it  would  not  rot  under 


ISORA.  263 

water  more  rapidly  than  wood  does,  but  experience  must  be  the  sole 
guide  here.  We  have  reason  to  think  such  a  glue  or  cement  would 
be  readily  tried,  and  if  found  good,  employed  by  joiners  and  others, 
having  been  applied  some  time  since  to  examine  a  glue,  which  after 
application  resisted  the  action  of  water." 

With  regard  to  the  wood,  Mr  Williams,  assistant  conservator  of 
forests,  reported  as  follows  to  Dr  Cleghorn  :  "  It  is  not  unlike  saiU 
in  the  grain,  and  yet  it  takes  after  the  character  of  some  of  the  harder 
kinds  of  cedar  and  kurbah.  As  the  wood  is  capable  of  receiving  a 
good  polish,  I  am  inclined  to  think  it  ought  to  make  good  furniture. 
Its  specific  gravity,  weighing  the  specimen  piece  in  the  hand,  ap- 
pears to  be  about  50  lb.  to  the  cubic  foot ;  and  as  the  fibres  possess 
both  solidity  and  strength,  I  should  say  the  wood  ought  to  be  useftd 
in  making  doors  and  windows,  &c.,  if  not  too  readily  destroyed  by 
white  ants;  but  I  doubt  whether  it  will  be  found  capable  of  sustain- 
ing much  weight,  for  the  coalescing  deposit  is  rather  too  pithy  to 
make  it  useful  as  beams  for  terracing. 

"  The  external  surface  with  the  bark  peeled  off  exhibits  hardness, 
and  the  fibres  are  greatly  elongated  and  closely  adhering ;  but  in 
planing  down  a  portion  I  find  that  the  alburnum  occupies  much 
more  space  than  is  apparent  outside,  and  renders  the  wood  too  pithy 
to  answer  for  the  more  substantial  parts  in  building." 

It  remains  to  add  that  the  tree  is  very  plentiful  in  those  districts 
where  it  grows,  and  that  it  is  found  both  on  the  eastern  and  western 
slopes  of  the  Ghauts. — Memorandum  on  the  Indian  Gutta-tree  of 
western  coast, 

(345)  Isora  corylifolia  {Schott  and  Endl.)    K  0.  STERCULUOEiB. 

Isora  murri,  Valampiri,  Mal.    Yalimbiri,  Tam.    Yalumbiicaca,  TXL.    Maroori, 
Hind.    Antamora,  Beng. 

Description.— Shrub,  12  feet ;  leaves  broad,  slightly  cordate, 
roundish,  obovate,  suddenly  and  shortly  acuminated,  serrate, 
toothed,  upper  side  scabrous,  under  tomentose ;  pedicels  2-4 
together,  forming  an  almost  sessile,  axillary  corymb ;  petals 
reflexed  ;  fruit  cylindrical,  spirally  twisted,  pubescent ;  flowers 
brick-coloured.  Fl,  Sept. — Nov. —  W,  &  A,  Prod.  i.  60. — 
Wight  Icon,  t,  150. — Helicteres  Isora,  Linn, — Roxb.  Fl,Jnd. 
iii.  143. — Eheede,  vi.  t,  30. Foot  of  the  Himalaya.  Penin- 
sula.   Travancore,  at  the  base  of  the  hills. 

Medical  Uses. — The  leaves  of  this  tree  are  very  like  the  English 
hazel.  The  capsule  has  a  singular  appearance,  being  in  the  form  of 
a  screw.  A  liniment  is  prepared  from  the  powder  of  it,  applied  to 
sore  ears.  It  is  mixed  in  preparation  with  castor-oiL  The  juice  of 
the  root  is  used  in  stomachic  affections  in  Jamaica,  as  well  as  the 
leaves  in  certain  cases  of  constipation.     Seed-vessels  used  internally 


264  ISORA. 

in  bilious  affections  in  combination  with  otber  medicines.  Royle 
says  that  the  natives  of  India,  like  those  of  Europe  in  former  times, 
believing  that  external  signs  point  out  the  properties  possessed  by 
plants,  consider  that  the  twisted  £ruit  of  this  plant  indicates  that  it 
is  useful,  and  therefore  prescribe  it  in  pains  of  the  bowels. 

Economic  Uses. — This  is  a  valuable  plant  from  the  fibrous  quali- 
ties of  its  bark.  These  fibres  have  of  late  been  much  brought  to 
notice,  being  well  adapted  for  ropes  and  cordage.  They  are  strong 
and  white-coloured.  In  Travancore  the  fibre  (known  as  the  kyvan 
nar)  is  employed  for  making  gunny-bags.  The  fibres  are  cleaned  by 
soaking  the  plant  in  \7ater  and  beating  them  out  afterwards.  The 
curtain-blinds  of  the  verandahs  of  native  houses  are  made  from  the 
fibre.  It  is  one  of  the  woods  used  by  the  natives  for  producing  fire 
by  friction. — Ainslie,     Report  on  Prod,  of  Travancore, 


265 


(346)  Jambosa  vulgaris  (Dec,)    K  O.  MYRTACEJii. 

Rose-Apple,  Esq.    Gulab-jaraun,  Hind. 

Description. — Tree ;  leaves  narrow-lanceolate,  attenuated  at 
the  base,  acuminated  towards  the  apex ;  racemes  cymose,  ter- 
minal ;  flowers  white ;  fruit  globose. — Dec,  Prod,  iii.  286. — 
W.  &  A,  Prod,  i.  332. — Eugenia  Jambos,  Linn. — Bozb.  Fl,  Ind. 
ii.  494. — Rheede  Mai,  i.  t,  17. Cultivated. 

Economic  Uses. — Tlie  fruit  is  about  tho  size  of  a  hen's  egg,  rose- 
coloured  and  white-fleshed,  with  the  flavour  of  a  ripe  apricot.  The 
tree  grows  rapidly  and  shoots  up  from  the  stmnp  with  vigour,  yield- 
ing much  firewood.  In  a  communication  to  the  Agri.-Hort.  Soc 
of  Bengal  (May  1848),  Colonel  Ouseley  observes :  "  I  have  just 
made  a  discovery  that  promises  well  in  places  where  roses  do  not 
thrive,  if  the  rose-apple  ripens  well ;  most  excellent  rose-water  can 
be  distilled  from  the  fruit,  taking  the  seed  out  first.  I  had  it  dis- 
tilled four  times,  and  it  proved  equal  to  the  best  rose-water,  to  the 
great  surprise  of  the  distiller." 

(347)  Janipha  Manihot  (Kth,)    N.  0.  Eufhobbiage^. 

Bitter  Cassava,  Tapioca,  or  Mandioc  plant,  Eno.   MaravnUie,  Tam.   Maracheenie, 
Mal. 

Description.  —  Stems  white,  crooked,  6-7  feet,  smooth, 
covered  with  protuberances  from  the  fallen  leaves ;  branches 
crooked ;  leaves  palmate,  divided  nearly  to  their  base  into  5 
lanceolate,  entire  lobes,  attenuated  at  both  extremities,  dark 
green  above,  glaucous  beneath  ;  midrib  prominent  below,  of  a 
yellowish -red  colour;  panicles  axillary  and  terminal,  4-5 
inches  long ;  male  flowers  smaller  than  the  female ;  calyx 
purplish  on  the  outside,  brownish  within,  segments  5,  spread- 
ing, divided  nearly  to  the  base ;  female  flowers  deeply  5-parted, 
with  lanceolate-ovate  segments;  root  oblong,  tuberous;  capsule 
ovate,  triangular,  tricoccous ;  seeds  elliptical,  black,  shining ; 
flowers  small,  reddish.    FL  April — May. — Lindley  Fl,  Med,  p. 


266  JANIPHA. 

185.  —  Jatropha  Manihot,  Linn,  —  Manihot  utilissima,  PoM, 
Cultivated  in  Travancore. 

Economic  Uses. — ^A  native  of  South  America,  but  now  cultivated 
in  lower  India  to  a  great  extent,  especially  in  Travancore.  It  yields 
the  Tapioca  of  commerce.    The  following  account  of  the  preparation  a 

of  this  substance  is  given  by  Ainslie :  "  An  amylum  or  starch  is  '  -  '^ 
first  to  be  obtained  from  the  fresh  roots,  which  starch,  to  form  it  into 
Tapioca,  must  be  sprinkled  with  a  little  water  and  then  boiled  m 
steam;  it  is  in  this  way  converted  into  viscid  irregular  masses,  which 
must  be  dried  in  the  sun  till  they  have  become  quite  hard,  and  then 
they  may  be  broken  into  small  grains  for  use.''  Tapioca  is  a  light 
and  nourishing  food,  and  affords  a  good  diet  for  the  sick.  The 
poisonous  substance  which  resides  in  the  root  is  said  to  be  hydro- 
cyanic acid.  It  can  only  be  expelled  by  roasting,  when  the  starch 
becomes  fit  for  food.  This  starch  being  formed  into  granules  by  the 
action  of  heat,  constitutes  the  Tapioca  of  commerce.  Cassava  flour 
is  obtained  by  immersing  the  grated  starch  in  water,  when  the  flour 
is  self-deposited,  and  afterwards  washed  thoroughly  and  dried  in  the 
sun.  Cassava  is  said  to  be  very  nourishing,  one  acre  being  equal  in 
its  nutritive  qualities  to  six  acres  of  wheat.  Recently  much  atten- 
tion has  been  paid  to  the  cultivation  of  the  plant,  for  the  purpose  of 
exportation  to  Europe  from  the  West  Indies,  it  having  been  found 
to  be  a  most  profitable  article  of  commerce,  and  one  requiring  little 
or  no  care  in  its  cultivation,  the  plant  thriving  on  the  most  barren 
soil.  This  is  equally  the  case  in  Travancore,  where  the  cultivator 
has  merely  to  clear  away  the  low  brushwood  and  plant  it,  when  it 
will  spring  up  luxuriantly  on  the  most  rocky  and  exposed  situations, 
either  in  the  vicinity  of  the  sea  or  inland.  Simmonds  says  on  the 
subject — "  The  experimental  researches  of  Dr  Shier  have  led  him  to 
believe  that  the  green  bitter  cassava  will  give  one-fifth  its  weight  of 
starch.  If  this  be  the  case  the  return  per  acre  would,  under  favour- 
able circumstances,  when  the  land  is  properly  worked,  be  enormous. 
On  an  estate  at  Essequibo,  an  acre  of  cassava,  grown  in  fine  perme- 
able soil,  yielded  25  tons  of  green  cassava.  Such  a  return  as  this 
per  acre  would  enable  our  West  India  colonies  to  inimdate  Great 
Britain  with  food,  and  at  a  rate  which  would  make  flour  to  be  con- 
sidered a  luxury."  If  more  attention  were  paid  to  its  cultivation  in 
India,  a  similar  profitable  return  might  be  anticipated.  The  poorer 
classes  in  Travancore  use  it  as  food,  especially  when  rice  becomes 
scarce  and  dear ;  and  nearly  one-half  the  population  of  several  of  the 
southern  districts  live  on  Tapioca  in  the  months  of  July,  August, 
and  September.  They  reduce  the  root  to  powder  for  coiyee,  and 
cook  the  raw  root  for  curries. 

It  is  from  the  juice  of  this  plant  that  the  Red  Indians  in  South 
America  prepare  the  most  deadly  mandioc  poison  with  which  they 
tip  their  arrows.  This  is  procured  by  distillation,  and  it  is  said  that 
thirty  drops  will  cause  the  death  of  a  human  being  in  six  hours. 


JASMINUM.  267 

Cases  are  not  unfrequent  of  children  being  poisoned  in  the  country 
by  incautiously  eating  the  roots  before  they  have  undergone  the 
necessary  preparations. 

An  extract  is  made  from  the  concentrated  juice  of  the  root  called 
Cassareepy  the  poisonous  principle  being  destroyed  duiing  the  course 
of  evaporation.  It  is  used  in  the  West  Indies  for  flavouring  soups 
and  other  dishes.  It  is  a  powerful  antiseptic.  In  Jamaica  the 
scrapings  from  the  fresh  roots  are  applied  to  bad  ulcers. — Ainslie. 
Simmonds.     Pereira,    Rep.  on  Prod,  of  Travancore.     Pers,  Obs, 

(348)  Jasminnm  angastifoliom  (Vahl)    K  0.  JASMiNACEiE. 

Katu-pitsjegam-muUa,  Mal.     Caat-maUica,  Tax.     Adeyie-mallie^  Tel.     Ban- 
maUica^  Hind. 

Description. — Twining;  leaves  opposite,  ovate  or  oblong, 
finely  pointed,  smooth,  of  a  shining  deep  green ;  flowers  ter- 
minal, generally  by  threes  ;  calycine  segments  acute ;  segments 
of  corolla  8-9,  lanceolate  ;  berries  single,  ovate ;  flowers  large> 
white  with  a  faint  tinge  of  red,  star-shaped,  fragrant.  Fl. 
March— May.— ^a:6.  FL  Ind.  i.  96.— Wight  Icon.  t.  698-700. 

— Nyctanthes  angustifolia,  Linn. — Ehccde,  vi.  t  53. Coro- 

mandel  forests.    Travancore. 

Medical  Uses. — This  species  being  constantly  covered  with  leaves 
of  a  bright  shining  green,  renders  it  particularly  well  adapted  for 
screening  windows,  and  covering  arbours  in  warm  climates.  The 
bitter  root  ground  small  and  mixed  with  lime-juice  and  vassamhoo 
root  is  considered  a  good  remedy  in  ringworm. — (Boxb.  Ainslie.) 
The  /.  revolutum  contains  an  essential  oil  of  an  aromatic  flavour,  and 
is  used  as  a  perfume.  The  root  is  said  to  be  useful  in  ringworm. — 
PowelCa  Punj,  Prod. 

(349)  Jasminnm  sambac  {Ait.)    Do. 

Tajeregam  -  muUa,  Mal.     Pun  -  mullika,  Mal.     KOdy-mulli,  Tam.     Boondoo- 
mallie,  Tel.    But-moogra,  Beno. 

Description.  —  Twining  shrub  ;  leaves  opposite,  cordate, 
ovate  or  oblong,  w-aved,  sometimes  scolloped,  pointed,  smooth, 
downy  on  the  veins  on  the  under  side ;  calyx  segments  5-9 ; 
flowers  terminal,  generally  in  small  trichotomous  umbellets, 
white.  Fl.  March — May. — Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  L  88. —  Wight  Icon, 
t.  704. — Nyctanthes  Sambac,  Linn. Common  everywhere. 

Medical  Uses. — Of  this  there  are  two  other  varieties :  the  double- 
flowered  Jasmin,  called  Beta  in  Bengal — the  Nulla  mulla  of  liheede 


208  JATROPHA. 

(vL  t  50)  ;  and  the  Buro-hd  and  KaddamvUa  of  Rheede  (vi.  t  51). 
The  plant  is  common  in  every  forest  in  the  Peninsula,  and  is  gen- 
erally cultivated  in  gardens.  The  leaves  if  boiled  in  oil  exude  a 
balsam  which  is  used  for  anointing  the  head  in  eye-complaints.  It 
is  said  to  strengthen  the  vision.  An  oil  is  also  expressed  from  the 
roots  used  medicinally.  The  flowers,  commonly  known  as  the  Moo- 
gree  flowers,  are  sacred  to  Vishnoo. — {Rheede,)  The  flowers  possess 
considerable  power  as  a  lactifuge,  and  are  effectual  in  arresting  the 
secretion  of  milk  in  the  puerperal  state,  in  cases  of  threatened 
abscess.  For  this  purpose  about  two  or  three  handfuls  of  the 
flowers  bruised  and  unmoistened  are  applied  to  each  breast,  and 
renewed  once  or  twice  a-day.  The  secretion  is  sometimes  arrested 
in  about  twenty-foux  hours,  though  it  generally  requires  two  or  even 
three  days. — Pharm.  of  India, 

(350)  Jatropha  corcas  {Linn)    N.  0.  EuPHORBucafi. 

Angiilar-leaved  Physic-nut,  Enq.  Caat-anmnak,  Tail  Caak-avanakoo,  Mal. 
Nepalam,  Adivie  amida,  Tel.  Bag-bherenda,  Hind.  Erundi,  DUK.  Bagh- 
Dliaranda,  Beno. 

Description. — ^Small  tree  or  shrub ;  leaves  scattered,  broad- 
cordate,  5-angled,  smooth;  panicles  terminal,  or  from  the 
exterior  axils,  cymose,  many-flowered  ;  male  flowers  at  the 
extremities  of  the  ramification  on  short  articulated  pedicels, 
the  female  ones  in  their  divisions,  with  pedicels  not  articu- 
lated ;  calyx  5-leaved ;  corolla  5-petalled,  campanulate,  some- 
what hairy ;  styles  3,  short ;  flowers  small,  green ;  ovary 
oblong,  smooth.  Fl.  Nearly  all  the  year. — Boxh.  Fl,  Ind.  iii. 
686. Domesticated  in  India.     CoromandeL    Travancore. 

Medical  Uses. — The  seeds  are  purgative,  occasionally  exciting 
vomiting.  It  is  said  that  they  may  be  safely  eaten  if  first  deprived 
of  their  outer  teguments.  They  consist  of  a  fixed  oil,  and  an  acid 
poisonous  principle.  The  leaves  are  reckoned  as  discutient  and 
rubefacient ;  and  the  milky  juice  of  the  plant  is  said  to  possess  a 
healing  and  detergent  quality,  and  to  dye  linen  blcusk.  A  fixed  or 
expressed  oil  is  prepared  from  the  seeds  useful  in  cutaneous  diseases 
and  chronic  rheumatism  applied  externally ;  also  for  burning  in 
lamps.  The  Chinese  boil  the  oil  with  oxide  of  iron,  and  use  the 
preparation  for  varnishing  boxes,  &c.  It  is  frequently  used  as  a 
hedge-plant,  as  cattle  will  not  touch  the  leaves.  The  juice  of  the 
plant  is  of  a  very  tenacious  nature,  and  if  blown,  forms  large 
bubbles,  probably  owing  to  the  presence  of  caoutchouc.  The  leaves 
warmed  and  rubbed  with  castor-oil  are  applied  by  the  natives  to 
inflammations  when  suppuration  is  wished  for.  The  oil  has  been 
imported  to  England  as  a  substitute  for  linseed-oil.  It  is  of  a  pale 
colour,  and  can  be  cheaply  supplied  in  any  part  of  the  country.     It 


t 


JATROPHX — JUSSIiEA.  269 

differs  from  castor  and  croton  oil  in  its  slight  solubility  in  alcohol ; 
but  mixed  with  castor-oil  its  solubility  is  increased.  According  to 
Dr  Christison,  12  or  15  drops  are  equal  to  one  ounce  of  castor-oil. 
The  juice  of  the  plant  has  been  applied  externally  in  hjemorrhoids. 
A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  in  the  Cape  Verd  Islands  to  excite 
secretion  of  milk  in  women. — Shnmonda,     Ainslie,     Beng.  Disp. 

J351)  Jatropha  glaadulifera  (Eoxh)    Do. 

Cj  (5o  vjO  /v  &         Addaley,  Tam.     Nela-amUla,  Tkl. 

Description. — Small  plant,  1  foot,  erect,  pubescent ;  leaves 
5-3  cleft,  serrated,  smooth,  glaucous,  almost  veinless ;  petioles 
sub-villose,  longer  than  the  leaves,  with  glandular  hairs ;  petals 
of  female  flowers  ovate,  the  length  of  the  calyx ;  capsule  muri- 
cated,  as  large  as  a  hazel  nut ;  seed  size  of  a  pea ;  flowers 
small,  greenish  yellow.     Fl,  All  the  year. — Boxb.  Fl.  Ind.  iii. 

088. — J.  glauca,  VaU,  ? Panderpore  in  the  Deccan.     On 

bunds  of  tanks ;  Northern  Circars. 

Medical  Uses. — ^An  oil  is  expressed  from  the  seeds  which,  from 
its  stimulating  property,  is  reckoned  useful  externally  applied  in 
cases  of  chronic  rheumatism  and  paralytic  affections.  The  plant 
exudes  a  pale  thin  juice,  which  the  Hindoos  employ  for  removing 
films  from  the  eyes. — Boxb.     AhisUe. 

Economic  Uses. — In  1862,  Dr  Thompson,  civil  surgeon,  of  Malda, 
submitted  to  the  AgrL-Hort.  Society  specimens  of  cloth  dyed  with 
a  green  vegetable  dye  prepared  from  the  leaves,  it  is  believed,  of  this 
species.  He  wrote  as  follows  :  One  maund  of  the  dried  leaves  will 
dye  1280  yards  of  cloth  of  a  fine  apple-green  colour.  The  supply  is 
cheap  and  unlimited,  and  the  cultivation  is  easily  extended  £rom 
cuttings  or  seed,  requiring  little  care  or  watching,  as  no  animal  will 
eat  it.  The  plant  is  doubly  valuable  from  the  seeds  yielding  a  fine, 
clear,  limpid  oil  for  burning  purposes.  It  takes  half  an  hour  to  dye 
a  whole  than  of  cloth.  For  preparing  the  oil  the  seeds  should  be 
collected  as  the  capsule  begins  to  split  or  change  colour  from  green 
to  brown ;  the  latter  should  then  be  thrown  down  on  a  mat,  and 
covered  over  with  another  mat,  and  on  a  few  hours'  exposure  to  a 
bright  sun  the  seeds  will  have  separated  from  the  shell,  for  if 
allowed  to  remain  on  the  shrub  till  quite  ripe,  the  capsule  bursts, 
and  the  seeds  are  scattered  and  lost. 

(352)  JnsflisBa  villosa  (Lam,)    K  0.  ONAORACEiE. 

Cftramba,  Mal.    Lal-banlmiga,  Beng. 

Description. — Perennial,  herbaceous,  1 J  foot,  erect,  more  or 
less  pubescent  or  villous ;  leaves  from  broadly  lanceolate  to 


270  JUSSI.EA. 

linear  acuminate,  tapering  at  the  base  into  a  short  petiole ; 
flowers  almost  sessile ;  calyx  lobes  4  or  5,  broadly  lanceolate 
or  ovate,  3-5  nerved,  much  shorter  than  the  roundish-ovate 
petals ;  capsule  nearly  cylindrical,  elongated,  tapering  at  the 
base  into  a  short  pedicel ;  flowers  largish,  yellow.  Fl.  Oct. — 
Nov. — TT.   <fe  A.   Prod,   i   336. — J.   suffruticosa,   Linn, — J. 

exaltata,  Roxb,  Fl.  Ind,  ii.  401. — Rlieede,  ii  t  50. Peninsula. 

Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — There  are  two  varieties  given  by  Wight  of  this 
plant.  According  to  Rheede,  the  plant,  ground  small,"  and  steeped 
in  butter-milk,  is  considered  good  in  dysentery  ;  also  in  decoction  as 
a  vermifuge  and  purgative. — Ainslie. 


*^t  ) 


271 


K 

(353)  EcBmpferia   galanga   (Linn.)      K  0.   ZiNGiBEBACEiS. 

Katsjulum,  Mal.     Katsjolum,  Tam.    Chundra  Moola,  Kumula,  Beng. 

Description.  —  Rhizome  biennial,  tuberous;  stem  none; 
leaves  stalked,  spreading  flat  on  the  surface  of  the  earth, 
round,  ovate-cordate,  margins  membranaceous  and  waved, 
upper  surface  smooth,  somewhat  woolly  towards  the  base; 
flowers  fascicled,  6-12  within  the  sheath  of  the  leaves,  ex- 
panding in  succession,  pure  white  with  a  purple  spot  on  the 
centre  of  each  of  the  divisions  of  the  inner  series ;  bracts  3  to 
each  flower,  linear,  acute,  half  the  length  of  the  tube  of  the 
corolla  ;  calyx  the  length  of  the  bracts  ;  tube  of  corolla  long, 
filiform,  limbs  double,  both  series  3-parted.    Fl,  Oct. — Nov. 

—  Wight  Icon,   t   899. — Roxh.  Fl.  Ind.  i.  15. ^Peninsula. 

Bengal.     Much  cultivated  in  gardens. 

Medical  Uses. — This  plant  is  said  to  be  very  common  on  the 
mountainous  districts  beyond  Chittagong,  and  is  brought  by  the 
mountaineers  for  sale  to  the  markets  in  Bengal,  where  the  inhabi- 
tants use  it  as  an  ingredient  in  their  betel.  The  root  is  fragrant, 
and  used  medicinally  by  the  natives  as  well  as  for  perfumes.  Re- 
duced to  powder  and  mixed  with  honey  it  is  given  in  coughs  and 
pectoral  affections.  Boiled  in  oil  it  is  externally  applied  in  stoppages 
of  the  nasal  organs. — Rlteede,     Roxh, 

(354)  Kcsmpferia  rotunda  (Linn.)    Do. 

Melan-kua,  Mal.    Bhuchampa,  Bekq. 

Description. — Leaves  oblong,  coloured;  spikes  radical, 
appearing  before  the  leaves,  which  are  oblong,  waved,  and 
usually  stained  underneath ;  upper  segments  of  the  inner 
series  of  the  corolla  lanceolate,  acute,  lower  ones  divided  into 
two  broad  obcordate  lobes ;  flowers  near,  fragrant,  sessile,  pur- 
plish white  ;  scapes  embraced  by  a  few  common  sheaths,  very 
short,  greenish  purple ;  calyx  above,  1-leafed,  as  long  as  the 
tube  of  the  corolla,  somewhat  gibbous ;  apex  generally  two- 
toothed,  and  of  a  dotted  purplish  colour.  Fl.  March — ApriL 
—Roxh.  Fl.  Ind.  i.  l&.— Wight  Icon.  t.  2029.— K  longa. 
Redout. — Rheede,  xi.  t.  9. Native  place  unknown. 


272  KANDELIA — KYDIA. 

Medical  Uses. — This  species  is  mucli  cultivated  in  gardens  for 
the  beauty  and  fragrance  of  its  flowers.  When  in  Hower  the  plant 
is  destitute  of  leaves.  The  whole  plant,  according  to  Eheede,  is  first 
reduced  to  a  powder,  and  then  used  as  an  ointment  It  is  in  this 
state  reckoned  very  useful  in  healing  wounds,  and  taken  internally 
wiU  remove  cofigulated  blood  or  any  purulent  matters.  The  root  is 
useful  in  anasarcous  swellings.  It  has  a  hot,  ginger-like  taste. — 
Ainslie.     Roxb.     Rlieede, 

(355)  KaJidelia  Bheedii  (W.  ^  A,)    K  O.  Ehizophorage^. 

Tsjeron-kandel,  Mal. 

Description. — Shrub;  leaves  quite  entire,  linear- oblong, 
obtuse,  2-3  chotomous,  4-9  flowered;  inflorescence  axillary; 
calyx  tube  campanulate,  segments  linear,  persistent ;  petals  as 
many  as  the  segments  of  the  calyx,  membranaceous,  cleft  to 
below  the  middle  into  numerous  capillary  segments;  fruit 
oblong,  longer  than  the  tube  of  the  calyx  ;  germinating  embryo 
subulate-clavate,  acute;  flowers  largish,  white  and  green. — 
W.  &  A.  Prod,  i.  Zll,—WigU  III  t  89.— Ehizophora  Candel, 

Linn. — Bheede,  vi.  L  35. Malabar.     Sunderbunds.     Deltas 

on  Coromandel  coast. 

Medical  Uses. — This  species  of  mangrove  is  common  on  the 
back-waters  in  Travancore.  The  bark  mixed  with  dried  ginger  or 
long  pepper  and  rose-water  is  said  to  be  a  cure  for  diabetes. — (lUteede.) 
It  is  also  used  for  tanning  purposes  at  Cochin. — Pers,  Obs, 

(356)  EydiA  calycina  (Eoxh.)    K  O.  Byttneriace^. 

Description. — ^Tree  ;  leaves  alternate,  5-nerved,  somewhat 
5-lobed ;  calyx  campanulate ;  capsule  3-valved,  3-ceIled, 
perfect  cells  1 -seeded,  involucels  of  fertile  flowers  usually 
4-leaved,  longer  than  the  calyx,  spathulate,  enlarging  with 
the  fruit;  filaments  united  their  whole  length  into  a  tube; 
style  elongated,  stigmas  projecting;  male  involucel  4-6  leaved 
shorter  than  the  calyx,  lanceolate,  blunt;  filaments  united 
about  half  their  length,  free  above ;  petals  in  both  obliquely 
cordate,  clawed,  emarginate,ciliate ;  flowers  white  or  pale  yellow- 
ish.   FL  Aug. — Dec. — W.  &  -4.  Prod.  i.  70. — Roxh,  Cor,  iii.  i, 

Vi^,—Fl  Ind,  iii.  1^9. —  Wight  Icon,  t,  879,  880. ^VaUeys 

of  the  Circar  mountains.     Mysore.     Slopes  of  the  Neilgherries. 

Economic  Uses. — The  bark  is  mucilaginous,  and  is  employed  in 
the  northern  provinces  to  clarify  sugar. — RoyJe. 


273 


,J^ 


Kit.-'  • 


(357)  Lablab  vulgaris  {Bam,)    'N/O.  LEouMiNosiE. 

Chota-sim,  Hind.      Ban-Bhim,  Beno.     Anapa-anoomooloo,  Tel.    Avarei,  Mut- 
cheb,  Tah. 

Description. — Twining;  leaves  pinnately  trifoliolate;  leaflets 
entire;  racemes  axillary,  elongated;  pedicels  short;  corolla 
papilionaceous ;  calyx  bi-bracteolate,  campanulate,  tubular 
4-cleft ;  legume  broadly  scimitar-shaped,  gibbous  below  the 
apex,  and  ending  abruptly  in  a  straight  or  recurved  cuspidate 
point ;  seeds  longitudinally  oval,  of  various  colours ;  flowers 
red,  purple,  or  white.  Ft,  Nov. — Feb. —  W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  250. 
Wight  Icon,  t  57-203.— ifca;&.  Fl  Ind,  iii.  305.— Dolichos 
lablab,  Linn. Peninsula.     BengaL     Cultivated. 

Economic  Uses. — There  are  several  varieties  differing  in  the  colour 
of  their  seeds  and  forms  of  their  legumes,  some  of  which  are  culti- 
vated, and  others  are  not.  Of  one  variety  which  is  cultivated  on 
the  Coromandel  coast,  Eoxburgh  states  that  it  will  yield  in  a  good 
soil  about  forty-fold.  The  seeds  bear  a  low  price  comparatively, 
and  are  much  eaten  by  the  poorer  classes,  particularly  when  rice  is 
dear.  They  are  not  palatable,  but  are  reckoned  wholesome  sub- 
stantial food.  Cattle  are  fed  with  the  seeds,  and  greedily  eat  the 
straw.  Another  variety,  which  has  white  flowers,  is  cultivated  in 
gardens  and  supported  on  poles,  often  forming  arbours  about  the 
doors  of  native  houses.  The  pods  are  eaten,  but  not  the  seeds.  The 
pulse  of  the  best  kind  is  imported  from  Madras  to  Ceylon. — {Roxh,) 
The  different  kinds  are  distinguished  by  the  colours  of  their  flowers, 
which  vary  from  white  to  red  and  purple,  and  by  the  size  and  shape 
of  the  pods,  which  exhibit  every  degree  of  curvature,  one  kind  being 
designated  as  the  Bagh-nak  (tiger's  claw),  from  its  rounded  form. 
The  same  diversity  occurring  in  the  seeds  has  given  rise  to  the 
many  specific  varieties,  or  even  species,  which  after  all  may  weU  be 
reduced  to  the  present  form  of  I-Ablab. — W.  Elliott. 

(358)  Lagenaria  vulgaris  (Ser.)    N.  0.  CuoaRBrrAOKs. 

White  Pnmpkih,  Bottle-gourd,  Ei«a.    Hunea-kuddoo,  DuK.    Shora-Kai,  Tam. 
Bella-schors,  Hal.    Lavoo,  Bkno.    Anapa-kai,  Tel. 

Description. — Stem  climbing  softly  pubescent ;  calyx  cam- 

18 


274  LAGERSTROEMIA. 

panulate ;  petals  rising  from  within  the  margin  of  the  calyx  ; 
tendrils  3-4  cleft ;  leaves  cordate,  nearly  entire  or  lobed,  lobes 
obtuse,  or  somewhat  acute,  glaucous  ;  flowers  fascicled,  white ; 
petals  very  patent ;  fruit  pubescent,  at  length  nearly  glabrous 
and  very  smooth  ;  seeds  numerous,  flesh- white,  edible ;  fruit 
bottle-shaped,  yeUow  when  ripe.  Fl.  July — Sept. — W.  &  A, 
Prod.  i.  341. — Cucurbita  lagenaria,  Linn.  sp. — BosA.  FL  Ind, 
iii  718. — Rheede,  viiL  t.  i.  4,  5. Cultivated. 

Medical  Uses. — The  pulp  of  the  fruit  is  often  used  in  poultices  ; 
it  is  bitter  and  slightly  purgative,  and  may  be  used  as  a  substitute 
for  colocynth.  A  decoction  of  the  leaves  mixed  with  sugar  is  given 
in  jaundice.  ^ 

EooNOMio  Uses. — The  fruit  is  known  as  the  bottle-gourd.  The 
poorer  classes  eat  it,  boiled,  with  vinegar,  or  fill  the  shells  with  rice 
and  meat,  thus  making  a  kind  of  pudding  of  it.  In  Jamaica,  and 
many  other  places  within  the  tropics,  the  shells  are  used  for  holding 
water  or  palm-wine,  and  so  serve  as  bottles.  The  hard  shell,  when 
dry,  is  used  for  faqueers'  bottles,  and  a  variety  of  it  is  employed  in 
making  the  stringed  instrument  known  as  the  Sitar,  as  well  as  buoys 
for  swimming  across  rivers  and  transporting  baggage.  There  is  one 
kind,  the  fleshy  part  of  which  i§  poisonous. — lioyle.     Don. 

(359)  Lagerstroamia  microcarpa  (E,  W.)    N.  0.  LTTHBACEiE. 

Ventek,  Veveyla,  Tam. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  leaves  from  elliptic  to  ovate, 
often  attenuated  or  acute  at  the  base,  obtusely  pointed  at  the 
apex,  glabrous  above,  pale  beneath,  often  very  finely  downy ; 
panicles  axillary  ,and  terminal,  glabrous  or  hoary,  with  minute 
pubescence  ;  flowers  very  numerous,  white  ;  calyx  white  out- 
side, with  hoary  pubescence ;  six  outer  stamens  longer  than 
the  others ;  capsule  scarcely  an  inch  long. —  Wight   Icon.   t. 

109. — Bedd.  Flor.  Sylv.  t  30. Western  forests,  but  not  on 

the  eastern  side. 

Economic  Uses. — A  handsome  tree,  abundant  in  all  the  western 
forests  of  the  Madras  Presidency,  flowering  in  the  hot  weather.  The 
wood  is  light-coloured,  straight,  and  elastic.  It  is  very  much  used 
for  building  purposes,  and  also  in  dockyards.  It  makes  capital 
coflfee-cases,  but  if  left  in  the  forests  exposed  will  soon  decay,  and  be 
rapidly  attacked  by  white  ants. — Beddome. 

(360)  Lagerstroemia  parviflora  (Roxh.)    Do. 

Cliinangee,  Tel. 

Description. — Tree;  branches  quadrangular;  leaves  opposite, 


LAGERSTROSMIA — LAWSONIA.  275 

entire,  from  oblong  or  oval  and  obtuse  to  ovate  and  acute,  pale 
beneath ;  peduncles  axillary,  3-6  flowered ;  calyx  6-cleft,  even ; 
petals  6,  flattish,  shortly  unguiculate ;  the  six  outer  stamens 
longer  than  the  rest ;  capsule  oblong,  3-4  celled ;  flowers  smaD, 
white,  fragrant.    Fl.  May— June.— fT.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  308.— 

Wight  Icon,  t  Q^.—Roxb.  FL  Ind.  ii.  505.— Cor.  i.  66. 

Circars.     Courtallum.    Neilgherries.    Bengal.    " 

Economic  Uses. — Of  this  large  tree  there  are  two  varieties,  one 
which  has  the  under  sides  of  the  leaves  downy,  and  the  other  having 
them  glabrous.  The  wood  is  very  hard,  and  is  reputed  to  be  an 
excellent  timber.  It  is  light  brown,  close-grained,  straight,  and 
elastic.  It  is  used  for  building,  boat-timber,  ploughs,  and  axe- 
handles. — Beddome  Flor.  Sylv.  t.  31, 

(361)  Lagerstrounia  reginB  (Roxb,)    Do.  ^  ^   ^^ 

Kadali,  Tam.    Adamboc.  Mal.    Jarool.  Beno.      -^^     i:*  ru     f^k  cloche 

Descripxion. — Tree ;  petals  6,  orbicular,  waved,  shortly  un- 
guiculate ;  leaves  opposite,  entire,  oblong,  glabrous ;  panicles 
terminal ;  calyx  6-clefb,  longitudinally  furrowed  and  plaited ; 
capsule  3-6  valved,  3-6  celled ;  seeds  numerous ;  flowers  purple 
or  rose-coloured.  Fl.  April — July. —  W.  &  A,  Prod.  i.  308. — 
Wight  Icon,  t.  4tli.—Roxh,  Cor.  i.  t  65.— Rheede,  iv.  t.  20-21. 

— Bedd,  Flor.  Sylv.  t.  29.: Circars.     Courtallum.     Travan- 

core. 

Economic  Uses. — This  is  without  exception,  when  in  blossom, 
one  of  the  most  showy  trees  of  the  Indian  forests.  It  is  now  com- 
monly cultivated  in  gardens  on  the  western  coast,  where  the  moist 
damp  climate  is  most  suitable  for  its  growth,  and  the  full  develop- 
ment of  the  rich  rose-coloured  blossoms.  In  the  forests  near  the 
banks  of  rivers  it  grows  to  an  enormous  size,  some  having  purple 
flowers,  and  forming  a  most  beautiful  and  striking  appearance.  The 
timber  is  reddish,  tough,  and  very  durable  under  water,  though  it 
soon  decays  under  ground.  It  is  much  used  for  building  and  boats. 
In  the  Madras  gun-carriage  manufactory  it  is  used  for  light  and 
heavy  field-checks,  felloes,  and  cart-naves,  framing  and  boards  of 
waggons,  timbers  and  ammunition-box  boards.  In  Burmah,  accord- 
ing to  Dr  Brandis,  it  is  more  in  use  than  any  other  timber  except 
teak,  and  is  there  used  for  a  vast  variety  of  purposes. — Beddome. 

(362)  LawBonia  alba  (Z^?w.)    Do.    G-crum, 

Henna,  Broad  Egyptian  Privet.  Eno.    Maroodanie,  Tam.    Ooounta  Chettoo.  Trt.. 
Mayndie,  Uind.    Mailanachi,  Ponta-letsche,  Mal.  -^"^ 

DEScmpnoN. — Shnib,  6-10  feet ;  calyx  4-partite ;  petals  4, 


276  LEBIDIEROPSIS — LEEA. 

unguiculate,  alternate  with  the  lobes  of  the  calyx,  obovate, 
spreading ;  stamens  in  pairs  alternating  with  the  petals ;  leaves 
opposite,  oval-lanceolate,  quite  entire,  glabrous ;  flowers  pan- 
icled ;  ovary  sessile,  4-celled  ;  capsule  globose,  3-4  celled  ;  seeds 
numerous ;  flowers  white  or  pale  greenish.  FL  Nearly  all  the 
year. —  W.  &  A,  Prod.  L  307. —  Wight  III.  t  94. — L.  spinosa, 

Linn, — L.   inermis,    Rodd), — Bheede^   i.    t.    40. Peninsula. 

Bengal. 

Medical  Usbs. — The  powdered  leaves  beaten  up  with  catechu, 
and  made  into  paste,  are  much  used  by  Mohammedan  women  to  dye 
their  nails  and  skin  a  reddish-orange.  The  colour  will  last  for  three 
or  four  weeks  before  requiring  renewal  The  plant  is  supposed  to 
possess  vulnerary  and  astringent  properties.  The  flowers  have  a 
strong  smeU,  from  which,  as  well  as  from  the  leaves  and  young 
shoots,  the  natives  prepare  a  kind  of  extract  which  they  reckon  use- 
ful in  leprosy.  The  leaves  are  also  used  externally  applied  in  cut- 
aneous affections.  In  Barbary  the  natives  use  them  for  staining  the 
tail  and  mane  of  their  horses  red.  The  plant  is  often  employed  for 
making  garden  hedges.  The  old  plants  become  somewhat  thorny, 
but  the  species  called  spinosa,  says  Roxburgh,  is  nothing  more,  pro- 
bably, than  the  same  plant  growing  in  a  dry  sterile  soil,  the  branch- 
lets  becoming  then  short  and  rigid,  with  sharp  thorny  points. — 
Ainslie,     RoxK 

(363)  LebidieropslB  orbicnlata  (Muller),     N.  0.  EuPHOHBiACiLfi. 

var.  Collina. 

Wodisha,  Tisl.    Wodagd  manim,  Tam. 

Description. — Tree  ;  leaves  elliptic  or  obovate,  round-ob- 
tuse, obtuse  or  slightly  cordate  at  the  base,  pubescent  on  the 
rib  below  ;  flowers  subsessile,  softly  grey  hairy  white ;  sepals 
oblong  triangular  ovate ;  petals  very  minute  glabrous,  irregu- 
larly rhomboid  above ;  capsules  glabrous ;  seeds  globose.  Fl. 
— March — May. — Bee.  Prod.  xv.  s.  2,  p.  509. — Cluytia  collina, 
Roodb. — Bridelia  collina,  Hook,  et  Am.  Bot.  Beech,  p.  211. — 
C.  patula  et  retusa.  Wall. Circars.     Orissa.    Concans. 

Economic  Uses. — The  wood  is  of  a  reddish  colour,  very  hard  and 
durable,  much  used  in  Eajahmandry  and  the  Northern  Circars.  The 
bark  or  outer  crust  of  the  capsules  is  said  to  be  very  poisonous. — 
Boxb. 

(SQi)  Leea  macrophylla  (Baxh.)    K  O.  Vitacrb. 

Toolsoo-moodryia,  Beno. 

Description.— Herbaceous,  4  feet ;   stems  angular ;  leaves 


LE  UCAS — LIMON I  A.  277 

simple,  stalked,  dentato-serrate,  broad-cordate  or  lobed,  pos- 
terior lobes  overiapping  each  other ;  calyx  5-cleft ;  petals  5 ; 
cymes  trichotomous,  terminal ;  flowers  numerous,  small,  white ; 
berries  depressed,  obscurely  6  or  more  lobed,  when  ripe  black 
and  succulent.  FL  June — Aug. — i2oa?6.  Fl.  Ind,  i.  653. — 
Wight  Icon,  t  1154. Bengal.     Both  Concans.     Palghaut. 

Medical  Uses. — The  root  is  astringent  and  mucilaginous,  and  is 
a  reputed  remedy  for  ringworm. — Roxh,     J,  Orah. 

(365)  Lencas  linifolia  (Spreng).    K  O.  Labiatjs. 

Description.  —  Herbaceous,  erect,  slightly  pubescent  or 
tomentose ;  leaves  oblong-linear,  entire  or  remotely  serrated  ; 
verticils  dense,  subequal,  many-flowered ;  bracts  linear,  hoary ; 
calyx  elongated  above,  mouth  very  oblique,  lower  teeth  very 
short,  upper  longest;  flowers  white.  FL  Dec. — Jan. — Dec. 
Prod.  xii.  533. — Phlomis  zeylanica,  Roxb,  Jacq.  Ic.  rar.  i.  t.  111. 
Bengal.    Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — The  Cinghalese  attribute  miraculous  curative 
powers  to  this  plant.  The  leaves  are  bruised,  and  a  teaspoonful  of 
the  juice  given,  which  is  snuffed  up  by  the  nostrils,  and  used  by  the 
natives  in  the  North- West  Provinces  as  a  remedy  in  snake-bites. 
The  fresh  juice  is  also  employed  in  headache  and  colds. — (Long. 
Ind,  Plants  of  Bengal.)  The  juice  of  the  leaves  of  the  L.  a^jera  is 
applied  successfully  in  psora  and  other  chronic  eruptions. — Pharm. 
of  India. 

(366)  Limonia  acidissiina  {Linn.)    K  0.  Aurantiacks. 

Tsjera  Caat-naregam,  Mal. 

Description. — Shrub,  6-10  feet ;  leaves  pinnate,  with  2-3 
pairs  of  leaflets  and  an  odd  one ;  leaflets  oblong,  retuse,  cren- 
ated  ;  spines  solitary ;  petioles  broadly-winged ;  flowers  cor- 
ymbose ;  corymbs  umbelliform,  2-3  together  from  the  axils  of 
the  fallen  leaves ;  petals  4 ;  fruit  globose,  size  of  a  nutmeg, 
yellowish,  but  red  when  perfectly  ripe ;  flowers  small,  white, 
fragrant.    Fl.  March — May. —  W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  92. — L.  crenu- 

lata,  Roocb.   Cor.  i.   86. — Bheede,   iv.   t.   14 Coromandel. 

Malabar.     Hurdwar.    Assam. 

Medical  Uses. — The  pulp  of  this  fruit  is  flesh-coloured,  is  very 
acid,  and  is  used  by  the  inhabitants  of  Java  instead  of  soap.  The 
leaves  are  good  in  epilepsy.     The  root  is  purgative,  sudorific,  and 


278  LINUM. 

used  in  colic  pains.  The  dried  £ruits  are  tonic,  and  said  to  resist 
contagious  air  from  small-pox,  malignant  and  pestilential  fevers,  and 
considered  an  excellent  antidote  to  various  poisons,  on  which  account 
they  are  much  sought  for,  especially  by  the  Arabs  and  other  mer- 
chants on  the  western  coast,  where  they  form  an  article  of  commerce. 
— Gibson,     Rheede. 

(367)  Linnm  usitatissimum  (lAnn.)    N.  0.  LiNACEiE. 

Common  Flax,  Eno.    Alleeveray,  Tam.     Musina,  Beno.    Tisi,  Hutd.    \J\see, 

Description. — Annual,  erect,  glabrous;  leaves  alternate, 
lanceolate  or  linear,  acute,  entire ;  panicles  corymbose  ;  sepals 
ovate,  acute  or  mucronate,  with  scarious  or  membranaceous 
margins ;  petals  slightly  crenated,  three  times  larger  than  the 
calyx ;  stamens  alternate  with  the  petals,  having  their  fila- 
ments united  together  near  their  basis;  capsule  roundish, 
pointed  at  the  apex,  5-celled,  each  cell  divided  into  two  parti- 
tions, containing  a  single  seed ;  seeds  oval,  smooth,  brown  on 
white,  mucilaginous  outside,  with  oily  and  farinaceous  kernels ; 
flowers  blue.    FL  Dec— Feb.— JT.  &  A.  Prod,  i.  134— iJoa*^ 

Fl.  Ind,  ii.  100. Neilgherries.      Cultivated  in  Northern 

India. 

Medical  Uses. — An  oil  is  expressed  from  the  seeds  without  heat 
As  the  oil  made  in  India  has  not  the  full  drying  properties  of  that 
prepared  in  Europe,  a  considerable  quantity  of  the  seeds  is  imported. 
This  arises  from  the  Indian  seeds  being  mixed  with  those  of  mus- 
tard, with  which  they  are  grown,  the  mixture  deteriorating  the 
quality  of  the  oil.  The  oil-cake  made  from  the  seeds  after  the  ex- 
pression of  the  oil  is  very  fattening  food  for  cattle.  Linseed-meal  is 
the  cake  coarsely  pulverised,  and  is  used  for  making  emollient 
poultices.  European  practitioners  in  this  country  consider  linseed  a 
valuable  demulcent,  according  to  Ainslie,  and  is  useful  in  diarrhoea, 
catarrh,  dysentery,  and  visceral  obstructions.  A  decoction  of  the 
seeds  forms  an  excellent  enema  in  abrasion  of  the  intestines.  The 
meal  of  the  seeds  is  used  for  cataplasms ;  the  oil  mixed  with  lime- 
water  (carron  oil)  has  been  a  favourable  application  to  bums  and 
scalds.  Linseed-oil  is  one  of  the  chief  ingredients  in  oil  varnishes 
and  painters*  inks ;  by  boiling  wdth  litharge  its  drying  properties  are 
much  improved.  The  inferior  seeds  which  are  not  sufficiently  good 
for  oil  are  boiled  and  made  into  a  flax-seed  jelly,  esteemed  an  excel- 
lent nutriment  for  stock.  Linseed  contains  l-5th  of  mucilage,  l-6th 
of  fixed  oil.  The  former  resides  entirely  in  the  skin,  and  is  separ- 
ated by  infusion  or  decoction,  the  latter  by  expression. — Simmonds, 
Ainslie, 


LINUM.  279 

Economic  Uses. — Tlie  native  country  of  the  flax-plant  is  unknown, 
though  it  has  been  considered  as  indigenous  to  Central  Asia,  from 
whence  it  has  spread  to  Europe,  as  well  as  to  the  surrounding 
Oriental  countries.  For  centuries  it  has  been  cultivated  in  India, 
though,  strange  to  say,  for  its  seeds  alone  ;  whereas  in  Europe  it  is 
chiefly  sown  for  the  sake  of  its  fibres.  The  best  flax  comes  from 
Russia,  Belgium,  and  of  late  years  from  Ireland,  where  it  has  been 
cultivated  with  the  greatest  success.  Much  attention  has  lately  been 
directed  to  the  sowing  of  the  flax-plant  in  India  for  the  sake  of  the 
fibres;  and  although  the  experiments  hitherto  made  have  not  in 
every  case  met  with  that  success  which  was  anticipated,  yet  there 
seems  little  reason  to  doubt  that  when  the  causes  of  the  failure  are 
well  ascertained,  and  the  apparent  difficulties  overcome,  that  flax 
will  be  as  profitably  cultivated  on  the  continent  of  India  as  it  is  in 
Europe ;  while  European  cultivators  must  eventually  supersede  the 
rj'ots,  whose  obstinate  prejudice  to  the  introduction  of  novelty  is  fatal 
to  any  improvement  at  their  hands. 

As  their  object  is  solely  to  plant  for  the  seeds  alone,  they  gener- 
ally mix  the  latter  with  other  crops,  usually  mustard,  a  system  which 
could  never  be  persisted  in  when  the  object  is  for  fibres.  Among 
those  parts  of  India  where  flax  has  best  succeeded  may  be  men- 
tioned the  Saugor  and  Nerbudda  territories,  Burdwan  and  Jubbul- 
pore.  In  the  former  districts  especially  the  rich  soil  and  temperate 
climate  are  peculiarly  favourable  for  its  growth.  In  the  Punjaub  also 
its  cultivation  has  been  attended  with  the  most  successful  results,  as 
appears  from  the  report  of  Dr  Jamieson,  who  says :  "  For  some 
years  I  have  been  cultivating  flax  on  a  small  scale,  from  seeds  pro- 
cured from  Russia,  and  its  fibres  have  been  pronounced  by  parties 
in  Calcutta  of  a  very  superior  description.  There  is  nothing  to  pre- 
vent this  country  from  supplying  both  flax  and  hemp  on  a  vast  scale. 
In  the  Punjaub  thousands  of  acres  are  available ;  and  from  the 
means  of  producing  both  flax  and  hemp,  this  part  of  India  will 
always  be  able  to  compete  with  other  countries."  In  the  Madras 
Presidency  it  has  been  grown  with  the  best  results  on  the  Neil- 
gherries  and  Shevaroy  Hills,  near  Salem  ;  and  it  would  probably 
succeed  equally  well  wherever  the  temperature  is  low,  accompanied 
with  considerable  moisture  in  the  atmosphere.  The  chief  reason  of 
the  failures  of  the  crops  in  Bengal  and  Behar  was  owing  to  the  want 
of  sufficient  moisture  after  the  cessation  of  the  rains  during  the 
growth  of  the  plant.  In  the  Bombay  Presidency  it  has  been  grown 
for  the  seeds  alone.  In  India  the  time  of  sowing  is  the  autumn. 
The  soil  should  be  of  that  character  which  retains  its  moisture, 
though  not  in  an  excessive  degree.  If  not  rich,  manure  must  be 
amply  supplied,  and  the  plant  kept  free  from  all  weeds.  The  best 
seeds  procurable  should  be  selected,  of  which  the  Dutch  and  American 
are  reckoned  superior  for  this  country.  Dr  Roxburgh  was  the  first 
who  attempted  the  cultivation  of  flax  in  India.  In  the  early  part  of 
this  century  he  had  an  experimental  farm  in  the  neighbourhood  of 


280  LINUM. 

Calcutta.  Since  his  day  the  impiovements  which  have  taken  place, 
resulting  from  extended  observation  and  experience,  have  of  course 
been  very  great,  and  specimens  of  flax  which  have  been  sent  from 
Calcutta  to  the  United  Kingdom  have  been  valued  at  rates  varying 
from  £30  to  £60  a-ton. 

The  following  information  on  the  mode  of  the  culture  of  flax  in 
India  is  selected  from  a  report  made  by  Mr  Denreef,  a  Belgian 
farmer,  whose  practical  experience  in  this  country  enabled  him  to 
be  a  correct  judge,  and  whose  report  is  printed  entire  in  the  Journal 
of  the  Agri-Horticultural  Society  of  Bengal.  Such  portions  of  land 
as  are  annually  renewed  by  the  overflowing  of  the  Ganges,  or  which 
are  fresh  and  rich,  are  the  best  adapted  for  the  cultivation  of  flax. 

After  the  earth  has  been  turned  up  twice  or  thrice  with  the  Indian 
plough,  it  must  be  rolled ;  because  without  the  aid  of  the  roller  the 
large  clods  cannot  be  reduced,  and  the  land  rendered  fine  enough  to 
receive  the  seed.  The  employment  of  the  roller,  both  before  and 
after  sowing,  hardens  the  surface  of  the  earth,  by  which  the  moisture 
of  the  soil  is  better  preserved,  and  more  sheltered  from  the  heat  of 
the  sun.  About  and  near  Calcutta,  where  manure  can  be  obtained 
in  great  abundance  for  the  trouble  of  collecting  it,  flax  may  be  pro- 
duced of  as  good  a  quality  as  in  any  part  of  Europe. 

Manure  is  the  mainspring  of  cultivation.  It  would  certainly  be 
the  better,  if  the  earth  be  well  manured,  to  sow  first  of  all  either 
Sunn  (Indian  hemp),  or  hemp,  or  rice,  or  any  other  rainy-season 
crop ;  and  when  this  has  been  reaped,  then  to  sow  the  flax.  The 
tillage  of  the  land  by  means  of  the  spade  (mamoty)  used  by  the 
natives  (a  method  which  is  far  preferable  to  the  labour  of  the  plough), 
with  a  little  manure  and  watering  at  proper  seasons,  will  yield 
double  the  produce  obtainable  from  land  tilled  without  manure  and 
irrigation. 

The  proper  time  to  sow  the  flax  in  India  is  from  the  beginning  of 
October  until  the  20th  of  November,  according  to  the  state  of  the 
soiL  The  culture  must  be  performed,  if  possible,  some  time  before 
the  soil  The  flax  which  I  have  sown  in  November  was  generally 
much  flner  and  much  longer  than  that  sown  in  the  former  month, 
which  I  attributed  to  the  greater  fall  of  dew  during  the  time  it  was 
growing.  The  quantity  of  country  seed  required  to  the  Bengal  beega 
is  twenty  seers,  but  only  fifteen  seers  of  the  foreign  seed,  because  it 
is  much  smaller  and  produces  larger  stalks.  The  latter  should  be 
preferred ;  it  is  not  only  more  productive  in  flax,  but,  owing  to  the 
tenderness  of  its  stalks,  it  can  be  dressed  much  more  easily. 

The  flfi^  must  be  pulled  up  by  the  roots  before  it  is  ripe,  and  while 
the  outer  bark  is  in  a  state  of  fusibility.  This  is  easUy  known  by 
the  lower  part  of  the  stalks  becoming  yellow ;  the  fusion  or  disappear- 
ing of  the  outer  bark  is  effected  during  the  steeping,  which  may  be 
fixed  according  to  the  temperature ;  say,  in  December  at  six  days, 
in  January  five,  in  February  four  days,  and  less  time  during  the  hot 
season.     The  steeping  is  made  a  day  after  the  pulling,  when  the  seed 


LOBELIA.  281 

is  separated,  and  then  the  stalks  are  loosely  bound  in  small  sheaves, 
in  the  same  way  as  the  Sunn,  The  Indians  understand  this  business 
very  well,  but  in  taking  the  flax  out  of  the  water  it  should  be 
handled  softly  and  with  great  care,  on  account  of  the  tenderness  of 
its  fibres.  When  it  is  newly  taken  out,  it  should  be  left  on  the  side 
of  the  steeping-pit  for  four  hours,  or  until  the  draining  of  its  water 
has  ceased.  It  is  then  spread  out  with  the  root-ends  even  turned 
once,  and  when  dry  it  is  tit  for  dressing  or  to  be  stapled. 

To  save  the  seed,  the  capsules,  after  they  are  separated  from  the 
stalks,  should  be  put  in  heaps  to  ferment  from  twenty-four  to  thirty 
hours,  and  then  dried  slowly  in  the  sun  to  acquire  their  ripeness. 

When  flax  is  cultivated  for  the  seed  alone,  the  country  flax  should 
be  preferred.  Six  seers  per  beega  are  sufficient  for  the  sowing.  It 
should  be  sown  very  early  in  October,  and  taken  up,  a  little  before 
perfect  ripeness,  by  its  roots,  separately,  when  it  is  mixed  with 
mustard  seeds :  the  flax  seed,  being  intended  for  the  purpose  of  dry- 
ing oil,  is  greatly  injured  by  being  mixed  with  mustard  seed,  by 
which  mixture  its  drying  qualities  are  much  deteriorated. 

The  oil  which  is  procured  from  the  seeds,  and  known  as  Linseed 
oil,  is  obtained  in  two  ways — either  cold  drawn,  when  it  is  of  a  pale 
colour,  or  by  the  application  of  heat  at  a  temperature  of  not  less  than 
200®.  This  latter  is  of  a  deeper  yellow  or  brownish  colour,  and  is 
disagreeable  in  its  odour.  One  bushel  of  East  Indian  seeds  will 
yield  14|  lb.  of  oil;  of  English  seeds,  fix)m  10  to  12  lb.  Nearly 
100,000  quarters  of  seeds  are  annually  exported  to  Great  Britain  for 
the  sake  of  the  oil  they  contain.  Great  quantities  are  also  shipped 
from  Bombay,  where  the  plant  is  cultivated  for  the  sake  of  its  seeds 
alone.  The  export  of  linseed  from  Bombay,  says  Dr  Royle,  is  now 
estimated  at  an  annual  value  of  four  lacs  of  rupees. — Simmonds. 
Ainslie,     Lindley. 

(368)  Lobelia  nicotianodfolia  (Heyne).    N.  0.  LoBELiACEiE. 

Dawul,  Deonul,  Boke-nul,  Mahr. 

Description. — Stem  erect ;  leaves  subsessile,  oblong,  lanceo- 
late, denticulate,  narrowed  at  the  base,  acuminated ;  racemes 
many-flowered ;  bracts  leafy ;  pedicels  slightly  longer  than  the 
bract,  bibracteolate  in  the  middle ;  sepals  lanceolate  serrated ; 
coroUa  pubescent,  lateral  lobes  long-linear,  centre  ones  lanceo- 
late ;  two  lower  anthers  penicillate  at  the  apex ;  flowers  purple. 
— Dec.  Prod.  vii.  381. — Drury  Eandb.  ii.  109. —  Wight  Blustr. 
t  135. Neilgherries.     Canara. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  seeds  of  this  plant,  which  is  found  on  the 
mountain-ranges  of  the  Peninsula  and  Ceylon,  are  extremely  acrid. 
An  infusion  of  the  leaves  is  used  by  the  natives  as  an  antispasmodic. 
— Pharm.  of  India. 


282  LUFFA. 

(369)  Lnfiia  acutangula  (RoxK)    N.  O.  Cucurbitacrs. 

Torooi,  Hind.    Jhmgo,  Beno.    Beer-kai,  Tel.    Peeclienggab,  Mal.    Peekon- 
kai,  Tam. 

Description. — Climbing ;  stems  glabrous ;  leaves  5-angled 
or  5-lobed ;  male  racemes  long  peduncled ;  stamens  distinct ; 
calyx  segments  of  the  female  flowers  covered  with  glands ; 
fruit  (about  1  foot  long  and  2-3  inches  thick)  clavate,  obtusei, 
or  shortly  pointed,  pretty  smooth,  10-angled,  the  angles  sharp 
and  smooth ;  seeds  (black)  irregularly  pitted,  2-lobed  at  the 
base;  flowers  large,  yellow.  FL  Nearly  all  the  year. — W,  <fe 
A,  Prod.  i.   343. — Roxh.   FL  Ind.  iii.   713. — Cucumis  acut- 

angulus,  Linn. — Rheede,  viii.  t  7. Peninsula.     Hedges  and 

waste  lands.     Cultivated. 

Economic  Uses. — The  lialf-grown  fruit  is  one  of  the  best  native 
vegetables  in  India.  The  natives  use  it  much  in  their  curries. 
Peeled,  boiled,  and  dressed  with  butter,  pepper,  and  salt,  it  is  little 
inferior  to  boiled  peas. — Roxh, 

(370)  Lnffa  amara  {Roxh.)    Do. 

Kerula,  Hind.    Sendu-beer-kai,  Tel.    Tito-dlioondhool,  Benq. 

Description. — Climbing;  stems  slender;  leaves  a  little 
scabrous,  roundish-cordate,  slightly  5-7  lobed ;  calyx  5-toothed; 
petals  5,  distinct ;  male  racemes  long  peduncled ;  fruit  oblong, 
tapering  towards  each  end,  acutely  10-angled ;  seeds  blackish 
grey,  marked  with  elevated  minute  black  dots ;  margin  turned, 
2-lobed  at  the  base ;  flowers  large,  yellow.     FL  Aug. — Oct. — 

W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  343. — Roxh.  FL  Ind.  iii  715. Peninsula. 

Bengal. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  is  bitter  in  every  part.  The  fruit  is 
violently  cathartic  and  emetic,  and  the  juice  of  the  young  roasted  fruit 
is  applied  by  the  natives  to  their  temples  in  cases  of  headache.  The 
seeds  in  substance  or  infusion  are  used  as  emeto-cathartic. — (Roxh.) 
Dr  Green  states  that  the  plant  is  not  only  a  grateful  bitter  tonic, 
but  a  powerful  diuretic  when  given  in  infusion  in  doses  of  from  one 
to  two  fluid  ounces  three  or  four  times  a-day,  two  drachms  of  the 
fresh  stalks  being  put  to  one  pint  of  boiling  water.  Combined  with 
nitro-hydrochloric  acid,  he  found  it  useful  in  dropsy  supervening  on 
enlargement  of  the  spleen  and  liver  from  malarious  poison. — {Pharm. 
of  India.)  The  L.  pentandra  is  edible.  In  the  Peshawur  valley 
the  seeds  are  given,  mixed  with  black  pepper  in  warm  water,  as 
emetic  or  cathartic. — Stewart  Punj.  Plants. 


LUMNITZERA.  283 

(371)  Lnmnitzera  racemosa  (Willd.)    N.  0.  CoMBRETACEie. 

Eida  Eande],  Mal. 

Description. — Tree;  calyx  5 -cleft;  segments  rounded; 
petals  5,  acute,  inserted  on  the  calyx  and  longer  than  it ;  leaves 
alternate,  cuneate-obovate,  alternated  at  the  base  into  a  short 
petiole,  glabrous,  thick  and  somewhat  fleshy ;  spikes  axillaiy, 
5  stamens  longer  than  the  other  alternating  ones,  and  about  the 
length  of  the  petals ;  drupe  clove-shaped,  ovate-oblong,  bluntly 
angled,  crowned  with  the  calyx ;  nut  linear-oblong  angled,  1- 
seeded ;  flowers  small  white. —  W,  &  A.  Prod.  i.  316. — Petaloma 
alternifolia,  Roxh, — Bruguiera  Madagascariensis,  Dec. — Bheede, 

vi.  t.  37. Salt-marshes  in  the  S.  provinces  and  Malabar. 

S.  Concans.     Sunderbunds. 

Economic  Uses. — The  timber  is  very  strong  and  durable,  and  is 
used  as  fuel  in  Calcutta,  where  it  is  brought  in  great  quantities  from 
the  Sunderbunds.  It  grows  in  the  backwater  in  Cochin  among 
species  of  Rhizophora. — Boxb.     Wight 


284 


M 
(372)  Maba  buxifolia  (Pers.)    K  0.  Ebbnacea 

Erumbelie,  Tam.    Pishanna,  Tel. 

Description. — Shrub  or  small  tree ;  leaves  alternate,  oval, 
entire,  smooth ;  male  flowers  axDlary  in  the  lower  leaves, 
3-fold,  sessile,  white;  calyx  3-cleft;  corolla  3 -cleft,  hairy; 
stamens  6,  short,  inserted  round  a  semi -globose  receptacle ; 
female  flowers  axillary,  sessile,  white  or  yellowish,  very  small ; 
style  1 ;  berry  round,  smooth,  pulpy,  size  of  a  pea ;  seeds  2, 
flat  on  one  side.  FL  March — June. — Wight  Icon,  t.  763. — 
Ferreola  buxifolia,  Roxb,  Cor,  i.  t,  45. Circar  Mountains. 

Economic  Uses. — The  berries  are  edible,  and  agreeable  to  the  taste. 
The  wood  is  dark-coloured,  very  hard  and  durable,  and  useful  for 
various  economical  purposes. — Eoxb, 

(373)  Macaranga  Indica  (R  W.)    K.  0.  Euphorbiacks. 

Vuttathamaray,  Tah.     Putta-thaniara,  Mal. 

Description.  —  Tree  ;  leaves  stipuled,  peltate ;  stipules 
paired,  broad-ovate,  cuspidate ;  male  flowers  panicled,  glome- 
rate; bracts  petioled,  glandulose ;  calyx  3 -parted,  pubescent; 
stamens  6-8;  female  panicles  axillary;  flowers  solitary  or 
paired,  pedicelled,  bracteate ;  style  1 ;  ovary  1-celled ;  calyx 
4-parted ;  capsule  covered  with  resinous  points,  flowers  green- 

isL    Fl.  Dec. — Jan. —  Wight  Icon,  t,  1883. Neilgherries. 

Travancore. 

Economic  Uses.  —  A  gummy  substance  exudes  fix)m  the  cut 
branches  and  base  of  the  petioles.  It  is  of  a  light  crimson  colour, 
and  has  been  used  for  taking  impressions  of  leaves,  coins,  and  medal- 
lions. When  the  gum  is  pure  and  carefully  prepared  the  impressions 
are  as  sharp  as  those  of  sulphur  without  its  brittleness.  This  sub- 
stance is  very  little  known.  The  M,  tomentosa  is  also  to  be  found 
in  Travancore,  and  a  similar  gum  exudes  from  both  species.  The 
leaves  afford  a  good  rilanure  for  rice-fields,  and  are  much  used  for 
that  purpose.  Coffee-trees  thrive  well  if  planted  under  the  shade  of 
these  trees,  as  the  fallen  leaves,  which  are  large,  enrich  the  soil — 
Jury  Rep,  Mad,  Exhih,     Pers,  Ohs, 


MALLOTUS.  285 


(374)  MaUotns  PMlippensis  (Muller).    Do. 

Ponnagam,  Mal.     Capilapodi,  Tam.     Yassuntagimda,  Tjcl.     Eamal,  Hind. 
Toong,  BKNO. 

Description. — Small  tree  or  under-shrub ;  younger  branch- 
lets,  petioles,  and  inflorescences  rusty  -  tomentose ;  leaves 
rhomb-ovate,  acuminate,  acute  at  the  base,  entire  or  slightly 
toothed,  clothed  with  scarlet  tomentum  beneath,  glabrous 
above ;  spikes  of  either  sex  axillary  and  terminal,  rusty- 
tomentose;  male  bracts  3-flowered,  female  1-flowered:  bracts 
triangular-ovate,  acute ;  segments  of  the  female  calyx  ovate- 
lanceolate;  stamens  12-15;  ovary  densely  scarlet;  capsules 
slightly  3-comered,  globose,  covered  with  scarlet  dust.    Dec. 

Prod.  XV.  s.  2,  p.  980. — Eottlera  tinctoria,  Bopcb, Common 

almost  everywhere. 

Medic  A.L  Uses. — ^The  mealy  powder  covering  the  capsules  yields 
a  dye  caUed  Kamila  dye,  which  is  used  as  a  vermifuge,  and  whose 
action,  according  to  Dr  Eoyle,  depends  on  the  minute  stellate  hairs 
found  in  the  powder.  Kamila  is  the  powder  rubbed  off  the  capsules, 
and  which  is  also  found,  though  in  smaller  quantities,  on  the  leaves 
and  stalks  of  the  plant.  The  powder  is  of  a  rich  red  colour,  and  has 
a  heavy  odour. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  dye  is  used  all  over  India,  especially  for 
silk,  to  which  it  imparts  a  fine  yellow  colour.  It  is  rarely  used  for 
cotton.  When  the  capsules  are  ripe  in  February  or  March  they  are 
gathered ;  the  red  powder  is  carefully  brushed  off  and  collected  for 
sale,  no  preparation  being  necessary.  This  substance  is  scareely 
acted  on  by  water,  and  has  no  particular  taste.  To  spirit  it  gives  a 
rich  deep  orange,  inclining  to  red.  Neither  spirit  nor  alkaline  solu- 
tion dissolves  it,  for  the  minute  grains  of  powder  are  seen  adhering 
to  the  sides  of  the  vessels  if  shaken,  about  the  size  of  small  grains  of 
sand.  Alum  added  to  the  alkahne  infusion  renders  the  colour  more 
bright  and  permanent  The  Hindoo  silk -dyers  use  the  following 
method  : — Four  parts  of  powder,  one  of  powdered  alum,  two  of  salts 
of  soda  (sold  in  the  bazaars),  rubbed  well  together  with  a  small 
quantity  of  oil  of  sesamum.  When  well  mixed  it  is  boiled  in  water 
proportionate  to  the  silk  to  be  dyed,  and  kept  boiling  smartly,  accord- 
ing to  the  shade  required,  turning  the  silk  frequently  to  render  the 
colour  uniform.  Of  the  dye  which  is  called  Cupda-Mung  in  Hin- 
dustanee,  the  jurors  at  the  Madras  Exhibition  reported  as  foUows : — 
"  The  tree  is  widely  spread  over  the  Madras  Presidency,  and  large 
supplies  of  the  dye  might  be  easily  obtained.  The  colouring  matter 
does  not  require  a  mordant,  all  that  is  necessary  being  to  mix  it  with 
water  containing  about  half  its  weight  of  carbonate  of  soda.  On  silk 
the  colour  is  a  rich  flame  or  orange  tint  of  great  beauty  and  extreme 


286  MALVA — MANGIFERA. 

stability ;"  and  "  the  fact  that  the  material  supplied  by  commerce 
contains  between  70  and  80  per  cent  of  real  colouring  matter  ought 
to  induce  the  silk-dyers  of  this  country  to  turn  their  attention  to 
it."* — Roxh,     Jury  Rep.  Mad,  Exhib, 

(375)  lial¥a  rotnndifolia  (Linn.)    K.  0.  Malvaoeje. 

Description. — ^Annual;  steins  herbaceous,  spreading;  leaves 
cordate,  roundish,  shortly  and  obtusely  Igbed,  crenated  ;  peti- 
oles elongated,  sometimes  with  a  line  of  hairs  on  their  upper 
side;  pedicels  several,  unequal,  axillary,  l-flowered;  bracteoles 
3  ;  carpels  much  wrinkled ;  flowers  middle-sized,  pale  purple. 
M.  Feb.— March.— TT.  &  A.  Prod.  L  io.—Dec.  Prod.  I  433. 
Peninsula. 

Medical  UsEsi  —  The  mucilaginous  and  emollient  leaves  are 
used  for  poultices,  and  also  as  an  external  application  in  cutaneous 
diseases.  The  natives  reckon  them  useful  in  piles,  and  also  in  ulcera- 
tions of  the  bladder. — Powell  Punj.  Prod. 

(376)  Mangifera  Indica  {Linn.)    K.  0.  TEREBiNTHACEiE. 

Common  Mango,  Eko.  Am,  Beno.  and  Hind.  Mamadichitoo,  Tkl.  Mava,  Mal. 
Mam-manim,  Tam. 

Description. — Tree;  leaves  alternate, lanceolate,  acuminated, 
glabrous  ;  calyx  5  -  cleft ;  petals  5  ;  panicles  terminal,  much 
branched,  pubescent,  erect ;  drupe  obliquely-oblong  or  some- 
what reniform  ;  seed  solitary ;  flowers  small,  greenish-yellow- 
ish. Ft.  Jaa— March.— ir.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  110.— Roxb.  Ft. 
Ind.  i.  641. — Rheede,  iv.  t.  1,  2. Common  everywhere. 

Medical  Uses. — The  kernel  of  the  fruit  is  used  in  India  as  well 
as  in  Brazil  as  an  anthelmintic.  Dr  Kirkpatrick  states  having  used 
it  in  this  character  in  doses  of  20  to  30  grains,  and  found  it  most 
effectual  in  expelling  lumbricL  It  contains  a  large  proportion  of 
gallic  acid,  and  has  been  successfully  administered  in  bleeding  piles 
and  menorrhagia.  —  {Pharm.  of  India.)  As  the  fruit  contains 
much  acid  and  turpentine,  it  acts  as  a  diaphoretic  and  refrigerant. 
— (Powell  Punj.  Prod.)  From  wounds  in  the  bark  issues  a  soft 
reddish-brown  gum-resin,  hardening  by  age,  and  much  resembling 
bdellium.  Burnt  in  the  flame  of  a  candle,  it  emits  a  smell  like  that 
of  cashew-nuts  when  roasting.  It  softens  in  the  mouth  and  adheres 
to  the  teeth,  and  in  taste  is  somewhat  pungent  and  bitter.     It  dis- 

•  For  a  careful  report  on  the  colouring  matter,  see  Anderson  in  Ed.  Phil. 
Jour.,  April  1858 ;  and  for  its  vermifuge  properties,  ace  Indian  Annals  of  Medical 
Science.     Also  a  valuable  paper  by  D.  Hanbur}'^  in  the  Phami.  Journal. 


MANISURIS.  28  7 

solves  entirely  in  spirit,  and  partly  so  in  water.  Mixed  with  lime- 
juice  or  oil,  it  is  used  externally  in  scabies  and  cutaneous  affections. 
The  bark  of  the  tree  is  administered  in  infusion  in  menorrhagia  and 
leucorrhoea;  and  the  resinous  juice,  mixed  with  white  of  egg  and  a 
little  opium,  is  considered  a  good  specitic  on  the  Malabar  coast  for 
diarrhoea  and  dysentery. — Aindie. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  Mango  is  well  known  as  the  most  delicious 
of  Indian  fruits.  It  is  esteemed  very  wholesome,  and  when  unripe 
is  much  used  in  tarts,  preserves,  and  pickles.  There  are  many  varie- 
ties, all  more  or  more  less  having  a  peculiar  turpentine  flavour,  though 
the  best  kinds  are  generally  free  from  it.  The  kernels  of  the  nut 
seemingly  contain  much  nourishment,  but  are  only  used  in  times  of 
scarcity  and  famine,  when  they  are  boiled  and  eaten  by  the  poorer 
classes.  In  the  pulp  of  the  fruit  there  is  sugar,  gum,  and  citric  acid; 
gallic  acid  has  also  been  procured  from  the  seed,  and  also  stearic 
acid.  Interesting  experiments  were  made  some  time  ago,  by  a  French 
chemist,  upon  the  process  of  procuring  the  gallic  acid,  which  he 
stated  might  be  used  in  the  preparation  of  ink  instead  of  galls. 
Whenever  the  fruit  is  cut  with  a  knife,  a  blue  stain  is  seen  on  the 
blade,  which  is  due  to  the  presence  of  gallic  acid.  The  timber  is 
soft,  of  a  dull-grey  colour,  porous,  soon  decaying  if  exposed  to  wet, 
but  useful  for  common  purposes.  In  largo  old  trees  the  wood 
acquires  a  light  chocolate  colour  towards  the  centre  of  the  trunk  and 
larger  branches,  and  is  then  hard,  close-grained  and  somewhat  dur- 
able. The  Mango-tree  is  best  propagated  by  grafting,  though  it  will 
readily  grow  from  seeds.  In  the  latter  case  the  seed  must  be  sown 
soon  after  it  is  taken  from  the  &uit,  but  the  produce  is  so  inferior 
that  it  is  hardly  worth  the  trouble  bestowed  upon  it.  The  wood, 
burnt  with  sandal-wood,  is  one  of  those  used  by  the  Hindoos  for 
burning  corpses,  and  is  reckoned  sacred  for  this  purpose.  The 
natives  use  the  leaves  as  tooth-brushes,  and  the  stalks  instead  of 
betel  for  chewing :  powdered  and  "calcined,  they  employ  the  latter 
also  to  take  away  warts. — Moxb,  Journ,  of  As,  Soc, 

(377)  Manisarifl  granularis  (Linn,)    K.  0.  Graminacks. 

Trinpali,  Hind. 

Description. — Height  1-2  feet ;  culm  very  resinous,  sub- 
erect,  hairy;  spikes  terminal  and  axillary,  several  together,  1 
inch  in  length;  leaves  numerous,  very  hairy,  stiff,  sharp;  rachis 
jointed,  much  waved ;  flowers  male  and  hermaphrodite,  4-10 
of  each  sort.  Fl,  Oct. — Dec. — Roxb.  Fl.  hid,  i.  352. — Cor,  ii. 
t.  118. — Peltophorus  granularis,  Beauv. Peninsula.    Behar. 

Medical  Uses.  —  This  plant  is  medicinal,  and  is  administered 
internally,  in  conjunction  with  sweet-oil,  in  cases  of  spleen  and  liver- 
complaints.  — A  inslie. 


288  M  AUANTA  — MABSDENIA. 

(378)  liaranta  dichotoma  (Wall,)    K  0.  Marantaoks. 

Mookto-patee,  Pattee  patee  or  Madarpatee,  BsNO. 

Description. — Stems  straight,  3-6  feet,  very  smooth  polished; 
branches  numerous,  dichotomous,  spreading,  jointed  at  every 
division;  leaves  alternate,  petioled,  ovate-cordate,  smooth, 
entire,  acute,  with  fine  parallel  veins;  petioles  sheathing; 
racemes  terminal,  usually  solitary,  jointed,  a  little  flexuose ; 
flowers  in  pairs  on  a  common  pedicel,  from  the  alternate  joints 
of  the  rachis ;  calyx  3-leaved ;  border  of  coroUa  double,  ex- 
terior of  3  equal,  recurved  segments,  interior  of  5  unequal 
ones  far  extending  above  the  rest;  flowers  large,  white.  Fl. 
April — May. — Boxb.  Fl,  Ind.  i  2. — Phrynium  dichotomum, 
Roai. Coromandel.     Bengal. 

Economic  Uses. — The  split  stems  are  very  tough,  and  from  them 
are  made  the  Calcutta  mats  called  Sital-pati^  which  signifies  a  cool 
mat.  The  stems  are  4  feet  long,  thin  as  paper,  shining  and  striated 
in  the  inside. — Golebrooke  In,  As,  Res,     Roxh, 

(379)  Marsdenia  tenacissima  {R.  W,)    N.  0.  Asolepiao&£. 

Description. — Twining ;  corolla  salver-shaped  ;  leaves  op- 
posite, cordate,  acuminate,  tomentose  on  both  surfaces ;  cymes 
large ;  segments  of  corolla  broad,  obtuse ;  leaflets  of  corona 
broad,  truncate,  nearly  entire  at  the  apex,  or  bifurcate ;  flowers 
greenish  yellow.  Fl,  April — Wight  Contrib,  p.  41. — Icon,  t, 
590. — Asclepias  tenacissima,  Roxb,  FL  Ind.  ii.  51. — Cor.  iii 
t,  240. EajmahaL     Chittagong.    Mysore. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  bark  of  the  young  shoots  yields  a  large 
portion  of  beautiful  fine  silky  fibres,  with  which  the  mountaineers 
of  Eajmahal  make  their  bowstrings,  on  account  of  their  great  strength 
and  durability.  These  fibres  are  much  stronger  than  hemp,  and 
even  than  those  of  the  Sanseveria  Zeylanica,  A  line  of  this  sub- 
stance broke  with  248  lb.  when  dry,  and  343  lb.  when  wet.  Wight 
considers  this  species  not  to  be  a  native  of  the  Peninsula.  The 
specimens  in  the  Madras  herbarium  are — ^the  one  from  the  mission- 
ary's garden ;  the  other  (A,  echinata)  was  sent  to  Klein  by  Heyne, 
but  is  not  the  plant  of  Eoxburgh.  The  milk  exuding  from  wounds 
made  in  the  stem  thickens  into  an  elastic  substance,  acting  like 
caoutchouc  on  black-lead  marks. — (Roxb,  Wight)  Another  species, 
the  M.  tinctoria,  is  cultivated  in  Northern  India,  being  a  native  of 
Silhet  and  Burmah.     The  leaves  yield  more  and  superior  indigo  to 


MELANTHESA MELIA.  289 

the  Indigofera  tinctoria,  on  which  account  it  has  been  recommended 
for  more  extensive  cultivation. — Boxb.     Wight 

(380)  Melanthesa  rhaxnnoides  (Reiz,)    N.  0.  Euphorbiace^. 

Pavala-poola^  Tam.    Surasaruni,  Hikd. 

I)escription. — Shrub;  leaves  oval,  rounded  at  the  apex, 
acute  at  the  base,  glabrous ;  peduncles  axillary,  the  inferior 
ones  paired,  male,  upper  ones  solitary,  female,  about  the 
length  of  the  petiole ;  fruit  embraced  by  the  short  calyx ; 
berries  globose,  bright  red,  mealy  when  ripe ;  flowers  small, 
greenish.  Fl,  Nearly  all  the  year. —  Wight  Icon,  t  1898. — P. 
Vitis  Idoea. — Roxh,  Fl.  Ind.  iii.  665.- Coromandel  coast. 

Medical  Uses. — The  bright-red  fruits  give  this  shrub  a  rather 
lively  and  attractive  appearance.  The  leaves  are  used  by  Hindoo 
practitioners  in  discussing  tumours,  especially  carbuncles,  applied 
warm  with  castor-oiL  In  Behar  the  dried  leaves  are  smoked  as 
tobacco  when  the  uvida  and  tonsils  are  swollen.  The  bark  of  tlie 
root  mixed  with  long-pepper  and  ginger  is  drunk  as  a  tonic. — Rheede. 
Ainslie,     Wight 

(381)  Melia  azedarach  (Linn,)    N.  0.  MELucEiE.      ^ 

Common  Bead-tree  or  Persian  Lilac,  Eira.    Malay-vaymboo,  Tam.  ySPwmka  vepa, 
Tel.    Mullay  vaempoo,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree,  40  feet ;  petals  5,  nearly  glabrous ; 
calyx  small,  5-cleft;  stamen  tube  lO-cleft;  leaves  alternate, 
bipinnate,  deciduous ;  leaflets  about  5  together,  obliquely 
ovate-lanceolate,  serrated,  finely  acuminated,  glabrous;  ped- 
uncles axillary,  simple  below,  above  panicled,  branched,  and 
many-flowered ;  flowers  smallish,  white  externally,  lilac  at  the 
top,  fragrant ;  fruit  size  of  a  cherry,  pale  yellow  when  ripe ; 
nut  6-celled;  cells  1 -seeded.     FL  March. —  W,&A.Prod.  i. 

117. — Wight  Icon,  t.  160. Common  in  the  Deccan.     Con- 

cans.     N.  India. 

Medical  Uses. — The  pulp  surrounding  the  seeds  is  said  to  be 
poisonous,  and,  mixed  with  grease,  is  reputed  to  kill  dogs.  This, 
however,  is  doubtful  The  root,  which  is  nauseous  and  bitter,  is 
used  in  North  America  as  an  anthelmintic.  A  valuable  oU  is  pro- 
cured from  them. — (Ainslie.  Lindley,)  Melia  azederach  has  been 
considered  poisonous  from  the  time  of  Avicenna ;  but  it  is  only  in 
larger  doses  that  its  &uit  can  be  considered  as  such.  Loureiro 
I'ecognises  the  utility  of  aze/lnracJi  in  worm  cases,  and  Blume  states 

19 


290  MELIA — MEMECYLON. 

that  both  it  and  Af.  axadirachta  are  employed  in  Java  as  anthebnintics. 
A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  said  to  be  astringent  and  stomachic, 
and  also  to  be  injurious  to  insects,  and  employed  with  success 
against  porrigo. — Royle, 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — The  mature  wood  is  hard  and  handsomely 
marked,  and  might  be  used  for  many  economical  purposes.  The 
tree  has  been  naturalised  in  the  south  of  Europe. — Jury  Rep.  Mad, 
ExMK 

(382)  Melia  composita  {Wilhl)    Do. 

MuUay-vaymboo,  Tam. 

Description. — Large  tree ;  young  shoots,  petioles,  and  pan- 
icles very  mealy ;  leaves  bi-pinnate,  alternate ;  pinnae  about 
3  pair;  leaflets  3-7  pair  to  each  pinnae,  ovate,  acuminata, 
crenulated,  glabrous,  2-3  inches  long;  panicles  axillary, 
scarcely  half  the  length  of  the  leaves;  flowers  numerous, 
small,  whitish,  inodorous;  calyx  and  petals  mealy;  stigma 
large,  with  a  5-pointed  apex ;  drupe  ovate,  size  of  a  large 
olive,  smooth,  and  yellowish  green  when  ripe. —  W,  &  A,  Prod. 
Ill, — Melia  robusta,  Roodb. — M.  superba,  do. — Bedd.  Fhr. 
Sylv.  t  12. Malabar.     Canara.    Mysore. 

EcoNOMio  Uses. — A  handsome  tree,  with  smooth  dark-brown 
bark.  The  timber  is  often  used  by  planters  for  building  purposes, 
and  it  is  desirable  to  be  introduced  into  Madras  for  avenues,  as  it 
grows  quickly,  especially  from  seeds.  It  is  said  that  white  ants 
will  not  attack  it. — Beddame. 

(383)  Memeeylon  tinctorium  {Kom.)    N.  0.  Melastomacks. 

Kasliawa,  Mal.    AlH  chettn,  Tkl.    Eayampoovoocheddi,  Gasaa-cheddy,  Caaha- 
xnaroin,  Tam. 

Description. — Shrub,  10-12  feet;  calyx  with  a  hemispher- 
ical or  sub-globose  tube ;  petals  4 ;  branches  terete ;  leaves 
shortly-petioled,  ovate  or  oblong,  l-nerved;  peduncles  axil- 
lary, and  below  the  leaves  on  the  elder  branches  bearing  a 
more  or  less  compound  corymb  of  pedicellate  flowers ;  stamens 
shortish  ;  style  about  the  length  of  the  stamens ;  fruit  globose, 
crowned  with  the  4-toothed  limb  of  the  calyx;  fruit  1-2 
seeded;  flowers  bluish  purple.  Fl.  April — May. —  W,  &  A. 
Prod,  i.  319. — M.  tinctorium,  Willd. — M.  edule,  -KoxJ.  Cor.  i. 

t  82. — Bheede,  v.  t.  19. Travancore.      Malabar.      Coro- 

mandel. 


MESUA.  291 

Medical  Uses. — A  lotion  is  made  £rom  the  leaves,  used  by  the 
natives  as  an  eye-wash ;  and  the  root  in  decoction  is  considered  very 
beneficial  in  excessive  menstrual  discharge. 

EooNOMio  Uses. — ^The  pulp  of  the  fruit  when  ripe  is  eaten  by  the 
natives.  It  is  rather  astringent.  The  leaves  are  used  in  dyeing, 
affording  a  delicate  yellow  lake.  The  shrub  is  very  common,  and 
highly  ornamental  in  gardens,  when  in  flower  the  stem  being  crowded 
with  the  beautiful  sessile  purple  florets.  The  leaves  are  used  by  the 
mat-makers  in  conjunction  with  kadukai  (myrohalan  nuts)  and  vut- 
t£mg-cuttay  (sappan  wood)  in  imparting  a  deep-red  tinge  to  the  mats. 
They  are  also  good  for  dyeing  cloths  red. — (Aimlie,  Pers,  Oha,) 
The  native  names  for  the  blue  flowers  of  this  shrub  are  Allij  Cassa^ 
and  Vassa  Casa,  the  first  being  its  northern  or  Telugu,  the  latter  its 
Tamil,  designation.  The  native  dyers  employ  it  as  an  adjunct  to 
chayroot  for  bringing  out  the  colour,  in  preference  to  alum,  which 
injures  the  thread.  By  itself  it  gives  an  evanescent  yellow.  It  is 
very  cheap,  costing  1  anna  the  marcal. — Jury  Rep,  Mad.Ezhih,  1857. 

(384)  Mesua  ferrea  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Clusiace^. 

Belutta-champagam,  Mal.    NagkuBhur,  Beno. 

Description. — Tree,  40  feet;  sepals  4,  unequal;  petals  4, 
alternate  with  the  sepals ;  leaves  oblong-lanceolate,  acumin- 
ated, glaucous  beneath,  upper  side  shining,  midrib  and  mar- 
gins coloured  ;  flowers  stalked,  axillary,  large,  white,  fragrant ; 
fruit  about  the  size  of  a  small  apple,  1-celled,  1-4  seeded.  Fl. 
March— -April.— JT.  &  A,  Prod.  L  102.— Wight  Icon,  t  117. 

— RoQcb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  605. — Bheede,  iii.  t  53. Courtallum 

hills. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  dried  flowers  are  said  to  possess  stimulant 
properties,  but  are  probably  of  little  importance  in  medicine.  The 
expressed  oil  of  the  seeds  ia  much  employed  by  the  natives  in  North 
Canara  as  an  embrocation  in  rheumatism.  The  bark  and  roots  are 
also  an  excellent  bitter  tonic  in  infusion  or  decoction. — Pharm.  of 
India. 

Economic  Uses. — This  tree  is  much  cultivated  in  Java  as  well  as 
in  Malabar  for  the  beauty  and  fragrance  of  its  flowera  When  dried 
they  are  mixed  with  other  aromatics,  such  as  the  white  sandal-wood, 
and  used  for  perfuming  ointment.  The  fruit  is  reddish  and  wrinkled 
when  ripe,  with  a  rind  like  that  of  the  chestnut,  which  latter  it 
much  resembles  both  in  size,  shape,  substance,  and  taste.  The  tree 
bears  fruit  in  six  years  from  the  planting  of  the  seed,  and  continues 
to  bear  during  thrce  centuries.  It  is  planted  near  houses,  and  affords 
an  excellent  shade.  The  bark,  wood,  and  roots  are  bitter  and  sweet- 
scented.     The  blossoms  are  found  in  a  dried  state  in  the  bazaars. 


292  MICH  ELI  A — MIMTJSOPS. 

and  are  called  Nagheswr ;  they  are  used  medicinally,  and  are 
much  esteemed  for  their  fragrance,  on  which  latter  account  the 
Burmese  grandees  stuff  their  pillows  with  the  dried  anthers.  Hound 
the  hase,  or  rather  at  the  hottom  of  the  tender  fruits,  a  tenacious 
and  glutinous  resin  exudes  with  a  sharp  aromatic  smelL — Roxh. 
AimtUe, 

(385)  Michelia  champaca  (Linn,)    K  0.  Maonoliaceje. 

Chempacam,  Mal.    Champaka  or  Chumpa,  Beno. 

Description. — Tree,  30-40  feet ;  petals  numerous,  disposed 
in  several  rows;  leaves  alternate,  entire, lanceolate,  acuminated, 
glabrous ;  flowers  on  short  peduncles,  axillary ;  spathe  of  one 
leaf;  carpels  2-valved;  seeds  several;  flowers  large,  yellow, 
fragrant.    Fl.  Nearly  all  the  year. —  JV.  &  A.  Prod,  i.  6. — 

Roxb,  Fl.  Ind.  a.  656,— Wight  III,  L  13. Cultivated  in 

Bengal.     Gardens  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — The  bitter  aromatic  bark  has  been  successfully 
employed  in  the  Mauritius  in  the  treatment  of  low  intermittent 
fevers.  The  bark  of  the  root  is  red,  bitter,  and  very  acid,  and  when 
pulverised  is  reckoned  emmenagogue.  The  flowers  beaten  up  with 
oil  are  applied  to  fetid  discharges  from  the  nostrils.  All  parts  of 
the  tree  are  said  to  be  powerfully  stimulant. — Lindley,  Roxh, 
Pharm,  of  India, 

EooNOHio  Uses. — This  tree  is  highly  venerated  by  the  Hindoos, 
and  is  dedicated  to  Yishnoo.  It  is  celebrated  for  the  exquisite  per- 
fume of  its  flowers.  Sir  W.  Jones  states  that  their  fragrance  is  so 
strong  that  bees  will  seldom,  if  ever,  alight  upon  them.  The  natives 
adorn  their  heads  with  them,  the  rich  orange  colour  of  the  flowers 
contrasting  strongly  with  their  dark  black  hair.  The  fruit  is  said  to 
be  edible.  The  name  Champaca  is  derived  from  Ciampa,  an  island 
between  Cambogia  and  Cochin-China,  where  the  tree  grows.  The 
wood  is  light,  but  is  used  for  making  drums.  The  seeds  are  said  to 
destroy  vermin. — {Roxh,  Don,)  Another  species  is  the  M,  nila- 
giricaf  the  timber  of  which  is  used  in  house-building.  It  is  of  a 
handsome  mottled  colour,  and  has  been  tried  at  Bombay  for  ships. — 
Wight     J,  Grah. 

(386)  MimuBops  elengi  {Linn.)    K  0.  Sapotaceje. 

Elengee.  Mal.     Maghadam,  Tam.     Poghada,  Tel.     Bholseri,  DuK.    Mukari,- 
HiND.    Bukul,  Bbnq. 

Description. — Tree,  middling  size ;  leaves  alternate,  oval- 
lanceolate  or  oblong,  acuminated,  glabrous ;  pedicels  shorter 
than  the  petioles,  many  together,  l-flowered ;  calyx  8-cleft,  in 


MIMUSOPS.  293 

a  double  series,  segments  lanceolate,  4  exterior  ones  larger 
and  permanent ;  corolla-tube  very  short,  fleshy,  segments  in  a 
double  series,  exterior  ones  16,  spreading,  interior  ones 
8,  generally  contorted,  and  converging,  lanceolate,  and  slightly 
torn  at  the  extremities ;  berry  ovd,  smooth,  yellow  when  ripe, 
usually  1-celled ;  seeds  solitary,  oblong ;  flowers  white,  frag- 
rant.   FL  March — ^ApriL — RoxK  Fl,  Ind,  ii.  236. — Cor.  i.  t 

14. —  Wight  Icon,    t  1586. — Rheede,  i.  t   20. Peninsula. 

Bengal    Silhet. 

Medical  Uses. — ^According  to  Horsfleld,  the  bark  possesses 
astringent  tonic  properties,  and  has  proved  useful  in  fevera  A  de- 
coction of  the  bark  forms  a  good  gargle  in  salivation.  A  water  distilled 
from  the  flowers  is  used  by  the  natives  in  Southern  India,  both  as  a 
stimulant  medicine  and  as  a  perfume. — Pharm.  of  India. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  tree  has  an  ornamental  appearance.  The 
flowers,  which  appear  twice  Q-year,  are  somewhat  fragrant  and  power- 
fully aromatic.  The  natives  distil  an  odoriferous  water  from  them. 
The  fruit  is  edible.  The  seeds  yield  an  abundance  of  oU,  in  request 
for  painters.  If  the  leaves  are  put  in  the  flame  of  a  candle,  they  will 
make  a  smart  crackling  noise.  The  tree  is  much  cultivated  in  the 
gardens  of  the  natives,  especially  round  the  mausoleums  of  the  Mo- 
hammedans. Dr  Eoxburgh  said  he  only  once  found  it  in  a  wild  state. 
It  was  on  the  mountains  of  the  Eajahmundry  district. — Eoxb, 

(387)  Mimusops  hezandra  (Roxh.)    Do. 

•  Palloe,  Tam.    Palla,  Tel. 

Description. — Tree ;  leaves  alternate,  cuneiform  or  obcor- 

date,  deeply  emarginate,  glabrous  and  shining  on  both  surfaces; 

calyx  6-cleft,  with  3-interior  and  3- exterior  segments  ;  corolla 

tube  very  short,  interior  segments  6,  the  exterior  12 ;  pedicels 

1-6  together,  nearly  as  long  as  the  smooth  petioles,  1-flowering ; 

berry  size  and  shape  of  an  olive,  yellow  when  ripe ;  flowers 

small,  whitish.     FL  March — April. — Rocd).  Fl,  Ind.  ii.  238. — 

Cor.  L  t  15. —  Wight  Icon,  t  1587. Mountains  of  the  Cir- 

cars.    Bombay. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  wood  is  much  used  in  Guzerat  for  a  variety 
of  purposes,  such  as  sugar-mill  beams  and  well-frames.  It  is  also 
much  used  by  washermen  to  beetle  their  cloths  on,  being  remarkably 
heavy  and  tough.     The  fruit  is  eatable. — Roxb.     Dr  Gibson, 

(388)  Mimusops  Kanki  (Linn.)    Do. 

Manilkara,  Mal. 

Description. — ^Tree ;  leaves  alternate,  obovate,  very  blunt. 


294  MOLLUGO. 

silvery  or  hoary  beneath,  crowded  at  the  ends  of  the  branches ; 
flowers  fascicled,  hexandrous;  fruit  oval,  drooping;  flowers 
yellowish  white,  tinged  with  rose.  FL  March — April — Rosib. 
Fl  Ind.  ii.  238.— Rheede,  iv.  t  35. ^Malabar. 

Medical  Uses. — The  bark  is  astringent,  and  yields  a  kind  of  gummy 
fluid.  The  leaves  ground  and  mixed  with  the  root  of  Curcuma  and 
ginger  are  used  as  cataplasm  for  tumours.  The  tree  is  extensively 
cultivated  in  China  and  Malabar  on  account  of  its  acid  and  esculent 
firuit,  which  is  said  to  increase  the  appetite.  The  leaves  boiled  in 
gingely  oQ  and  added  to  the  pulverised  barks  are  reckoned  a  good 
remedy  in  Beriberi — {Rheede,  Hooker,)  The  seeds  yield  an  oil 
which  is  applied  to  the  eyes  in  ophthalmia,  and  also  internally  as  an 
anthelmintic. — PowelVs  Punj,  Prod. 

(389)  Mollngo  cerviana  (Ser.)    N.  0.  CARTOPHYLLACEiE. 

Parpadagum,  Tam.    Parpatakum,  Tel.    Gliimaahak,  Beng. 

Description. — Small  plant  half  a  foot ;  stems  straightish, 
ascending,  terete;  leaves  opposite,  or  alternate  by  abortion, 
linear,  verticillate,  very  narrow,  bluntish,  glaucous ;  calyx  5- 
parted ;  petals  none  ;  peduncles  elongated,  bearing  3  umbellate 
flowers ;  stamens  usually  5,  or  less  by  abortion ;  capsule 
3-valved,  3 -celled,  many-seeded;  calyx  white  on  the  inside. 

—  W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  44. — Pharnaceum  cerviana,  Linn. 

Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^This  plant  mixed  with  oil  is  made  into  an  oint- 
ment for  scabies  and  other  cutaneous  diseases.  The  young  shoots 
and  flowers  are  given  in  infusion  as  a  mild  diaphoretic  in  fever  cases. 
— Ainslie. 

(390)  Mollugo  spergola  {Linn.)    Do. 

Toora,  Tam.    Chatarashi,  Tel.    Ghimi  Shak,  Bexq. 

Description. — Small  plant ;  stem  very  straggling  and 
branched ;  leaves  more  or  less  succulent,  oblong  or  obovate, 
mucronate,  alternated  towards  their  base ;  pedicels  1-flowered, 
several  together,  forming  a  simple  sessile  umbel ;  stamens  3-5 
or  10 ;  petals  narrow,  cleft  to  the  middle,  or  none ;  seeds  rough 
with  numerous  tubercles ;  flowers  small,  white.  Fl.  Nearly  all 
the  year. —  W.  &  A.  Prod.  i.  44. — M.  verticillata,  Roxb.  Fl.  Ind. 
i.  360  (not  Linn) — Pharnaceum  mollugo,  Linn. — Roxb.  Fl. 
Ind.  ii.  102. — Rheede,  x.  t  24. Peninsula.    Bengal. 


MOMORDICA.  295 

Mbdioal  Usbs. — ^The  bitter  leaves  aro  esteemed  by  the  natives  as 
'stomachic,  aperient,  and  antiseptic,  and  are  given  in  infusion,  and  are 
considered  especially  efficacious  in  suppressed  lochia.  Moistened 
with  castor-oil  and  applied  warm,  they  are  said  to  be  a  good  remedy 
in  ear-ache. — Aindie. 

(391)  Momordica  Oliarantia  {Linn,)    K  0.  Cucxtbbitaoele. 

Korola,  BiNO.    Pandipasd,  Mal.    Pava-kai,  Tax. 

Description. — Climbing ;  steins  more  or  less  hairy ;  leaves 
palmately  5-lobed,  sinuate,  toothed,  when  young  more  or  less 
villous  on  the  under  side,  particularly  on  the  nerves ;  peduncles 
slender,  with  a  reniform  bracteole,  moZe  ones  with  the  bracteole 
about  the  middle, /emoZe  with  it  near  the  base ;  fruit  oblong  or 
ovate,  more  or  less  tubercled  or  muricated ;  seeds  with  a  thick 
not<5hed  margin  and  red  aril ;  flowers  middle-sized,  pale  yellow. 
Fl.  Aug.— Oct.— JT.  Jk  A.  Prod.  i.  Z4&.—Roxb.  Fl  Ind,  iii. 
707.— Wight  Icon.  ii.  t.  504.— M.  muricata,  Willd.—Rheede 
Mal.  viii.  t  9,  10. Cultivated  everywhere  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — There  are  two  chief  varieties  differing  in  the 
forms  of  the  fruit,  the  one  having  the  fruit  longer  and  more  oblong, 
the  other  with  the  fruit  smaller,  more  ovate,  muricated,  and  tuber- 
cled. There  are  besides  these  many  intermediate  gradations.  The 
fruit  is  bitter  but  wholesome,  and  is  eaten  in  curries  by  the  natives. 
It  requires,  however,  to  be  steeped  in  salt  water  before  being  cooked. 
That  of  the  smaller  variety  is  most  esteemed.  The  whole  plant 
mixed  with  cinnamon,  long-pepper,  rice,  and  marothy  oil  {Hydno- 
carptisinebrians),  is  administered  in  the  fonn  of  an  ointment  in  psora, 
scabies,  and  other  cutaneous  diseases.  The  juice  of  the  leaves  mixed 
with  warm  water  is  reckoned  anthelmintic.  The  whole  plant  pul- 
verised is  a  good  specific  externally  applied  in  leprosy  and  malig- 
nant ulcers. — Rheede.     Dr  Gibson.     Wight. 

(392)  Momordica  dioica  {Roxh.)    Do. 

Erimapaael,  Mal.    Paloopagbel,  Tam.    Agakara,  Tel. 

Description. — Climbing,  disecious;  root  tuberous;  stems 
glabrous ;  leaves  long-petioled,  cordate  at  the  base,  from  entire 
to  3-4  lobed,  toothed,  upper  side  slightly  scabrous,  under 
smooth  or  nearly  so ;  peduncles  slender,  with  entire  bracteoles, 
male  with  the  bracteole  close  to  the  flower,  and  concealing  the 
lower  part,  female  one  small  near  the  base ;  fruit  ovate,  muri- 
cated ;  seeds  oval,  surrounded  with  a  large  red  aril ;  flowers 


296  MORINDA. 

large,  yellow.    Fl  Sept.— Nov.— J^.  &  A,  Prod.   i.   348.— 
Wight  Icon,  t.  505,  506. — Bheede,  viii.  t.  12. Peninsula. 

Medioal  Uses. — Of  this  species  there  are  several  varieties,  differ- 
ing chiefly  in  the  forms  of  the  leaves.  The  young  green  £ruits  and 
tuberous  roots  of  the  female  plants  are  eaten  by  the  natives.  They 
sometimes  weigh  £rom  2  to  3  lb.  Rheede  says  that  this  plant  is 
truly  cephalic,  for  mixed  with  cocoanut,  pepper,  red  sandal,  and  other 
ingredients,  and  applied  in  the  form  of  Uniment,  it  stops  all  pains 
in  the  head.  The  root,  which  is  mucilaginous  to  the  taste,  is  pre- 
scribed by  Hindoo  practitioners  in  the  form  of  electuary  in  hoemor- 
rhoids. — Ainslie.     Rheede. 

(393)  Morinda  citrifolia  (Linm)    N.  O.  Cinchonace.is.     y,^ 

Indian  MafDeTry,  Eno.    Manja-paTattay,  Noona,  Tail    Cada  pilva,  Mal.    MoI- 
agha.  Maddichettoo,  Tel.    A1,  Atchy,  Hind. 

Description. — Small  tree ;  leaves  opposite,  oval,  alternated 
at  both  ends,  shining ;  capituli  shortly  peduncled,  leaf  opposed ; 
branchlets  4-angle(i ;  corolla  long-infundibulifonn  5  (occa- 
sionally 4-7)  cleft ;  anthers  half  hid  in  the  tube ;  style  the 
length  of  the  tube ;  berries  concrete  'into  an  obtuse  ovate 
shining  fruit ;  flowers  white.    Fl.  Nearly  all  the  year. —  W,  & 

A.  Prod.  i.  419.— i?oaj&.  Fl.  Ind.  i.  54:L—Pheede,  i.  t  52. 

Coromandel.    Cultivated  in  Kandeish,  Berar,  and  the  Deccan. 
Bombay. 

Medical  Uses. — The  fruit  is  used  among  the  Cochin-Chinese  as 
a  deobstruent  and  emmenagogue.  The  expressed  juice  of  the  leaves 
is  externally  applied  in  gout  j  and  applied  fiesh  to  wounds  and  ulcers, 
are  said  to  accelerate  their  cure  with  great  efficacy.  £y  a  chemical 
process,  a  kind  of  salt  is  extracted  from  the  leaves,  reckoned  useful 
in  cleaning  bad  and  inveterate  ulcers. — Wight    Ainslie.     Bheede. 

Economic  Uses. — ^A  scarlet  dye  is  procured  from  the  root,  used 
for  handkerchiefs,  turbans,  &c.  The  colouring  matter  resides  chiefly 
in  the  bark  of  the  roots.  The  small  pieces,  which  are  best,  are  worth 
from  4  to  5  rupees  a  maund.  It  is  exported  in  large  quantities  from 
Malabar  to  Guzerat  and  the  northern  part  of  Hindoostan.  Dr  Gibson 
says  they  are  partly  dug  up  the  second  year,  and  are  in  perfection 
the  third.  The  wood  is  of  a  deep  yellow  colour,  and  useful  for 
ordinary  purposes.  The  natives  use  it  for  their  wooden  slippers. 
The  M.  tinctoria  (Roxb.)  is  considered  to  be  the  same  species  in  its 
wild  state.  It  is  common  in  most  parts  of  India.  The  green  fruits 
are  eaten  by  the  natives  in  their  curries.  The  wood  is  hard,  very 
durable,  variegated  red  and  white,  and  employed  for  gun-stocks  in 
preference  to  any  other  wood.  This  latter  is  the  Tagaroo  of  the 
Teloogoos. — {Roxb.     Simmonda.)    The  M.  tomeniosa  (Munjenatie 


MORINDA — MORINGA.  297 

in  Malayalim)  is  common  in  Travancore.  A  dye  is  procured  from  the 
interior  of  the  wood  in  older  trees.  The  timber,  which  is  yellow, 
will  take  an  excellent  polish,  and  is  useful  for  yarious  economical 
purposes. — Pers,  Ohs. 

(394)  Morinda  umbellata  {Linn.)    Do. 

Noona-marum,  Tam.    Chota-Alka,  DuK.    Moolooghoodoo,  Tel. 

Descmption. — Climbing,  glabrous ;  corolla  short  infundi- 
buliform;  leaves  from  oblong-lanceolate  to  cuneate  oblong, 
pointed;  stipules  membranaceous,  united  in  a  truncated  sheath; 
peduncles  terminal,  3-7  in  a  sessile  terminal  umbel  about  half 
the  length  of  the  leaves;  capituU  globose;  calyx  margin 
entire  ;  limb  4  (occasionally  5)  cleft ;  filaments  short,  inserted 
into  the  bottom  of  the  dilated  part  of  the  tube  among  many 
hairs ;  anthers  exerted  ;  flowers  white.  Fl.  March. —  W.  <k 
A.  Prod.  i.  420.  —  M.  scandens,  Roa^,  FL  Ind,  i.  548. — 
Rheede,  vii.  t.  27.— — Courtallum.    Travancore.    Malabar. 

Economic  Uses. — ^The  root  yields  a  dye  of  permanent  yellow ; 
and  with  the  addition  of  sappan-wood  a  red  dye  is  prepared  from 
the  same  in  Cochin  China.  Simmonds  says  that  the  colours  dyed 
with  it  are  for  the  most  part  exceedingly  brilliant,  and  the  colouring 
matter  far  more  permanent  than  many  other  red  colours  are.  With 
improved  management  it  would  probably  rival  that  of  madder. 
This  will  apply  to  the  various  species  of  the  Indian  mulberry  plant. 
In  this  species  the  number  of  stamens  varies  in  the  same  head 
of  flowers,  but  there  are  usually  only  four. — Wight.  Simmonds. 
Ainslie.     Lour. 

(395)  Moringa  pterygosperma  {Gosrtn.)    IT.  0.  MoRiNGACEiB. 

Horse-radish  tree,  Eko.  Mooringby,  Tam.  Mooraga,  Tel.  Moongay,  DuK. 
Si\jna,  HiiTD.     Sbajina,  Benq.     Mooringeh,  Mal. 

Description. — Tree,  30-35  feet ;  leaves  2-3  pinnate  with 
an  odd  leaflet ;  calyx  5-cleft ;  petals  5,  nearly  equal,  the  upper 
one  ascending ;  filaments  hairy  at  the  base ;  racemes  panicled ; 
5  stamens  without  anthers ;  seeds  numerous,  3-angled,  the 
angles  expanding  into  wings  ;  flowers  white.  Fl.  Jan. — July. 
—  W.  ik  A.  Prod.  i.  178. — Guilandina  Moringa,  Linn.  ap. — 
Hyperanthera  Moringa,  Vahl. — Roxb.  Fl.  Ind.  ii.  368. — Rheede, 
vi.  t.  11. Common  in  gardens  in  the  Peninsula. 

Medical  Uses. — ^The  native  practitioners  prescribe  the  fresh  root 
as  a  stimulant  in  paralysis  and  intermittent  fevers.  They  also  use 
it  in  epilepsy  and  hysteria,  and  reckon  it  a  valuable  rubefacient  in 


I 


298.  MUCUNA. 

paLsy  and  chronic  rheumatism.  In  Java  the  roots  have  been  re- 
ported beneficial  in  dropsy.  The  same  virtues  have  been  ascribed 
to  the  horse-radish  of  Europe,  a  syrup  made  with  an  infusion  of 
which  the  celebrated  Dr  CuUen  found  efficacious  in  removing  hoarse- 
ness. The  root  has  a  pungent  odour  and  a  heavy  aromatic  taste. 
Dr  Wight  suggested  that  it  would  greatly  increase  the  activity  of 
sinapisms.  An  oil  is  prepared  from  the  seeds  which  is  used  ex- 
ternally for  pains  in  the  limbs,  gout,  and  rheumatism.  In  the  West 
Indies  it  is  used  as  a  salad  oil,  because  it  does  not  congeal  or  turn 
rancid.  The  leaves,  bark,  and  root,  according  to  Rheede,  are  anti- 
spasmodic. The  juice  of  the  leaves  mixed  with  pepper  is  applied 
over  the  eyes  in  vertigo ;  and  mixed  with  common  salt  is  given  to 
children  in  flatulency.  It  is  also  used  to  hasten  suppuration  in 
boils.  The  bark,  rubbed  up  in  rice-water  mixed  with  cummin-seed, 
is  a  cure  for  gumboils  and  toothache.  The  leaves  simply  warmed 
are  applied  in  hydrocele,  and  also  good  for  ulcers  and  guinea-worm. 
A  gum  resembling  tragacanth  exudes  from  this  tree  if  an  incision  be 
made  in  the  bark.  It  is  used,  in  headache,  mixed  with  milk  and 
externally  rubbed  on  the  templea  It  is  also  locally  applied  to 
buboes  and  venereal  pains  in  the  limbs.  In  Jamaica  the  wood  is 
employed  for  dyeing  a  blue  colour. — Ainsh'e,     BJieede, 

Economic  Uses. — The  root  of  this  tree  is  much  like  the  English 
horse-radish.  The  long  legumes  are  well  known  as  a  vegetable  so 
often  used  both  by  Europeans  and  natives  in  curries.  The  seeds 
were  formerly  known  as  the  Ben  nuts,  from  which  the  oil  of  Ben  was 
extracted.  It  is  chiefly  used  by  perfumers  and  watchmakers.  Both 
leaves  and  flowers  are  eaten  by  the  natives. — Wigltt.     Lindley. 


(396)  Macuna  gigantea  {Dec,)    K  0.  Leoumingsje. 

Eakavalli,  Mal. 

Description.  —  Climbing,  perennial;  leaflets  ovate,  acute, 
adult  ones  glabrous ;  flowers  almost  umbellate,  at  the  apex  of 
long  pendulous  peduncles;  pedicels  long,  slender;  3  lower 
segments  of  the  calyx  short,  tooth-like,  the  other  very  short ; 
legumes  linear-oblong,  deeply  furrowed  along  the  sutures,  not 
plaited,  armed  with  stifi',  stinging  hairs,  3-6  seeded;  seeds 
oval;  flowers  large,  sulphur-coloured.  FL  Aug. — Dec. —  W. 
&  A,  Prod,  L  254. — Carpopogon  giganteum,  Roxb, — Bheede, 
"•  viii.  t  36. Malabar.     CoromandeL     Concans. 

Medical  Uses. — Rheede  states  that  the  virtues  of  this  plant  in 
rheumatism  are  very  conspicuous.  The  bark,  pulverised  and  mixed 
with  dried  ginger  and  other  ingredients,  rubbed  over  the  parts 
affected;  is  one  of  the  best  modes  of  administering  it. — Bheede. 


I 


MUCUNA.  299 


(397)  Mucuna  prorita  {Hook,)    Do. 

* 

Cowhage,  Enq.    Naicorma,  Mal.    Poonaykalie,  Tam.    Peeliadagoo  kaila,  Tel. 
Eiwach,  Hind.    Kanchkoorie,  Duk.    Alkushee,  Beno. 

Desckiption. — Annual,  twining;  branches  pubescent  or 
slightly  hairy;  leaves  pinnately  trifoliolate ;  leaflets  ovate, 
upper  side  glabrous,  under  sprinkled  with  adpressed  silvery 
hairs;  racemes  shorter  than  the  leaves,  drooping;  pedicels, 
shorter  than  the  calyx ;  calyx  cleft  to  the  middle,  white  with 
adpressed  hairs,  segments  broad-lanceolate;  corolla  papilion- 
aceous ;  vexillum  cordate,  incumbent  on  the  alae,  alse  oblong- 
Unear,  sometimes  slightly  cohering,  keel  straight  below, 
slightly  falcate  in  the  upper  part,  terminated  by  an  acute 
beak ;  legume  slightly  curved  like  an  S,  densely  clothed  with 
rigid  stinging  hairs,  6-seeded ;  flowers  large,  dark  purple.  Fl. 
Dec. — Feb. —  W,  &  A,  Prod.  i.  255. — Carpopogon  pruriens, 

Roxb. — Rheede,  viiL  t.  35. Peninsula.     Bengal.     Dheyra 

Dhoon. 

Medical  Uses. — The  root  in  infusion  is  administered  in  cholera, 
and  a  syrup  thickened  with  the  hairs  till  it  is  of  the  consistence  of 
honey  is 'prescribed  by  European  practitioners  as  a  good  anthel- 
mintic ;  but  the  natives  do  not  use  the  stinging  hairs  of  the  pods 
for  this  purpose.  There  is  no  doubt,  Aiuslie  observes,  but  that  it 
is  simply  by  these  mechanical  means  that  the  hairs  act  in  worm 
cases.  ^Neither  the  tincture  nor  decoction  has  the  same  effect.  K 
the  pods  are  incautiously  touched,  they  will  cause  an  intolerable 
itching  in  the  fingers.  In  the  West  Indies  a  decoction  of  the  root 
is  reckoned  a  powerful  diuretic  and  cleanser  of  the  kidneys,  and  is 
also  made  into  an  ointment  for  elephantiasis.  The  leaves  are  applied 
to  ulcers,  and  the  beans  reckoned  aphrodisiac.  A  vinous  infusion 
of  the  pods  (12  to  a  quart)  is  said  to  be  a  certain  remedy  for  the 
dropsy. — Ainslie,     Rheede, 

Economic  Uses. — The  seeds  of  many  species  are  edible,  and 
reckoned  equal  to  the  English  bean.  Among  these  may  be  enumer- 
ated the  id.  monosperma  (Dec),  known  as  the  Negro  Bean,  a 
favourite  vegetable  with  Brahmins ;  the  M.  nivea  is  also  cultivated, 
the  tender  fleshy  pods  of  which,  when  stripped  of  their  exterior 
skin,  make  a  most  excellent  vegetable  for  the  table,  scarcely  inferior 
to  the  garden-bean  of  Europe.  The  present  species  is  a  native  of 
both  Indies.  The  seed  is  said  to  absorb  the  poison  of  scorpions,  and 
to  remain  on  the  sting  until  all  is  removed. — PowelVs  Punj.  Prod. 
Roxb. 


300  MUSA. 


(398)  Mnsa  paradisiaca  (Linn.)    N.  0.  Mubagbjs. 

Common  Plantain,  Eng.    Vala,  Mal.    Valie,  Tax.     Eomarettie,  Tbl.     Kayla^ 
Hind.    Kach  Kula,  Beno.    Maos,  Duk. 

Description. — Herbaceous ;  stem  simple,  thickly  clothed 
with  the  sheathing  petioles  of  the  leaves ;  leaves  forming  a 
tuft  on  the  apex  of  the  stem;  spike  of  flowers  compound, 
rising  from  the  apex  of  the  stem,  each  division  enclosed  in  a 
large  spathe  with  male  flowers  at  the  base,  female  or  herma- 
phrodite ones  at  the  upper  end;  perianth  with  6  superior 
divisions,  5  of  which  are  grown  together  into  a  tube,  slit  at 
the  back,  the  6th  is  small  and  concave;  style  short;  fruit 
oblong,  fleshy,  obscurely  3-5  cornered,  with  numerous  seeds 
buried  in  pulp ;  flowers  yellowish  whitish.  Fl.  All  the  year. 
M.  sapientum,  Racb,  FL  Ind.  i.  663. — Cor,  iiL  275. — Eheede,  i. 
t.  12-14. Cultivated  everywhere.     Chittagong. 

Medical  Uses. — The  tender  leaves  are  in  common  use  for  dress- 
ing blistered  surfaces.  For  this  purpose  a  piece  of  the  leaf,  of  the 
required  size,  smeared  with  any  bland  vegetable  oil,  is  applied  to 
the  denuded  surface,  and  kept  on  the  place  by  means  of  a  bandage. 
The  blistered  surface  is  generally  found  to  heal  after  four  or  five  days. 
For  the  first  two  days  the  upper  smooth  surface  of  the  leaf  is  placed 
next  the  skin,  and  subsequently  the  under  side,  until  the  healing 
process  is  complete.  This  is  considered  better  than  the  usual  mode 
of  treatment  with  spermacetti  ointment.  Dr  Van  Someren  occasion- 
ally employed  the  plaintain  leaf  as  a  substitute  for  gutta-percha 
tissue  in  the  water-dressing  of  wounds  and  ulcers,  and  found  it 
answer  very  well.  A  piece  of  fresh  plantain  leaf  forms  a  cool  and 
pleasant  shade  for  the  eyes  in  the  various  forms  of  ophthalmia  so 
common  in  the  East.  The  preserved  fruit,  which  resembles  dried 
figs,  is  a  nourishing  and  antiscorbutic  article  of  diet  for  long  voyages. 
In  this  state  they  will  keep  for  a  long  time. — (P/iarm.  of  Indm.) 
Long,  in  his  History  of  JamJiica,  says  that  on  thrusting  a  knife  into 
the  body  of  the  plant  the  astringent  lumped  water  that  issues  out  is 
given  with  great  success  to  persons  subject  to  spitting  blood,  and  in 
fluxes. 

Economic  Uses. — ^This  extensively  cultivated  planjb  is  common  to 
both  Indies.  The  ancients  were  acquainted  with  the  fruit ;  and  the 
name  of  Pala,  which  is  used  in  Pliny's  description  of  it,  is  identical 
with  the  word  Vala,  which  is  the  Malayalum  name  to  the  present 
day.  Probably  all  the  cultivated  varieties  in  this  country  have  sprung 
from  a  single  species,  of  which  the  original,  according  to  Dr  Eox- 
burgh,  was  grown  from  seeds  procured  from  Chittagong.  A  wild 
variety,  probably  the  M,  superha^  which  is  found  in  the  Dindigul 


MUSA.  301 

valleys,  I  have  often  met  with  on  the  mountains  in  Travancore,  at 
high  elevations. 

In  the  Himalaya  it  is  cultivated  at  5000  feet,  and  may  be  found 
wild  on  the  Neilghemes  at  7000  feet.     It  is  cultivated  in  Syria  as 
far  as  latitude  34^,  but,  Humboldt  says,  ceases  to  bear  fruit  at  a 
height  of  3000  feet,  where  the  mean  annual  temperature  ia  68°,  and 
where,  probably,  the  heat  of  summer  is  deficient.     Lindley  enumer- 
ates ten  species  of  Musa,  some  of  which  grow  to  the  height  of  25  or 
30  feet,  but  the  Chinese  species  (M,  Chinensia  or  Cavendishii)  does 
not  exceed  4  or  5  feet  in  height.     The  specific  name  of  the  plant 
under  consideration  was  given  by  botanists  in  allusion  to  an  old 
notion  that  it  was  the  forbidden  fruit  of  Scripture.     It  has  also  been 
supposed  to  be  what  was  intended  by  the  grapes,  one  branch  of 
which  was  borne  upon  a  pole  between  two  men  that  the  spies  of 
Moses  brought  out  of  the  Promised  Land.     The  plantain  is  con- 
sidered very  nutritious  and  wholesome,  either  dressed  or  raw ;  and 
no  fruit  is  so  easily  cultivated  in  tropical  countries.     There  is  hardly 
a  cottage  in  India  that  has  not  its  grove  of  plantains.     The  natives 
live  almost  upon  them ;  and  the  stems  of  the  plantain,  laden  with 
their  branches  of  fruit,  are  invariably  placed  at  the  entrance  of  their 
houses  during  their  marriage  or  other  festivals,  appropriate  emblems 
of  plenty  and  fertility.     Its  succulent  roots  and  large  leaves  are  well 
adapted  for  keeping  the  ground  moist,  even  in  the  hottest  months. 
The  best  soil  for  its  cultivation  is  newly-cleared  forest-land